"Saying blood (to be) shed for MANY he says for ALL. For all are many."
(Victor of Antioch, on Mark 14:24)

for many ~ for all

(by s.t.)

Abstract

This article presents a history of interpretations of the words "many" and "all" in the Bible, etc., in general, and especially in the passages on redemption, Christ's salvific will, shedding of his blood, etc. The most famous case is the consecration of the Eucharist:
This is (chalice of) my blood ... shed for many [some translations had "for all"]...
Ancient exegetes used various examples from Bible, where the words "many" and "all" were used with similar meanings. See below.
 
 

Rom 5 (cf. 1Cor 15:22)

The most famous example used by almost all authors - who explain that the word "many" is sometimes used for "all men" - is Rom 5, where both words ("many" and "all") are used for the same group of all people.
Romans 5:12-19
12 For this cause, even as by one man sin entered into the world, and by sin death; and thus death passed upon all men, for that (in whom) all have sinned:propterea sicut per unum hominem in hunc mundum peccatum intravit et per peccatum mors et ita in omnes homines mors pertransiit in quo omnes peccaverunt
ܐܰܝܟ݁ܰܢܳܐ ܓ݁ܶܝܪ ܕ݁ܰܒ݂ܝܰܕ݂ ܚܰܕ݂ ܒ݁ܰܪܢܳܫܳܐ ܥܶܠܰܬ݂ ܚܛܺܝܬ݂ܳܐ ܠܥܳܠܡܳܐ ܘܰܒ݂ܝܰܕ݂ ܚܛܺܝܬ݂ܳܐ ܡܰܘܬ݁ܳܐ ܘܗܳܟ݂ܰܢܳܐ ܒ݁ܟ݂ܽܠܗܽܘܢ ܒ݁ܢܰܝ ܐ݈ܢܳܫܳܐ ܥܒ݂ܰܪ ܡܰܘܬ݁ܳܐ ܒ݁ܗܳܝ ܕ݁ܟ݂ܽܠܗܽܘܢ ܚܛܰܘ
Διὰ τοῦτο ὥσπερ δι’ ἐνὸς ἀνθρώπου ἡ ἁμαρτία εἰς τὸν κόσμον εἰσῆλθεν καὶ διὰ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὁ θάνατος, καὶ οὕτως εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὁ θάνατος διῆλθεν, ἐφ’ ᾧ πάντες ἥμαρτον·
13 for until law sin was in the world; but sin is not put to account when there is no law;usque ad legem enim peccatum erat in mundo peccatum autem non inputatur cum lex non est
ܥܕ݂ܰܡܳܐ ܓ݁ܶܝܪ ܠܢܳܡܽܘܣܳܐ ܚܛܺܝܬ݂ܳܐ ܟ݁ܰܕ݂ ܐܺܝܬ݂ܶܝܗ ܗ݈ܘܳܬ݂ ܒ݁ܥܳܠܡܳܐ ܠܳܐ ܚܫܺܝܒ݂ܳܐ ܗ݈ܘܳܬ݂ ܚܛܺܝܬ݂ܳܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕ݁ܠܰܝܬ݁ ܗ݈ܘܳܐ ܢܳܡܽܘܣܳܐ
ἄχρι γὰρ νόμου ἁμαρτία ἦν ἐν κόσμῳ, ἁμαρτία δὲ οὐκ ἐλλογᾶται μὴ ὄντος νόμου,
14 but death reigned from Adam until Moses, even upon those who had not sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him to come.sed regnavit mors ab Adam usque ad Mosen etiam in eos qui non peccaverunt in similitudinem praevaricationis Adae qui est forma futuri
ܐܶܠܳܐ ܐܰܡܠܶܟ݂ ܡܰܘܬ݁ܳܐ ܡܶܢ ܐܳܕ݂ܳܡ ܘܰܥܕ݂ܰܡܳܐ ܠܡܽܘܫܶܐ ܐܳܦ݂ ܥܰܠ ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܕ݁ܠܳܐ ܚܛܰܘ ܒ݁ܰܕ݂ܡܽܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܕ݁ܰܥܒ݂ܳܪ ܢܳܡܽܘܣܶܗ ܕ݁ܳܐܕ݂ܳܡ ܗܰܘ ܕ݁ܺܐܝܬ݂ܰܘܗ݈ܝ ܕ݁ܡܽܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܕ݁ܗܰܘ ܕ݁ܰܥܬ݂ܺܝܕ݂
ἀλλὰ ἐβασίλευσεν ὁ θάνατος ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ μέχρι Μωϋσέως καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς μὴ ἁμαρτήσαντας ἐπὶ τῷ ὁμοιώματι τῆς παραβάσεως Ἀδὰμ ὅς ἐστιν τύπος τοῦ μέλλοντος.
15 But shall not the act of favour be as the offence? For if by the offence of one the many have died, much rather has the grace of God, and the free gift in grace, which is by the one man Jesus Christ, abounded unto the many.sed non sicut delictum ita et donum si enim unius delicto multi mortui sunt multo magis gratia Dei et donum in gratiam unius hominis Iesu Christi in plures abundavit
ܐܶܠܳܐ ܠܳܐ ܗ݈ܘܳܐ ܐܰܝܟ݂ ܫܽܘܪܰܥܬ݂ܳܐ ܗܳܟ݂ܰܢܳܐ ܡܰܘܗܰܒ݂ܬ݁ܳܐ ܐܶܢ ܓ݁ܶܝܪ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܫܽܘܪܰܥܬ݂ܶܗ ܕ݁ܚܰܕ݂ ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ ܡܺܝܬ݂ܘ ܟ݁ܡܳܐ ܗܳܟ݂ܺܝܠ ܝܰܬ݁ܺܝܪܳܐܝܺܬ݂ ܛܰܝܒ݁ܽܘܬ݂ܶܗ ܕ݁ܰܐܠܳܗܳܐ ܘܡܰܘܗܰܒ݂ܬ݂ܶܗ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܚܰܕ݂ ܒ݁ܰܪܢܳܫܳܐ ܝܶܫܽܘܥ ܡܫܺܝܚܳܐ ܒ݁ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ ܬ݁ܶܬ݂ܝܰܬ݁ܰܪ
Ἀλλ’ οὐχ ὡς τὸ παράπτωμα, οὕτως [καὶ] τὸ χάρισμα· εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι οἱ πολλοὶ ἀπέθανον, πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἡ δωρεὰ ἐν χάριτι τῇ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς τοὺς πολλοὺς ἐπερίσσευσεν.
16 And shall not as by one that has sinned be the gift? For the judgment was of one to condemnation, but the act of favour, of many offences unto justification.et non sicut per unum peccantem ita et donum nam iudicium ex uno in condemnationem gratia autem ex multis delictis in iustificationem
ܘܠܳܐ ܐܰܝܟ݂ ܣܰܟ݂ܠܽܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܕ݁ܚܰܕ݂ ܗܳܟ݂ܰܢܳܐ ܡܰܘܗܰܒ݂ܬ݁ܳܐ ܕ݁ܺܝܢܳܐ ܓ݁ܶܝܪ ܕ݁ܰܗܘܳܐ ܡܶܢ ܚܰܕ݂ ܠܚܽܘܝܳܒ݂ܳܐ ܗܘܳܐ ܡܰܘܗܰܒ݂ܬ݁ܳܐ ܕ݁ܶܝܢ ܡܶܢ ܚܛܳܗܶܐ ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ ܗܘܳܬ݂ ܠܟ݂ܺܐܢܽܘ
καὶ οὐχ ὡς δι’ ἑνὸς ἁμαρτήσαντος τὸ δώρημα· τὸ μὲν γὰρ κρίμα ἐξ ἑνὸς εἰς κατάκριμα, τὸ δὲ χάρισμα ἐκ πολλῶν παραπτωμάτων εἰς δικαίωμα.
17 For if by the offence of the one death reigned by the one, much rather shall those who receive the abundance of grace, and of the free gift of righteousness, reign in life by the one Jesus Christ:si enim in unius delicto mors regnavit per unum multo magis abundantiam gratiae et donationis et iustitiae accipientes in vita regnabunt per unum Iesum Christum
ܐܶܢ ܓ݁ܶܝܪ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܣܰܟ݂ܠܽܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܕ݁ܚܰܕ݂ ܐܰܡܠܶܟ݂ ܡܰܘܬ݁ܳܐ ܝܰܬ݁ܺܝܪܳܐܝܺܬ݂ ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܕ݁ܰܢܣܰܒ݂ܘ ܣܽܘܓ݂ܳܐܐ ܕ݁ܛܰܝܒ݁ܽܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܘܰܕ݂ܡܰܘܗܰܒ݂ܬ݂ܳܐ ܘܰܕ݂ܟ݂ܺܐܢܽܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܒ݁ܚܰܝܶܐ ܢܰܡܠܟ݂ܽܘܢ ܒ݁ܝܰܕ݂ ܚܰܕ݂ ܝܶܫܽܘܥ ܡܫܺܝܚܳܐ
εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι ὁ θάνατος ἐβασίλευσεν διὰ τοῦ ἑνὸς, πολλῷ μᾶλλον οἱ τὴν περισσείαν τῆς χάριτος καὶ [τῆς δωρεᾶς] τῆς δικαιοσύνης λαμβάνοντες ἐν ζωῇ βασιλεύσουσιν διὰ τοῦ ἑνὸς Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.
18 so then as it was by one offence towards all men to condemnation, so by one righteousness towards all men for justification of life.igitur sicut per unius delictum in omnes homines in condemnationem sic et per unius iustitiam in omnes homines in iustificationem vitae
ܐܰܟ݂ܙܢܳܐ ܗܳܟ݂ܺܝܠ ܕ݁ܡܶܛܽܠ ܣܰܟ݂ܠܽܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܕ݁ܚܰܕ݂ ܗܘܳܐ ܚܽܘܝܳܒ݂ܳܐ ܠܟ݂ܽܠܗܽܘܢ ܒ݁ܢܰܝܢܳܫܳܐ ܗܳܟ݂ܰܢܳܐ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܟ݁ܺܐܢܽܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܕ݁ܚܰܕ݂ ܬ݁ܶܗܘܶܐ ܙܳܟ݂ܽܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܠܚܰܝܶܐ ܠܟ݂ܽܠܗܽܘܢ ܒ݁ܢܰܝܢܳܫܳܐ
Ἄρα οὖν ὡς δι’ ἑνὸς παραπτώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς κατάκριμα, οὕτως καὶ δι’ ἑνὸς δικαιώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς δικαίωσιν ζωῆς·
19 For as indeed by the disobedience of the one man the many have been constituted sinners, so also by the obedience of the one the many will be constituted righteous.sicut enim per inoboedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi ita et per unius oboeditionem iusti constituentur multi
ܐܰܝܟ݁ܰܢܳܐ ܓ݁ܶܝܪ ܕ݁ܡܶܛܽܠ ܠܳܐ ܡܶܫܬ݁ܰܡܥܳܢܽܘܬ݂ܶܗ ܕ݁ܚܰܕ݂ ܒ݁ܰܪܢܳܫܳܐ ܚܰܛܳܝܶܐ ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ ܗܘܰܘ ܗܳܟ݂ܰܢܳܐ ܐܳܦ݂ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܡܶܫܬ݁ܰܡܥܳܢܽܘܬ݂ܶܗ ܕ݁ܚܰܕ݂ ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ ܟ݁ܺܐܢܶܐ ܗܳܘܶܝܢ
ὥσπερ γὰρ διὰ τῆς παρακοῆς τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου ἁμαρτωλοὶ κατεστάθησαν οἱ πολλοί, οὕτως καὶ διὰ τῆς ὑπακοῆς τοῦ ἑνὸς δίκαιοι κατασταθήσονται οἱ πολλοί.
1 Corinthians 15:22
For as in the Adam all die, thus also in the Christ all shall be made alive.et sicut in Adam omnes moriuntur ita et in Christo omnes vivificabuntur
ܐܰܝܟ݁ܰܢܳܐ ܓ݁ܶܝܪ ܕ݁ܒ݂ܳܐܕ݂ܳܡ ܟ݁ܽܠܗܽܘܢ ܒ݁ܢܰܝܢܳܫܳܐ ܡܳܝܬ݁ܺܝܢ ܗܳܟ݂ܰܢܳܐ ܐܳܦ݂ ܒ݁ܰܡܫܺܝܚܳܐ ܟ݁ܽܠܗܽܘܢ ܚܳܐܶܝܢ
ὥσπερ γὰρ ἐν τῷ Ἀδὰμ πάντες ἀποθνῄσκουσιν, οὕτως καὶ ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ πάντες ζῳοποιηθήσονται.
Note: These are also the most famous statements about the existence of original sin, which all men have. When the Pelagian sect (e.g. Julian) argued, that some of these passages don't say "all" but "many", Augustine (and before him also Origen) refuted their argument.
 
 
ORIGEN (c.185–254)
on Romans 5 (PG 14, 1006) according to the Latin translation from his follower Rufinus (c.345–c.410), which is repeated also by Sedulius Scottus aroud 850 AD (PL 103, 57).
English transl. [from Latin] by: Thomas Scheck (Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans. Books 1-5. CUA Press, 2001, p. 306)
After all, even in the passage which we brought in on account of the similarity of its sayings, namely, "For just as in Adam all die, [...] so also in Christ [...] all will be made alive." (1 Cor. 15:22) [...] Someone else will perhaps say: What seems to be lacking in the things we said above, according to the order of his style, is brought back in later passages, though a bit tardy, where he says,Denique et in eo eapitulo, quod pro similitudine horum dictorum in medium adduximus, id est: „sicut enim in Adam omnes moriuntur [...] ita et in Christo omnes [...] vivificabuntur." [...] Alius fortasse dicit, quia hoc, quod videtur deesse in his, quae supra diximus secundum elocutionis ordinem, tarde quidem, sed in posterioribus redditur, ubi dicit:
    "But it is not the case that just as the gift so the trespass. For if the many died through the trespass of the one, much more surely has the grace of God and the gift in the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abounded for very many." (Rom. 5:15)
    „sed non sicut delictum, ita et donatio. Si enim unius delicto mortui sunt multi, multo magis gratia Dei et donum in gratia unius hominis Jesu Christi in plures abundavit:" (Rom 5,15)
With these words he would have declared that what seemed to have been lacking above is completed. What he would have said there, that sin had passed through to all men, is not much different from what he says here, that the gift and the grace of Jesus Christ abounded for very many. This is so because "all" men may be understood to mean "very many" men, and it does not seem absurd to take "very many" to mean "all," especially since in what follows he says so explicitly,et asserit ex his completa esse, quae defuisse in superioribus videbantur: nec multum interesse, quod ibi in omnes homines dixerit pertransisse peccatum, hic vero donum et gratiam Jesu Christi in plures abundasse, eum et omnes homines plures esse intelligantur, et plures omnes intelligi non videatur absurdum, maxime cum in subsequentibus dicat apertius:
    "Just as the trespass of the one led to condemnation for all men, so also the righteousness of the one leads to the justification of life for all men."
    "sicut per unius delictum in omnes homines in condemnationem, ita et per unius justitiam in omnes homines ad justificationem vitae."
And in order that be might show still more plainly that "all men" and "many men" mean one and the same thing, he added to these things,Et ut evidentius ostenderet, omnes homines et multos homines idem esse, addidit his:
    "For just as by the one man's disobedience the many were made sinners, so also by the obedience of the one the many will be made righteous."
    "sicut enim per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, ita et per unius obedientiam justi constituentur multi."
Thus those whom he had above designated as "all men" he has called here "many" with the exact same meaning.Et quod superius omnes dixerat homines, hic eodem sensu multos nominavit.
Erasmus (1466–1536) and Villavicencio (1501-1581) below and also Rubesis (1687-1775) in De peccato originali used this passage as testimony, that word "many" in Rom. 5 is taken in sense "all".
 
 
Theodore the Interpreter (c.350–428)
on Romans 5:15 ["if by the offense of one the many have died, much rather has the grace of God, and the free gift in grace, which is by the one man Jesus Christ, abounded unto the many"] (PG 66, 797C)
For that "the many have died" he says for all. For all have died as he himself higher says: "death passed upon all men" (v.12). It is visible however that also "[(gift in) grace] abounded unto the many" (v.15) similarly for "unto all" (v.18) he says. For common also rising grace to all equally. τὸ γὰρ οἱ πολλοὶ ἀπέθανον ἀντὶ τοῦ πάντες λέγει· πάντες γὰρ ἀπέθανον, ὡς αὐτὸς ἀνωτέρω φησίν· εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους διῆλθεν ὁ θάνατος. δῆλον δὲ ὅτι τὸ καὶ εἰς τοὺς πολλοὺς ἐπερίσσευσεν ὁμοίως ἀντὶ τοῦ εἰς πάντας λέγει· κοινὴ γὰρ καὶ ἡ τῆς ἀναστάσεως χάρις ἁπάντων ἀνισταμένων ὁμοίως.
on Romans 5:19 [as indeed by the disobedience of the one man the many have been constituted sinners, so also by the obedience of the one the many will be constituted righteous]. (PG 66, 800B)
He shows however also hither that "the many" he says for all. Saying "towards all for justification of life" (v.18b) he leaded. "The many have been constituted sinners" - it is visible, that "the many" he says for the all as also hither. ἔδειξε δὲ κἀν ταῦθα ὅτι τὸ οἱ πολλοὶ ἀντὶ τοῦ πάντες λέγει· εἰπὼν γὰρ τὸ εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς δικαίωσιν ζωῆς, ἐπήγαγεν· ἁμαρτωλοὶ κατεστάθησαν οἱ πολλοί, ὥστε δῆλον ὅτι οἱ πολλοὶ ἀντὶ τοῦ οἱ πάντες λέγει καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἀνωτέροις κἀνταῦθα.
 
 
Cyril of Alexandria (c.376-444)
on Romans 5:19 (PG 74, 788 C-D)
Then the sin also corrupted human nature, and so "the many" were made sinners, i.e. those who are over the whole earth.Tunc peccatum quoque humanam naturam corripuit, atque ita peccatores constituti sunt multi, id est, quotquot in orbe versantur. τότε καὶ εἰσήλατο τὴν ἀνθρώπου φύσιν ἡ ἁμαρτία· οὕτω καὶ ἁμαρτωλοὶ κατεστάθησαν οἱ πολλοὶ, τουτέστιν οἱ ἀνὰ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν.
 
 
Gennadius I. of Constantinople (c.400—471)
on Romans 5:12-15 (PG 85, 1672)
Everyone in the following of Adam has died, because they have all inherited their nature from him. But some have died because they themselves have sinned, while others have died only because of Adam's condemnation — for example, children.Quicunque ergo ex ipso per generationum successiones orti sunt, merito moriuntur, primi videlicet parentis naturam haereditantes. Verum ex illis omnibus morte damnatis, alii per propria etiam quae ipsi admisere peccata in mortem praecipitant, alii vero propter solam Adami condemnationem: quales sunt infantes. τῶν οὖν ἐξ αὐτοῦ κατὰ διαδοχὰς τικτομένων πάντες ἀπέθνησκον ὡς εἰκὸς τοῦ προπάτορος κληρονομοῦντες τῆς φύσεως· ἀλλὰ τῶν ἀποθνησκόντων τούτων οἱ μὲν δι' ὧν καὶ αὐτοὶ παρηνόμουν, ὑπήγοντο τῷ θανάτῳ, οἱ δὲ διὰ μόνην τοῦ Ἀδὰμ τὴν κατάκρισιν, οἷον ἡ τῶν νηπίων μερίς.
And so - he surely said herePropterea nunc quidem dicit:διὰ τοῦτο νῦν μέν, φησίν,
    "death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned."
    "In omnes homines mors pertransiit, in quo omnes peccaverunt",
    εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους διῆλθεν ὁ θάνατος, ἐφ' ᾧ πάντες ἥμαρτον,
Saying "all" for "the many" as in following:omnes pro plurimis dicens, sicut et in sequentibus.ἀντὶ τῶν πολλῶν λέγων τοὺς πάντας ὥσπερ ἐν τοῖς μετὰ ταῦτα·
    "For if by the transgression of the one the many died"
    "Si ergo propter unius delictum plurimi mortui sunt",
    εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι οἱ πολλοὶ ἀπέθανον,
he said "the many" for "all."plurimos pro omnibus usurpat.τοὺς πολλοὺς ἀντὶ τῶν πάντων φησίν.
 
 
AUGUSTINE (354–430), bishop of Hippo.
  • 401/415 AD, De Genesi ad Litteram, lib. 10, cap. 16. / num. 29.
    As in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. (1 Cor 15:22);
    Sicut in Adam omnes moriuntur, sic et in Christo omnes vivificabuntur (1 Cor 15, 22);
and:
    As by the disobedience of one man, many were made sinners; so also by the obedience of one, many shall be made just. (Rom 5, 19);
et:
    Sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, sic per obedientiam unius hominis iusti constituentur multi (Rom 5, 19);
by the same "many" sinners, not excepting some, but wanting to understand all he said above about Adam:eosdemque multos peccatores, non quibusdam exceptis, sed omnes intellegi volens, superius ait de Adam:
    In quo omnes peccaverunt (Rom 5, 12)
  • 421/422 AD, Against Julian : Contra Iulianum, lib. 6, num. 80 / cap. 24 [olim 12] (PL 44, 871),
    referred in our controversy by Cantalapiedra (†1579), Toletanus (†1596), Gonet (†1681), Platel (†1681), Caramuel (†1682), Mai (†1854), etc.
    (English transl. by: Matthew A. Schumacher, C.S.C. in The fathers of the Church. New York: 1957, vol. 35, p. 391)
Since you do not wish to understand the 'many' he said later as meaning the 'all' he said first, you declare he said 'many' to keep us from thinking he meant 'all'. You could do likewise about the seed of Abraham to whom all nations were promised, (Cf. Gen. 22.18) and say not all nations were promised him, because we read in another passage: 'I have made thee a father of many nations.' (Gen. 17.5) [...] In the words, 'In your seed all nations will be blessed' and 'I have made thee a father of many nations,' it is clear that the same nations that are all are also many, and the same that are many are all. Similarly, when it is said that through one, sin passed unto all, and later, that through the disobedience of one, many were constituted sinners, those who are many are also all. In like manner, when it is said: 'By the justice of the one the result is unto justification of life to all men,' and again: 'By the obedience of the one many will be constituted just,' (Rom. 5.12,18,19) none is excepted; we must understand that those who are many are all.Cum vero Multos, quod dixit postea, non vis intellegi omnes, quod prius dixerat; ideo existimans "dictum fuisse multos, ne omnes intellegerentur": poteris hoc dicere et de semine Abrahae, cui promissae sunt omnes gentes (Cf. Gen 22, 18), non omnes gentes ei fuisse promissas; quia dictum est alio loco: Patrem multarum gentium posui te (Gen 17, 5). [...] Quod autem dictum est: In semine tuo benedicentur omnes gentes, et: Patrem multarum gentium posuit te, easdem omnes, multas; et easdem multas, omnes esse monstratum est. Ita etiam cum dictum est: Per unum in omnes transisse peccatum; et postea: Per unius inobedientiam peccatores constitutos multos; ipsi sunt multi, qui et omnes. Similiter cum dictum est: Per unius iustificationem in omnes homines, ad iustificationem vitae; et rursus dictum est: Per unius obedientiam iusti constituentur multi (Rom 5, 12, 18.19), non aliquibus exceptis, sed eosdem multos, omnes oportet intellegi.
  • 429/430 AD, Against Julian : Opus imperfectum contra Iulianum, lib. 2
    (English transl: Roland J. Teske, S.J. in The works of Saint Augustine. New York: New City Press, 1999. vol. 25, 773 pp.)
cap. 134 (PL 45, 1197), referred in our controversy by Gonet (†1681), Platel (†1681), etc.
Sleep off the intoxication of your quarrelsomeness, and wake up and understand the sin—the one sin of one person—about which the apostle said, For if many have died on account of the sin of the one (Rom. 5: 15). These "many" are themselves the "all" about whom he says in another passage, As in Adam all die (1 Cor. 15:22). There you will see the little ones as well because Christ also died for them, as you admit. In fact, when the apostle had said that one died for all, he immediately showed what necessarily follows, when he says, All, therefore, have died, and he died for all (2 Cor. 5:14-15).Digere crapulam contentionis et expergiscere et intellege delictum et unius et unum, de quo dictum est: Si enim ob unius delictum multi mortui sunt (Rom 5, 15); multi quippe isti ipsi sunt omnes, de quibus alio loco dicit: Sicut in Adam omnes moriuntur (1 Cor 15, 22); et ibi videbis et parvulos, quia et pro ipsis etiam te confitente mortuus est Christus. Utique cum dixisset Apostolus quia unus pro omnibus mortuus est, continuo, quid necessario sequeretur, ostendit dicens: Ergo omnes mortui sunt et pro omnibus mortuus est (2 Cor 5, 14-15).
cap. 145 (PL 45, 1201)
Can you say that all the nations were not promised to the descendants of Abraham where scripture said, All the nations will blessed in your descendants (Gn. 22:18), because it called those same nations "many" where we read, I have set you as the father of many nations (Gn. 17:5)? Can you, I repeat, say this, and in that passage also contradict by your foolish talk the scripture that foretells what we see is fulfilled in the present world? Can you forbid us to understand all nations where nothing else but all nations was promised him? For by your logic you teach that "all" was not used for all nations, but for many nations, which are not all, and that it should be understood this way. Where it says "many," we need not understand "all," but where it says "all," and they are truly all, we can also correctly say "many," so that all of them are not thought to be few.Potes dicere non omnes gentes semini Abrahae fuisse promissas, ubi dictum est: In semine tuo benedicentur omnes gentes (Gen 22, 18), quia easdem dixit et multas, ubi legitur: Patrem multarum gentium posui te (Gen 17, 5)? Potes, inquam, hoc dicere et in eo quoque loco Scripturae praenuntianti, quod rebus ipsis videmus impleri, tuo vaniloquio contradicere et prohibere nos intellegere omnes gentes, ubi promissae sunt quid aliud quam omnes gentes? Quia per tuam dialecticam omnes non pro "omnibus", sed pro "multis", quae omnes non sunt, positas atque intellegendas doces. Si autem possunt quidem, ubi dicuntur multi, non omnes intellegi, sed tamen, ubi dicuntur omnes vereque sunt omnes, recte dicuntur et multi, ne ipsi omnes pauci intellegantur.
cap. 147 (PL 45, 1203)
(Paul) said "all" and called those same people "many." When he says "many," he does not deny that they were all, and so he does not contradict himself, as you try in your wickedness to deceive others or are yourself deceived in your blindness. After all, because the apostle said both "all" and "many," I showed that these two are not mutually contradictory. For all are also said to be many because at times even a few are said to be all. But by saying that those whom the apostle said were all were not all, you are undoubtedly shown to be opposed to the apostle.Omnes dicit eosdemque multos; non multos dicendo negat omnes, ne sibi sit ipse contrarius, sicut vestra aut fallit improbitas aut fallitur caecitas. Quia enim utrumque dixit Apostolus, et omnes et multos, ostendi ego non inter se duo ista pugnare, quia ipsi omnes ideo etiam multi sunt dicti, quia omnes aliquando dicuntur et pauci, tu autem dicendo non omnes, quos omnes dixit Apostolus, procul dubio convinceris Apostolo esse contrarius.
cap. 148 (PL 45, 1203)
JULΙΑΝ:
    You and Mani say: All are sinners by nature. The apostle, however, says: Many, not all, are sinners. He removes from the seeds the accusation which is aimed like a sword at moral conduct, and he destroys original sin. But let us insist on the point which we have made. The apostle teaches that we should understand that many became sinners through the disobedience of Adam, but that many become righteous through the obedience of Christ. He certainly shows that those who are righteous are distinct from those who are serious sinners. With what impudence do you try to argue in order to prove from these statements the existence of natural sin? After all, when you say that all are born serious sinners because of Adam and, for this reason, belong to the devil, but that some are afterwards set free from him because of Christ, you do not hold what the aposlle holds. He says that not all, but many were made sinners through Adam.
JULIANUS:
    Nam cum tu et Manichaeus dicitis: Omnes sunt naturaliter peccatores, Apostolus autem dicit: Multi sunt, non omnes peccatores, removet accusationem a seminibus, quae armatur in mores, et destruit originale peccatum. Utque hoc ipsum, quod egimus, urgeamus: praescribit Apostolus multos debere intellegi per Adae inoboedientiam peccatores, multos autem per Christi oboedientiam iustos eos utique, qui iusti sunt, ostendens ab illis, qui criminosi sunt, esse discretos; tu quia impudentia argumentari niteris, ut ex his sermonibus probes naturale peccatum? Nam cum dicis omnes nasci criminosos per Adam et propter hoc ad diabolum pertinere, sed aliquos inde per Christum postea liberari, non hoc sentis, quod Apostolus, qui dicit non omnes per Adam peccatores constitutos esse, sed multos.
AUGUSTINE:
    As we have already shown, it is not contradictory that those same people who are all are also many; hence, the apostle says that those same people whom he called "many" are "all." It is not the apostle, but you who say that they are "not all," and in this way you contradict the apostle. What the apostle says, however, is true; therefore, what you say is false.
AUGUSTINUS:
    Quoniam non est contrarium, sicut iam ostendimus, ut idem sint multi, qui sunt omnes, ideo quos multos, eosdem omnes Apostolus dicit; non omnes autem non Apostolus, sed tu dicis ac per hoc Apostolo contradicis. Verum est autem, quod Apostolus dicit; falsum ergo, quod tu dicis.
cap. 149 (PL 45, 1205)
JULIAN:
    For if he had held a view like yours, he should, of course, have said: Through the disobedience of the one all were made sinners [...] Even if we were completely ignorant of the customary expression by which many were said to be made sinners through the disobedience of one human being, it would still remain unshakable that this does not have to do with original sin, since the apostle taught that it belonged to many, not to all.
JULIANUS:
    Si enim, quale tu, tale aliquid ille sensisset, debuit utique dicere: Per unius inoboedientiam peccatores constituti sunt omnes [...] Etsi ergo penitus nesciremus, qui mos esset, quo per inoboedientiam unius hominis multi peccatores constitui dicerentur, tamen maneret in solido non hoc pertinere ad originale peccatum, quod Apostolus inculcaverat multis, non omnibus convenire.
AUGUSTINE:
    We have already replied with regard to "many" and "all."
AUGUSTINUS:
    De multis et omnibus iam responsum est.
    Why does it come as a surprise that the apostle did not speak in the way you say that he ought to have spoken if he wanted to say what we say? For, even if, as you suppose, the apostle said that through the sin of the one in many were made sinners so that we could not understand these many to be all, but only those who sinned by their own will through imitating the first human being, he did not say that through the obedience of Christ some of these were justified, which is, nonetheless, true.
    Nec sic locutum fuisse Apostolum, quemadmodum dicis eum loqui debuisse, si hoc diceret, quod nos dicimus, quid mirum est? Quandoquidem etiamsi secundum vos Apostolus per unius delictum ita multos peccatores constitutos esse dixisset, ut idem multi non possent omnes intellegi, sed hi tantum qui ex imitatione primi hominis propria voluntate peccarunt, non dixit per oboedientiam Christi ex his aliquos iustificatos, quod tamen verum est.
    Why is it, then, that you say: If the apostle held a view like ours, he should have said: "Through the disobedience of the one all were made sinners"? [...] We too, then, can say to you: If the apostle held a view like yours, he ought, of course, to have said:
    Quid est ergo, quod dicis, si tale aliquid, quale nos, sensisset Apostolus, eum dicere debuisse: Per unius inoboedientiam peccatores constituti sunt omnes? [...] Possumus ergo et nos vobis dicere: Si tale aliquid, quale vos, sensisset Apostolus, debuit utique dicere:
      Through the disobedience of the one many, of course, but not all, were made sinners, but even some of these have returned to righteousness through the obedience of Christ.
      Per unius inoboedientiam peccatores constituti sunt multi quidem, non omnes, sed etiam ex his per obedientiam Christi aliqui ad iustitiam reverterunt;
    Or, if he held such a view, he would have spoken much more clearly so that he said:
    aut etiam multo apertius ita loqueretur, si aliquid tale sensisset, ut diceret:
      Many of the Jews, of course, were made sinners through the disobedience of the one human being; after they received the law, they sinned by a similar transgression. But the obedience of Christ made even some of them righteous.
      Multi quidem Iudaeorum per inoboedientiam unius hominis peccatores sunt constituti, qui lege accepta simili praevaricatione peccarunt, sed etiam ex his aliquos iustificavit Christi oboedientia.
    But if he did not rule against you by not speaking as I said he ought to have spoken if he held what you hold, he certainly ought not to rule against me because he did not speak as you say that he ought to have spoken if he held what I hold. Since the apostle, then, spoke as he thought he ought to speak, we must see which one of us agrees with him. Is it I who say that his words, Through the sin of the one all entered condemnation (Rom. 5:18), are true, and his words, Through the disobedience of ihe one many were made sinners (Rom. 5:19), are true, since it is not contradictory that those who are many are all and that those who are all are many? Or is it you who say: When he says many, they are many, and when he says all, they are not all?
    Quod si tibi non praeiudicavit non ita loquendo, sicut dixi eum loqui debuisse, si hoc sentiret, quod tu, nec mihi utique praeiudicare debet, quia non ita locutus est, quomodo eum dicis loqui debuisse, si hoc sentiret, quod ego. Cum ergo Apostolus ita sit locutus, sicut loquendum esse arbitratus est, videndum est, quis ei nostrum consentiat, utrum ego, qui dico verum esse quod ait: Per unius delictum in omnes homines ad condemnationem (Rom 5, 18), et verum esse quod ait: Per unius inoboedientiam peccatores constituti sunt multi (Rom 5, 19), quoniam non repugnat, ut qui multi sunt, omnes sint et, qui omnes sunt, multi sint, an tu, qui dicis: Ubi ait multos, multi sunt, ubi ait omnes, non omnes sunt.
cap. 175 (PL 45, 1217), this is referred in our controversy by almost all modern theologians.
JULIAN:
    In the present passage the apostle a little later calls "many" those whom he now said were "all."
Julianus:
    Hic ipse Apostolus, quos nunc dixit omnes, paulo post multos nominat.
AUGUSTINE:
    I have already answered that "many" is not opposed to "all," because the all are not few, but many. [...] Get free, if you can, from the statement that one died for all, and dare to say that not all those for whom Christ died were dead, for the apostle immediately closes your mouth and silences your most brazen tongue, when he shows what follows and says, All, therefore, have died. Do not praise the apostle in such a way; do not explain his words so that you refuse to hear, If one has died for all, all, therefore, have died (2 Cor. 5:14). To all these death along with sin was passed on by the one in whom all die. The little ones are also included there, because Christ also died for them; he died for all precisely because all were dead. Whatever arguments yous raise, whatever evasions you take, however you try to undo or twist the words of the apostle, you do not show that the little ones are exempt from the death which lies in sin, because you do not dare to deny that Christ has died for them as well.
AUGUSTINUS:
    Ad hoc iam responsum est non repugnare omnibus multos, quia ipsi omnes non pauci, sed multi sunt; [...] Hinc te exue, si potes, quod unus pro omnibus mortuus est, et aude dicere, non omnes esse mortuos, pro quibus mortuus est Christus, cum statim Apostolus tibi fauces premat et opprimat audacissimam vocem, quid sequeretur, ostendens et dicens: Ergo omnes mortui sunt. Noli sic laudare Apostolum; noli sic exponere, ut nolis audire: Si unus pro omnibus mortuus est, ergo omnes mortui sunt (1 Cor 15, 22). In hos omnes cum peccato mors pertransiit per illum, in quo omnes moriuntur. Ibi sunt et parvuli, quia et pro ipsis Christus mortuus est, qui propterea pro omnibus mortuus est, quia omnes mortui sunt. Quidquid argumenteris, quidquid tergiverseris, quidquid apostolicorum verborum coneris evertere sive pervertere, a morte, quae in peccato est, parvulos non ostendis immunes, quia et pro eis Christum mortuum negare non audes.
cap. 209 (PL 45, 1231)
The teacher of the nations clearly cries out against you: As in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be brought to life (1 Cor. 15:22), and all of them are not few, but many. And for this reason many die in Adam, and many will be brought to life in Christ.Evidenter contra vos clamat Doctor Gentium: Sicut in Adam omnes moriuntur, ita in Christo omnes vivificabuntur (1 Cor 15, 22), qui omnes non pauci, sed multi sunt. Ac per hoc multi moriuntur in Adam, multi vivificabuntur in Christo.
cap. 215
JULIAN:
    For as through the disobedience of the one many were made sinners, so through the obedience of the one many will be made righteous (Rom 5:18-19). The whole confusion is removed. You impudently stir up a lie about everyone; you most foolishly look for difficulties where none exist. The apostle states that it was not all, but many who learned to sin through the disobedience of the first man and that it is many, not all, who acquired righteousness through the obedience of the second. [...]
JULIANUS:
    Sicut enim per unius inoboedientiam peccatores constituti sunt multi, ita et per unius oboedientiam iusti constituentur multi (Rom 5, 18-19). Omnis est soluta perplexitas, impudenter de universitate calumnia con citatur, ineptissime in scirpo nodus quaeritur. Pronuntiat Apostolus non omnes esse, sed multos, qui per inoboedientiam primi hominis peccata didicissent, et multos esse, non omnes, qui per alterius oboedientiam iustitiam essent adepti. [...]
AUGUSTINE:
    [...] With regard to the "many" I have already replied to you sufficiently that they are all, but you could only explain those whom the apostle said were all by contradicting him, explaining and saying: They are not all. No necessity would drive you to that, if you had preferred to hold the Catholic rather than the Pelagian view. All are also said to be "many."
AUGUSTINUS:
    [...] Iam vero de multis, quia ipsi sunt omnes, satis tibi responsum est; tu autem, quos Apostolus dixit omnes, non potuisti nisi contradicendo exponere et dicendo: Non sunt omnes; ad quod te nulla necessitas cogeret, si catholicum quam Pelagianum sensum tenere maluisses; omnes enim propterea dicuntur et multi.
 
 
AQUINAS, Thomas (1225–1274), O.P., Doctor Angelicus, theologian.
on Romans 5:19 (Super Rom., cap. 5 lectio 5). Referrence to this was made in our controversy ("blood ... shed for many") by Calatayud (1698-1771).
For as indeed by the disobedience of the one man [the] many have been constituted sinners, i.e. all, who bore from him according seminal reason.per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, id est omnes qui ab eo nascuntur secundum rationem seminalem.
 
 

Daniel 12

Daniel 12:1b-2 (Codex Vaticanus, pag. 1231; cf. hebrew)
And a time shall come ... and many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame, to everlasting contempt.et veniet tempus ... et multi de his qui dormiunt in terræ pulvere evigilabunt, alii in vitam æternam, et alii in opprobrium ut videant semper. καὶ ἔσται καιρὸς ... καὶ πολλοὶ τῶν καθευδόντων ἐν γῆς χώματι ἐξεγερθήσονται, οὗτοι εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον καὶ οὗτοι εἰς ὀνειδισμὸν καὶ εἰς αἰσχύνην αἰώνιον.
וְהָיְתָה עֵת ... וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃
John 5:28-29 (Codex Vaticanus, pag. 1356), cf. also Matthew 25:46
The hour cometh, wherein all that are in the graves shall hear the voice of the Son of God. And shall go forth; those that have practised good, to resurrection of life, and those that have done evil, to resurrection of judgment.venit hora in qua omnes qui in monumentis sunt audient vocem Filii Dei : et procedent qui bona fecerunt, in resurrectionem vitæ; qui vero mala egerunt, in resurrectionem judicii. ἔρχεται ὥρα ἐν ᾗ πάντες οἱ ἐν τοῖς μνημείοις ἀκούσουσιν τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐκπορεύσονται, οἱ τὰ ἀγαθὰ ποιήσαντες εἰς ἀνάστασιν ζωῆς, οἱ δὲ τὰ φαῦλα πράξαντες εἰς ἀνάστασιν κρίσεως.
And shortly before it John 5:25
Amen, amen I say unto you, that the hour cometh, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall live.amen amen dico vobis quia venit hora et nunc est quando mortui audient vocem Filii Dei et qui audierint viventἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἔρχεται ὥρα καὶ νῦν ἐστιν ὅτε οἱ νεκροὶ ἀκούσουσιν τῆς φωνῆς τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ οἱ ἀκούσαντες ζήσουσιν.
And it can be compared also with Isaiah 26:19 according LXX ("Septuagint") [i.e. pre-Christian greek translation of Old Testament, which was used by evangelists and which reflected understanding of Bible in that time].
Those who are dead shall rise, and they that are in the tombs shall be raised, and they that are in the earth shall rejoice: for the dew from thee is healing to them: butthe land of the ungodly shall perish.ἀναστήσονται οἱ νεκροί, καὶ ἐγερθήσονται οἱ ἐν τοῖς μνημείοις, καὶ εὐφρανθήσονται οἱ ἐν τῇ γῇ· ἡ γὰρ δρόσος ἡ παρὰ σοῦ ἴαμα αὐτοῖς ἐστιν, ἡ δὲ γῆ τῶν ἀσεβῶν πεσεῖται.
 
 
So Hippolytus of Rome (c.170–c.236) compared all these passages in De Christo et Antichristo, cap. LXV (PL 10, 785 A). And Ambrose (c.340–397) in his commentary to 1. Psalm (PL 14, 950) [as it is referred by Bellarmine] observed a very strong analogy between Dan 12:2 and John 5:28-29, which was consequently the most preciously described by his disciple Augustine:
AUGUSTINE (354–430), bishop of Hippo
De civitate Dei, lib. XX, cap. 23, num. 2 (PL 41, 696) referred in our controversy by Gonet (†1681), Platel (†1681), Viva (†1726), Billuart (†1757), Genovesi (†1769), Mai (†1854), etc.
In another place the same Daniel says, "And there shall be a time of trouble ... And many of them that sleep in the mound of earth shall arise, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting confusion..." (Daniel 12:1-2) This passage is very similar to the one we have quoted from the Gospel (John 5:28), at least so far as regards the resurrection of dead bodies. For those who are there said to be "in the graves" are here spoken of as "sleeping in the mound of earth," or, as others translate, "in the dust of earth." There it is said, "They shall come forth;" so here, "They shall arise." There, "They that have done good, to the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, to the resurrection of judgment;" here, "Some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting confusion." Neither is it to be supposed a difference, though in place of the expression in the Gospel, "All who are in their graves," the prophet does not say "all," but "many of them that sleep in the mound of earth." For "many" is sometimes used in Scripture for "all". Thus it was said to Abraham, "I have set you as the father of many nations" (Gen. 17:5), though in another place it was said to him, "In your seed shall all nations be blessed" (Gen. 18:18, 22:18).Alio loco idem Daniel: Et erit, inquit, tempus tribulationis ... Et multi dormientium in terrae aggere exsurgent: hi in vitam aeternam, et hi in opprobrium et in confusionem aeternam... (Dan. 12, 1-2). Sententiae illi evangelicae est locus iste simillimus de resurrectione dumtaxat corporum mortuorum. Nam qui illic dicti sunt esse in monumentis (Io. 5, 28; cf. Matt. 27, 52-53), ipsi hic dormientes in terrae aggere, vel, sicut alii interpretati sunt, in terrae pulvere; et sicut ibi: procedent dictum est, ita hic: exsurgent; sicut ibi: Qui bona fecerunt, in resurrectionem vitae; qui autem mala egerunt, in resurrectionem iudicii (Io. 5, 28-29); ita et isto loco: Hi in vitam aeternam, et hi in opprobrium et in confusionem aeternam. (Dan. xii, 2) Non autem diversum putetur, quod, cum ibi positum sit: Omnes qui sunt in monumentis, hic non ait Propheta omnes, sed multi dormientium in terrae aggere. Ponit enim aliquando Scriptura pro omnibus multos. Propterea et Abrahae dictum est: Patrem multarum gentium posui te (Gen. xvii, 5), cui tamen alio loco: In semine, inquit, tuo benedicentur omnes gentes (Gen. xviii, 18; xxii, 18).
 
 
And it seems that also Jerome (c.347–420) did it. Since Jerome around year 397 quoted Dan 12:2 and John 5:28-29 as parallel passages in his commentary to Isaiah 26:19 (PL 24, 303), which is about resurrection. His understanding of the word "many" as "all" seems also from fact, that in his commentary to Ezekiel, for defending that all men will resurrect, he quoted Dan 12:2 as "robust testimony, in which there is no doubth" (as it is referred also by Suarez).
on Ezekiel 37 (PL 25, 349 A); later repeated also by Rabanus Maurus (PL 110, 861 D)
Haec loquuntur, qui de generali, ut diximus, resurrectione Ezechielem scripsisse autumant. Qui autem taliter interpretantur ista, non debent nobis facere invidiam, quod istum locum aliter exponentes, resurrectionem negare videamur. Scimus enim multo robustiora testimonia, et in quibus nulla sit dubitatio, in Scripturis sanctis reperiri, ut est illud Job: Suscitabit (Al. suscitabis) pellem meam, quae ista sustinet (Job. XIX). Et in Daniel: Multi qui dormiunt in terrae pulvere, resurgent; isti in vitam aeternam, et isti in opprobrium, et in confusionem aeternam (Dan. XII, 2). Et in Evangelio: Nolite timere eos, qui corpus interficiunt, animam autem non possunt occidere; timete autem eum magis, qui potest et animam et corpus perdere in gehennam (Matth. X, 28). Et apostolus Paulus: Qui vivificabit mortalia vestra corpora propter inhabitantem spiritum ejus in vobis (Rom. VIII, 11), et multa alia.
 
 
Finally Theodoret of Cyrus (c.393–c.457)
on Daniel 12:2 (PG 81, 1535 C)
However "many" was said for all. For also blessed Paul put the many for all, saying:Multi autem pro omnes dixit. Etenim beatus quoque Paulus multi pro omnes posuit, cum dixit:Πολλοὶ δὲ, ἀντὶ τοῦ πάντες ἔφη. Καὶ γὰρ ὁ μακάριος Παῦλος, ἀντὶ τοῦ πάντες, οἱ πολλοὶ τέθεικε, λέγων·
    "For if by the offence of one the many have died, much rather has the grace of God, and the free gift in grace, which is by the one man Jesus Christ, abounded unto the many." (Rom. 5:15)
    « Si enim unius delieto multi mortui sunt, multo magis gratia Dei, et donum ex gratia unius hominis Jesu Christi, in multos abundavit. »
    « Εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι οἱ πολλοὶ ἀπέθανον, πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἡ χάρις τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ ἡ δωρεὰ ἐν χάριτι τῇ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς τοὺς πολλοὺς ἐπερίσσευσε. »
 
 
GLOSSA interlinearis [interlined gloss] - made by Anselm of Laon (1050/1055-1117), and in whole rest of medieval times, it was written between lines of Bible. And in fact, there was written "all" ["omnes"] above word "many" ["multi"], i.e. that many=all. (Bibliorum sacrorum cum glossa, Venetiis, 1603, vol. IV., col. 1677)
 
 
Later Thomas AQUINAS (1225–1274), O.P., theologian.
Objection (Super Sent., lib. 4 d. 43 q. 1 a. 1 qc. 2 arg. 2), which was quite later added to Summa Th., par. 3 suppl., q. 75 a. 2 arg. 2
[Objection:][Summa Th.][Super Sent.]
Daniel 12:2 says: "Many of those that sleep in the dust (of the earth) shall awake." But these words imply a restriction. Therefore all will not rise again.Daniel. 12, 2, dicitur: multi de his qui dormiunt in terrae pulvere, evigilabunt. Sed haec locutio quamdam particulationem importat. Ergo non omnes resurgent.Daniel. 12, 2, dicitur: multi de his qui dormiunt in pulvere, evigilabunt. Sed haec locutio quamdam partitionem importat. Ergo non omnes resurgent.
Response to this objection (Super Sent., lib. 4 d. 43 q. 1 a. 1 qc. 2 ad 2), which was quite later added to Summa Th., p. 3 suppl., q. 75 a. 2 ad 2
[Response:][Summa Th.][Super Sent.]
Augustine (The City of God, 20: 23) explains "many" as meaning "all": in fact, this way of speaking is often met with in Holy Writ.Augustinus (De Civ. Dei xx, 23), exponit multi, id est omnes; et hic modus loquendi frequenter invenitur in sacra Scriptura.Augustinus (De Civ. Dei xx, 23), exponit, multi, idest omnes; et hic modus loquendi frequenter invenitur in sacra Scriptura.
Or restriction/perditon can be understood in regard to damned children (in limbo) who, although they shall rise again, are not properly said to awake, since they will have no sense either of pain or of glory, and waking is the unchaining of the senses.Vel particulatio potest intelligi quantum ad pueros damnatos in limbo, qui quamvis resurgant, non proprie dicuntur evigilare, cum nec sensum poenae, nec gloriae habituri sint; vigilia enim est solutio sensus.Vel perditio potest intelligi quantum ad pueros damnatos, qui quamvis resurgant, non proprie dicuntur evigilare, cum nec sensum poenae nec gloriae habituri sint; vigilia enim est solutio sensus.
In the same time also
Bonaventure (1221–1274), O.F.M.
Super Sent., lib. IV, Dist. XLIII, art. I., quaestio II. (Opera Omnia. Venetiis: 1754, tom. IV, p. 944; Parisiis: 1866, tom. VI, p. 453)
Contra: 1. Multi de his, qui dormiunt in pulvere terrae, evigilabunt: ergo cum hoc nomen, multi, sit partitivum, si multi evigilant, non ergo omnium est resurrectio.
[Resp. ...] Ad illud quod objicitur, quod multi evigilabunt, respondet Augustinus, quod multi, id est omnes: et talis modus loquendi frequenter invenitur in Scriptura. Vel facienda est vis in verbo, quia evigilare plus dicit, quam resurgere, quia vigilia est usus sensuum, et dicit discretionem, quae non vigebit in parvulis damnatis, quia non erit in eis tristitia.
Shortly later also
Nicholas of Lyra (c.1270-1349), OFM. in his commentaries to Bible
on Daniel 12:2 (Bibliorum sacrorum, Venetiis, 1603, vol. IV., col. 1677)
  • Per hoc autem quod dicit, Multi intelliguntur omnes, ut dicit Aug. Et hic modus loquendi bene invenitur alibi in sacra scriptura.
  • Vel aliter dicit, Multi, propter pueros damnatos, qui licet resurgant, non tamen dicuntur proprie evigilare, quia non sunt habituri sensum poenae vel gloriae, vigilia autem est solutio sensus.
Therefore they non only admitted this interpretation here, but also noted about such interpretation, that:
    "this way of speaking is often met with in Holy Writ" .
And although in this concrete passage he added also some speculation about another alternative of interpretation, which was not supported by ancient exegetes, but even later great theologians and exegetes accepted only first interpretation. So for example Bellarmine (1542-1621) very strongly defended non-restrictive interpretation of Daniel 12:2 in his response to Ambrosius Catharinus (1483-1553), O.P., who wrote objection, that word "many" in this passage doesn't contain children.
 
 
BELLARMINE, Robert [Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino] (1542-1621), S.J., cardinal, theologian.
Disputationum, vol. iii, lib. VI, cap. 3 (ed. Inglostadii, 1593, p. 589; Neapol, 1858, vol. 4, p. 239)
I response: st. Augustine in book 20 about City of God, cap. 23 and Theodoret in commentary to this place noted us, that this many is in this place put for word all, since really many shall arise, because all shall arise. Similar is that Rom 5.: For as indeed by the disobedience of the one man (the) many have been constituted sinners (Rom. 5:15). Who was called many, is called also all, when he says: in whom all sinned (Rom. 5:12). And: as by the offence of one, unto all to condemnation (Rom. 5:18). Similar is also, what we have Genesis 17, 5: "I have made thee a father of many nations," about which nations it is said later in 18, 18 and 22, 18: "In your seed shall be blessed all nations of the world."RESPONDEO, S. Augustinus lib. 20. de civit. Dei, cap. 23. et Theodoretus in comment. huius loci, nos admonent, vocem illam, multi, positam esse hoc loco pro voce, omnes, quia re vera multi erunt, qui resurgent, cum omnes resurgent. Simile est illud Rom. 5. Per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi. Quos multos vocavit, etiam omnes vocat, cum ait: In quo omnes peccaverunt. Et: Per unius delictum in omnes homines in condemnationem. Simile est etiam quod habetur Genes. 17. Patrem multarum gentium constitui te. De quibus gentibus rursus dicitur cap. 18. et 22. In semine tuo benedicentur omnes gentes terrae.
Moreover, what Augustine noted here, st. Ambrose (c.340–397) in 1. Psalm (PL 14, 945-950) and st. Jerome (c.347–420) in cap. 26 of Isaiah say (PL 24, 303), this place in Daniel signifies the same "all", that much later Lord himself expressed in John 5:28-29, when he said: "All, who are in the graves shall hear the voice of the Son of God. And shall go forth; those that have practised good, to resurrection of life, and those that have done evil, to resurrection of judgment." Where we see, by Lord himself is declared, by "many slept in the dust of the ground" are understand "all, who are in the graves", i.e. all, who died.ADDE quod S. Augustinus loco notato, S. Ambrosius in i. Psalm. et S. Hieronymus in cap. 26. Isaiae dicunt, locum istum Daniel. idem omnino significare, quod multo post Dominus expressit Ioan. 5. cum ait: Omnes, qui in monumentis sunt, audient vocem filii Dei, et procedent, qui bona fecerunt in resurrectionem vitae, qui vero mala egerunt, in resurrectionem iudicii. Ubi videmus, a Domino ipso declaratum esse, per multos dormientes in terrae pulvere intelligendos esse, omnes, qui in monumentis sunt, id est, omnes mortuos.
Francisco SUÁREZ (1548–1617), S.J., theologian.
disput. 50 [quaest. 56, art. 2], sect. 1, num. 6 (Opera Omnia, Paris, 1860, vol. XIX, p. 914-915), see also sect. III (quoted more below, where he used also words of concesration as an example of such phenomen of many=all).
Clarius vero testimonium est apud Dan., c. 12 : Multi de iis qui dormiunt in terrae pulvere, evigilabunt, alii in vitam aeternam, et alii in opprobrium. Ubi multi pro omnibus (usitata phrasi Scripturae) positum est, ut ibi notavit Theodoret., et Aug., 20 de Civit., cap. 25. Idem sentit Hieronymus, Ezech. 37, ubi hoc appellat, robustum testimonium, ad probandara resurrectionem, quod nullam babeat dubitationem. Et eodem utitur Ruffinus, in expositione Symboli, qui prius absolute legit, resurgent qui sunt in pultere; deinde vero addit pronomen multi, in quo plane indicat eumdem esse sensum. Praeterea apud Isaiam sunt clarissima testimonia, quae longum esset prosequi, c. 26: Vivent mortui tui, interfecti mei resurgent. Expergiscimini et laudate, qui habitatis in pultere; ubi clarius Septuaginta: Surgent mortui, et resurgent qui in monumentis. De quo loco praeter expositores ibi, videri potest Augustiuus, l. 20 de Civit., c. 21; et Tertul., l. de Resur. carnis, c. 31, ubi etiam adjungit illud Isa. 66: Videbitis, et gaudebit cor vestrum, et ossa vestra quasi herba germinabunt, et cognoscetur manus Domini servis ejus, et indignabitur inimicis suis. Quo loco utuntur etiam August., l. 20 de Civit., c. 21; et Irenae., l. 5 Contra haeres., c. 15, et merito sane;
Juan MALDONADO (1533-1583), SJ., theologian, exegete.
on Daniel 12:2 (ed. 1611, p. 738)
Many is put for all, what often we see done in sacred books. For so Christ says: Many are called, few are elect (Matthew 22, 14), when from the same place we receive, that all are called. So st. Paul, "by the disobedience of the one man the many have been constituted sinners", says he to Rom 5, v. 19. while v. 12 and 18. say, that all become sinners, but because he put "many" for "all," we observed, that some reason is, that "many called" oppose to "few elect" in Matthew, "many sinners" to "one sin" in Paul.Multos enim pro omnibus posuit: quod saepe in sacris libris fieri videmus. Sic enim dicit Christus: Multi sunt vocati, pauci vero electi; cum ex eodem loco omnes vocatos fuisse constet. Sic D. Paulus per unium hominis inobedientiam multos peccatores constitutos fuisse ait, ad Rom. 5. ver. 19. cum ver. 12. et 18. peccatum dixisset in omnes homines perusisse, sed quia quoties multi pro omnibus ponuntur, aliquid eius rei causae esse animadvertimus, quemadmodum apud Matthaeum multi vocati, pauci alectis, apud Paulum multi peccatores, uni peccati auctori opponuntur.
And similarly others modern exegetes in their commetaries on Daniel 12:2.
 
 

Genesis 17-22

Following two parallels from Genesis were also often mentioned by Augustine among various passages where the word "many" is used for "all"
Genesis 17:4-5; cf. Sirach 44:20, Romans 4:17-18
I am, and my covenant is with you, and you shall be a father of many nations.Ego sum, et pactum meum tecum, erisque pater multarum gentium.καὶ ἐγὼ ἰδοὺ ἡ διαθήκη μου μετὰ σοῦ καὶ ἔσῃ πατὴρ πλήθους ἐθνῶν.
אֲנִי הִנֵּה בְרִיתִי אִתָּךְ וְהָיִיתָ לְאַב הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם׃
Neither shall your name be called any more Abram: but you shall be called Abraham: because I have made you a father of many nations.Nec ultra vocabitur nomen tuum Abram, sed appellaberis Abraham : quia patrem multarum gentium constitui te.Καὶ οὐ κληθήσεται ἔτι τὸ ὄνομά σου Ἄβραμ, ἀλλ' ἔσται τὸ ὄνομά σου Ἀβραάμ, ὅτι πατέρα πολλῶν ἐθνῶν τέθεικά σε.
וְלֹא־יִקָּרֵא עוֹד אֶת־שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָם וְהָיָה שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָהָם כִּי אַב־הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ׃
Genesis 18:18; cf. Genesis 22:18, Romans 4:16
And he/Abraham will surely become a great and mighty nation, and in him all the nations of the earth shall be blessed.cum futurus sit in gentem magnam, ac robustissimam, et benedicendæ sint in illo omnes nationes terræΑβρααμ δὲ γινόμενος ἔσται εἰς ἔθνος μέγα καὶ πολύ καὶ ἐνευλογηθήσονται ἐν αὐτῷ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη τῆς γῆς
וְאַבְרָהָם הָיוֹ יִהְיֶה לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וְעָצוּם וְנִבְרְכוּ־בוֹ כֹּל גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ׃
 
AUGUSTINE (354–430) mentioned these parallels e.g. against Julian, who argued that "many" means "not all" in Rom 5 (see below about Rom 5). And also that "many" dead will arise (Daniel 12).
De civitate Dei, lib. XX, cap. 23, num. 2 (PL 41, 696) about Dan 12:
For "many" (Dan 12:2) is sometimes used in Scripture for all. Thus it was said to Abraham, "I have set you as the father of many nations" (Gen. 17:5), though in another place it was said to him, "In your seed shall all nations be blessed" (Gen. 18:18, 22:18).Ponit enim aliquando Scriptura pro omnibus multos. Propterea et Abrahae dictum est: Patrem multarum gentium posui te (Gen. xvii, 5), cui tamen alio loco: In semine, inquit, tuo benedicentur omnes gentes (Gen. xviii, 18; xxii, 18).
In Psalmum 113 enarratio I, cap. 2
when it is said: I have made you a father of many nations - "many" however, not only some, but all, what is clearly said, when it is said to him: in your seed shall all the nations be blessed.cui dictum est: Patrem multarum gentium posui te. "Multarum" autem, non quarumdam, sed omnium; quod aperte dicitur, cum ei dicitur: Et benedicentur in te omnes gentes.
Against Julian : Contra secundam Iuliani responsionem imperfectum opus, Liber II, cap. 145 (PL 45, 1201)
(English transl: Roland J. Teske, S.J. in The works of Saint Augustine. New York: New City Press, 1999. vol. 25, 773 pp.)
Can you say that all the nations were not promised to the descendants of Abraham where scripture said, All the nations will blessed in your descendants (Gn. 22:18), because it called those same nations "many" where we read, I have set you as the father of many nations (Gn. 17:5)? Can you, I repeat, say this, and in that passage also contradict by your foolish talk the scripture that foretells what we see is fulfilled in the present world? Can you forbid us to understand all nations where nothing else but all nations was promised him? For by your logic you teach that "all" was not used for all nations, but for many nations, which are not all, and that it should be understood this way. Where it says "many," we need not understand "all," but where it says "all," and they are truly all, we can also correctly say "many," so that all of them are not thought to be few.Potes dicere non omnes gentes semini Abrahae fuisse promissas, ubi dictum est: In semine tuo benedicentur omnes gentes (Gen 22, 18), quia easdem dixit et multas, ubi legitur: Patrem multarum gentium posui te (Gen 17, 5)? Potes, inquam, hoc dicere et in eo quoque loco Scripturae praenuntianti, quod rebus ipsis videmus impleri, tuo vaniloquio contradicere et prohibere nos intellegere omnes gentes, ubi promissae sunt quid aliud quam omnes gentes? Quia per tuam dialecticam omnes non pro "omnibus", sed pro "multis", quae omnes non sunt, positas atque intellegendas doces. Si autem possunt quidem, ubi dicuntur multi, non omnes intellegi, sed tamen, ubi dicuntur omnes vereque sunt omnes, recte dicuntur et multi, ne ipsi omnes pauci intellegantur.
Contra Iulianum, Liber VI, num. 80 / cap. 24
However what is said: in your seed shall all the nations be blessed, and I have made you a father of many nations, it is evident, that the same "all" is "many" and the same "many" is "all."Quod autem dictum est: In semine tuo benedicentur omnes gentes, et: Patrem multarum gentium posuit te, easdem omnes, multas; et easdem multas, omnes esse monstratum est.
 
 
Augustine also read following Cicero's book "About Republic" (Augustine often mentioned that book, mostly in his book The City of God). Curiously even that Cicero's book mentioned some passage from Greek classics and it is explained there that word "many" was used for "all".
CICERO (106 BC–43 BC), a Roman philosopher, statesman, lawyer, political theorist, and Roman constitutionalist. He is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.
54/51 BC, De republica, lib. 1, num. 56-58. (ed. by cardinal Mai. Rome 1822, p. 93). Annotated by cardinal Mai (†1854). Referred also by Perrone (†1876) in his famous textbook of dogmatic theology.
Scipio.
    We must then, I suppose, imitate Aratus, who, when he prepared himself to treat of great things, thought himself in duty bound to begin with Jupiter.
(Scipio)
    'imitemur ergo Aratum, qui magnis de rebus dicere exordiens a Iove incipiendum putat.'
Lælius.
    Wherefore Jupiter? and what has our discourse to do with the poem of Aratus?
(Laelius)
    'quo Iove? aut quid habet illius carminis simile haec oratio?'
Scipio.
    Why it serves to teach us that we cannot better commence our investigations than by invoking Him, whom, with one voice, both learned and unlearned extol as the king universal of gods and mortals.
(Scipio)
    'tantum' inquit 'ut rite ab eo dicendi principia capiamus, quem unum omnium deorum et hominum regem esse omnes docti indoctique [expoliri] consentiunt.
Lælius.
    Why do you notice this so earnestly?
(Lælius)
    'Quid?' inquit Laelius.
Scipio.
    Because it bears directly on our present political discussion. If the legislators of states have thus enforced, for the benefit of society, the belief that there exists a Universal Monarch in heaven, at whose nod — as Homer expresses — all Olympus trembles (Iliad i. 530) — and who is both king and father of all creatures—you may observe how great is this authority, and many witnesses — because he pleased to call all as "many" — which attest that nations have unanimously recognized, by the decrees of their chiefs, that nothing is better than a king, since all the gods consent to be governed by a monarchical deity. And lest we should suspect that this opinion rests on the error of the ignorant, and should be classed among the fables, let us hear those universal testimonies of erudite men, who have seen with their eyes those things which we can hardly attain by report.
(Scipio)
    'Et ille, quid censes nisi quod est ante oculos? Sive haec ad utilitatem vitae constituta sunt a principibus rerum publicarum, ut rex putaretur unus esse in caelo, qui nutu ut ait Homerus, totum Olympum converteret (Iliad i. 530), idemque et rex et pater haberetur omnium, magna auctoritas est multique testes, siquidem omnis multos appellari placet, ita consensisse gentes decretis videlicet principum, nihil esse rege melius, quoniam deos omnis censent unius regi numine; sive haec in errore inperitorum posita esse et fabularum similia dicimus, audiamus communis quasi doctores eruditorum hominum, qui tamquam oculis illa viderunt, quae nos vix audiendo cognoscimus.'
Lœlius.
    What men do you mean?
(Lælius)
    'quinam' inquit Laelius 'isti sunt?'
Scipio.
    Those who, by the investigation of nature, have arrived at the opinion that the whole universe is animated by a single Mind. ... But if you please, my Lælius, I will bring forward those evidences, which are neither too ancient, nor too far–fetched.
(Scipio)
    'Et ille, qui natura omnium rerum pervestiganda senserunt omnem hunc mundum mente ... sed si vis Laeli, dabo tibi testes nec nimis antiquos nec ullo modo barbaros.'
Lœlius.
    These are the ones I want.
(Laelius)
    'istos' inquit 'volo.'
Note: First modern publication of this Cicero's book was made by cardinal Angelo Mai (1782—1854), S.J., prefect of the Vatican Library, celebrated philologist and patrists.
In his edition of Cicero's book (Rome 1822, p. 93) he noted under quoted text:
Word MANY sometimes signifies ALL, as it is learnedly showed by Augustine (against Julian vi.80 and in The City of God, xx.23), whose authority is now very taken from Cicero incrementing.Vocabulo multi interdum significari omnes perdocte demonstrat Augustinus contra Iulianum lib. VI. 80, et C.D. xx. 23; cuius auctoritas magnum nunc accipit a Cicerone incrementum.
So also theologians understand in the Sacred ScripturesSic etiam in sacris litteris theologi intelligunt
  • Matthew 26:28 "which shall be shed for MANY", that is "for all".
  • Matth. xxvi. 28: qui pro multis effundetur, id est pro omnibus.
  • And Daniel 12:2: MULTI shall awake, i.e. all.
  • Et Dan. xii. 2: multi evigilabunt, id est omnes.
 
 
According Thomas, similarly ambiguous is even word "most" (which is one of forms of word "many").
E.g. when Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC) said:
On the Heavens / De caelo / Περὶ οὐρανοῦ, lib. 3, cap. 1
It is obvious, then, that most of the inquiry into nature concerns bodies: for all natural substances either are bodies or they will come-into-existence with body and magnitude.patet plurimam de natura scientiam de corporibus esse. omnes enim substantiae naturales aut corpora sunt aut cum corporibus ac magnitudinibus fiunt.φανερὸν ὅτι τὴν πλείστην συμβαίνει τῆς περὶ φύσεως ἱστορίας περὶ σωμάτων εἶναι· πᾶσαι γὰρ αἱ φυσικαὶ οὐσίαι ἢ σώματα ἢ μετὰ σωμάτων γίγνονται καὶ μεγεθῶν.
Thomas noted to it:
In De caelo, lib. 3 l. 1 n. 4
  • In saying "most," he means all, but he uses this mode of expression on account of his philosophic temperament.
  • Per hoc autem quod dicit plurimam, intelligit omnem; sed utitur hoc modo loquendi propter philosophicum temperamentum.
  • Or he says "most" on account of the fact that in natural science something is also said about the first mover and the intellective soul.
  • Vel dicit plurimam, propter hoc quod in scientia naturali aliquid etiam traditur de primo motore et de anima intellectiva.
 
 

He healed "many" (Mark 1:34) = "all" (Matthew 8:16)

Mark 1:32-34
And evening having come, when the sun did set, they brought unto him all who were ill, and who were demoniacs.vespere autem facto cum occidisset sol adferebant ad eum omnes male habentes et daemonia habentes
ܒ݁ܪܰܡܫܳܐ ܕ݁ܶܝܢ ܒ݁ܡܰܥܪܳܒ݂ܰܝ ܫܶܡܫܳܐ ܐܰܝܬ݁ܺܝܘ ܠܘܳܬ݂ܶܗ ܟ݁ܽܠܗܽܘܢ ܐܰܝܠܶܝܢ ܕ݁ܒ݂ܺܝܫܳܐܝܺܬ݂ ܥܒ݂ܺܝܕ݂ܺܝܢ ܘܕ݂ܰܝܘܳܢܶܐ
Ὀψίας δὲ γενομένης ὅτε ἔδυ ὁ ἥλιος ἔφερον πρὸς αὐτὸν πάντας τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας καὶ τοὺς δαιμονιζομένους·
And the whole city had gathered at the door.et erat omnis civitas congregata ad ianuam
ܘܰܡܕ݂ܺܝܢ݈ܬ݁ܳܐ ܟ݁ܽܠܳܗ ܟ݁ܢܺܝܫܳܐ ܗ݈ܘܳܬ݂ ܥܰܠ ܬ݁ܰܪܥܳܐ
καὶ ἦν ἡ πόλις ὅλη ἐπισυνηγμένη πρὸς τὴν θύραν·
And he healed many that were sick with various diseases, and cast out many demons.et curavit multos qui vexabantur variis languoribus et daemonia multa eiciebat
ܘܰܐܣܺܝ ܠܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ ܕ݁ܒ݂ܺܝܫܳܐܝܺܬ݂ ܥܒ݂ܺܝܕ݂ܺܝܢ ܗ݈ܘܰܘ ܒ݁ܟ݂ܽܘܪܗܳܢܶܐ ܡܫܰܚܠܦ݂ܶܐ ܘܕ݂ܰܝܘܶܐ ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ ܐܰܦ݁ܶܩ ܘܠܳܐ ܫܳܒ݂ܶܩ ܗ݈ܘܳܐ ܠܗܽܘܢ ܠܕ݂ܰܝܘܶܐ ܕ݁ܰܢܡܰܠܠܽܘܢ ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕ݁ܝܳܕ݂ܥܺܝܢ ܗ݈ܘܰܘ ܠܶܗ
καὶ ἐθεράπευσεν πολλοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας ποικίλαις νόσοις, καὶ δαιμόνια πολλὰ ἐξέβαλεν
However parallel passages in Matthew and Luke say "all" and "everyone" instead of "many":
Luke 4:38-41
He rose up from the synagogue, and entered into Simon's house. Simon's wife's mother was holden with a great fever; and they besought him for her.Surgens autem de synagoga introivit in domum Simonis socrus autem Simonis tenebatur magnis febribus et rogaverunt illum pro ea.Ἀναστὰς δὲ ἐκ τῆς συναγωγῆς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν Σίμωνος. ἡ πενθερὰ δὲ τοῦ Σίμωνος ἦν συνεχομένη πυρετῷ μεγάλῳ, καὶ ἠρώτησαν αὐτὸν περὶ αὐτῆς.
He stood over her, and rebuked the fever; and it left her. Immediately she rose up and served them.Et stans super illam imperavit febri et dimisit illam et continuo surgens ministrabat illis.καὶ ἐπιστὰς ἐπάνω αὐτῆς ἐπετίμησε τῷ πυρετῷ, καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτήν· παραχρῆμα δὲ ἀναστᾶσα διηκόνει αὐτοῖς.
When the sun was setting, all those who had any sick with various diseases brought them to him; and he laid his hands on every one of them, and healed them.Cum sol autem occidisset omnes qui habebant infirmos variis languoribus ducebant illos ad eum at ille singulis manus inponens curabat eos.Δύνοντος δὲ τοῦ ἡλίου ἅπαντες ὅσοι εἶχον ἀσθενοῦντας νόσοις ποικίλαις ἤγαγον αὐτοὺς πρὸς αὐτόν· ὁ δὲ ἑνὶ ἑκάστῳ αὐτῶν τὰς χεῖρας ἐπιτιθεὶς ἐθεράπευεν αὐτούς.
Demons also came out from many, crying out, and saying, "You are the Christ, the Son of God!" Rebuking them, he didn't allow them to speak, because they knew that he was the Christ.Exiebant autem etiam daemonia a multis clamantia et dicentia quia tu es Filius Dei et increpans non sinebat ea loqui quia sciebant ipsum esse Christum.ἐξήρχετο δὲ καὶ δαιμόνια ἀπὸ πολλῶν κραυγάζοντα καὶ λέγοντα ὅτι Σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ. καὶ ἐπιτιμῶν οὐκ εἴα αὐτὰ λαλεῖν, ὅτι ᾔδεισαν τὸν Χριστὸν αὐτὸν εἶναι.
Matthew 8:14-17
When Jesus came into Peter's house, he saw his wife's mother lying sick with a fever.Et cum venisset Iesus in domum Petri vidit socrum eius iacentem et febricitantem.Καὶ ἐλθὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν Πέτρου εἶδεν τὴν πενθερὰν αὐτοῦ βεβλημένην καὶ πυρέσσουσαν·
He touched her hand, and the fever left her. She got up and served him.Et tetigit manum eius et dimisit eam febris et surrexit et ministrabat eis.καὶ ἥψατο τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῆς, καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτὴν ὁ πυρετός· καὶ ἠγέρθη καὶ διηκόνει αὐτῷ.
When evening came, they brought to him many possessed with demons. He cast out the spirits with a word, and healed all who were sick;vespere autem facto obtulerunt ei multos daemonia habentes et eiciebat spiritus verbo et omnes male habentes curavitὈψίας δὲ γενομένης προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ δαιμονιζομένους πολλούς, καὶ ἐξέβαλεν τὰ πνεύματα λόγῳ, καὶ πάντας τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας ἐθεράπευσεν,
that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying: "He took our infirmities, and bore our diseases."ut adimpleretur quod dictum est per Esaiam prophetam dicentem ipse infirmitates nostras accepit et aegrotationes portavitὅπως πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ Ἡσαΐου τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος· Αὐτὸς τὰς ἀσθενείας ἡμῶν ἔλαβε καὶ τὰς νόσους ἐβάστασεν.
Such parallels were used by Euthymius, but it is also mentioned by Victor Antioch, Theophylact, Thomas etc. as the possibility that the word "many" was used for "all".
 
 
ThEOPHYLACT mentioned two possibilities of interpretation. He said:
on Mark 1:34 (PG 123, 505 C) Latin transl. by: Ioannes Œcolampadius (1482–1531) in 1524
  • However, he healed "many," that is all. For all are many;
  • or he didn't heal all, for there were some, who didn't believe and were not healed for their disbelief, but he did heal many of them, who were brought, namely those who believed.
  • Multos autem sanavit, hoc est omnes : omnes enim, multi;
  • vel non omnes sanavit, quia quidam erant increduli, qui non sanati sunt propter incredulitatem suam, sed multos ex oblatis sanavit, eos videlicet qui credebant.
  • πολλοὺς δὲ ἐθεράπευσεν, ἀντὶ τοῦ, πάντας· οἱ γὰρ πάντες, πολλοί·
  • ἢ οὐ πάντας ἐθεράπευσεν, ἦσαν γάρ τινες ἄπιστοι, οἳ οὐκ ἐθεραπεύθησαν διὰ τὴν ἀπιστίαν αὐτῶν, ἀλλὰ πολλοὺς ἰάσατο ἐκ τῶν προσαχθέντων, δηλονότι τοὺς πίστιν ἔχοντας.
Note: This two ancient possibilities of interpretation were presented/quoted also by
THOMAS Aquinas (1225–1274), O.P.
on Mark 1:34 (Catena in Mc., cap. 1 lect. 11.) English translation made by cardinal NEWMAN (1801–1890), C.O.
CHRYSOSTOM: Now in that he says many, all are to be understood according to the Scripture mode of expression.Chrysostomus. Per hoc autem quod dicit multos, omnes oportet intelligere, iuxta Scripturae consuetudinem.
THEOPHYL.: Or he says many, because there were some faithless persons, who could not at all be cured on account of their unfaithfulness. Therefore He healed many of those who were brought, that is, all who had faith.Theophylactus. Vel multos dicit; erant enim quidam infideles, qui minime curati sunt propter incredulitatem eorum. Multos ergo ex oblatis sanavit, illos scilicet qui fidem habebant.
And consequently it was summarized also by
Nicholas of Lyra (c.1270-1349), OFM.
on Mark 1:34 (Postillae perpetuae in universam S. Scripturam; ed. Bibliorum sacrorum cum glossa ordinaria, Venetiis, 1603, vol. V., p. 496)
Et curavit multos,
  • id est, omnes qui fuerunt ibi adducti, qui erant multi.
  • Aliter exponitur. Multos, id est, plures de adductis, quorum fides et denotio curationem merebatur.
Ed daemonia multi eiiciebat.
    Eodem modo dupliciter exponitur idest, omnia vel plura.
Others interesting observations were made by ancient exegetes: Victor of Antioch and Euthymius.
 
 
VICTOR of Antioch (Victor Antiochenus), lived around 400 AD, i.e. in the same time as Chrysostom (and Thomas quoted him under Chrysostom's name). He claimed, that this is the first commentary to the gospel of Mark. It fact it is the most classical greek commentary to Mark.
on Mark 1:34 (Cramer vol. i, p. 278; Poussines, 1673, p. 33-34; Peltanus' transl.; Matthaei, vol. i, p. 20; Codex Bodmer 25, fol. 60b).
Latin transl. by Theodor Anton PELTANUS (1511 - 1584) S.J. in 1580 and Pierre Poussines (1609–1686) S.J. in 1673
[Poussines' transl.:][Peltanus' transl.:]
And Evangelist [Mark] indeed said here, that he [Christ] healed "many."Atque hic quidem noster Evangelista multos a Christo curatos male habentes ait:Evangelista Marcus Christum multos male habentes curasse asserit.Καὶ ὁ μὲν παρὼν Εὐαγγελιστὴς πολλούς φησιν αὐτὸν τεθεραπευκέναι κακῶς ἔχοντας.
  • By this "many" he means all - according to the acquaintance of Scripture, which is often used mode of speaking. (According to the saying of Paul: "as by one man the many were made sinners, so by the one shall the many be made righteous.")
  • multorum nomine omnes oblatos intelligens, Scripturae more tali faepe notione vocem istam usurpantis. Sic Paulus: Sicut enim (inquit) per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt muti: ita et per unius obeditionem just constituentur multi.
  • Verum is, (aut) scripturarum more multitudinis nomem generatim pro omnibus accipit (scripturae namque dictionem hanc frequenter in eo sensu usurpant),
  • τὸ, πολλοὺς, ἢ πάντας λέγων, κατὰ τὴν συνήθειαν τῆς γραφῆς οὕτω πολλάκις κεχρημένης τῇ λέξει, (κατὰ τὸ εἰρημένον ὑπὸ τοῦ Παύλου, «ὥσπερ διὰ τῆς τοῦ ἑνὸς ἁμαρτωλοὶ κατεστάθησαν ὁι πολλοὶ, οὕτω διὰ τοῦ ἑνὸς, δίκαιοι κατασταθήσονται οἱ πολλοί.»)
  • Or "many" - he says - these who believed in him, and whose faith drived healing.
  • Nisi multos dicit eos quibus sua fides effectum curationis obtinuit, quo aliqui sua incredulitate sint privati.
  • aut certe per τὸ multos, eos omnes et solos denotat, qui in illum credebant. Fides namque ad praestandum sanitacis beneficium alii ciebat.
  • ἢ πολλούς φησι τοὺς πιστεύσαντας εἰς αὐτὸν, καὶ ὧν ἡ πίστις τὴν ἴασιν ἐπεσπά(σα)το.
However, Luke gives us the first sense saying that "laying His hands on each one of them, He was healing them." (Luke 4:40)Caeterum Lucas priori magis expositioni favet, cum hunc locum reddens ait: at ille singulis manus imponens sanabat eos.Verum Lucae contextus cum priori expositione magis facit, ait enim, at ille singulis manus imponens curabat eos.ὁ δὲ Λουκᾶς τὴν προτέραν ἡμῖν ἔννοιαν δίδωσιν εἰπὼν, ὅτι ἑνὶ ἑκάστῳ αὐτῶν τὰς χείρας ἐπιτιθεὶς ἐθεράπευσεν αὐτούς.
 
 
EUThYMIOS
on Mark 1:34 (PG 129, 781 A). Latin translation made by John HENTEN (1499-1566), O.S.H. (later O.P.)
Mark said, that he healed many, however Matthew said that all. Similarly about demons, Mark said, that he cast out many demons, however Matthew said that cast out (bad) spirits, all cleaned (Matthew 8:16).Marcus quidem dixit, quod multos curaverit. Matthaeus vero quod omnes. Similiter autem et de daemoniis dixit Marcus, quod daemonia multa ejecit; Matthaeus vero quod spiritus ejecit, puta omnes.Ὁ μὲν Μάρκος εἶπεν, ὅτι ἐθεράπευσε πολλούς· ὁ δὲ Ματθαῖος, ὅτι πάντας. ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ περὶ τῶν δαιμονίων, ὁ μὲν Μάρκος, ὅτι δαιμόνια πολλὰ ἐξέβαλεν· ὁ δὲ Ματθαῖος, ὅτι ἐξέβαλε τὰ πνεύματα, δηλονότι, πάντα.
So, what we say? That evangelist here adds "many", not as Lord let pass some to clean, or that some demons abandoned. But only to Mark point out, that there were many, who were healed, and many demons casted out.Quid ergo dicimus? Quod Multos et Multa, addidit hic Evangelista, non quod aliquos praetermiserit Dominus, quin curaverit, aut daemonia aliqua reliquerit, sed tantum, ut ostendat Marcus, quod multi fuerunt qui sanati sunt, multaque ejecia daemonia.Τί οὖν φαμέν; τὸ πολλοὺς ἐνταῦθα καὶ τὸ πολλὰ προσέθηκεν ὁ εὐαγγελιστὴς, οὐχ ὅτι παρέλιπέ τινας ἀθεραπεύτους, ὁ Κυριος οὐδ᾽ ὅτι δαιμόνά τινα ἀφῆκεν, ἀλλ᾽, ἵνα δείξῃ μόνον ὁ Μάρκος, ὅτι πλῆθος ἦσαν οἱ θεραπευθέντες, και ὅτι πολλὰ ἦν τὰ ἐκβληθέντα δαιμόνια.
And he repeats this observation also in his commentary on Matthew 13:17 (PG 129, 401 C). Latin transl. by: John HENTEN (1499-1566), O.S.H. (later O.P.) in 1543; In our controversy referred by Richard Simon (1638–1712), C.O. (PG 129, 22).
  • "Many" that is all - as it is said also that "he healed many" (Mark 1:34), although he healed all as another Evangelist has (Matthew 8:16). And also in that same place "he cast out many demons" (Mark 1:34), who simultaneously cast out all of them.
  • multi, hoc est omnes. Veluti quum dicitur : Et curavit multos; omnes namque tunc curavit, ut habet alius evangelista. Et rursum ibidem : Et daemonia multa ejecit.
  • πολλοὶ, ἀντὶ τοῦ, πάντες. ὡς τὸ, καὶ ἐθεράπευσε πολλούς· πάντας γὰρ τότε ἐθεράπευσε. καὶ πάλιν, καὶ δαιμόνια πολλὰ ἐξέβαλε. πάντα γὰρ τηνικαῦτα ἐξέβαλεν.
 
 
TOSTATUS, Alonso de Madrigal (c.1400-1455), bishop, exegete.
on Matthew 8:14-17 [in Matt. cap. VIII., Quaestio 49.] (Comment. in III. partem Matthaei. Venetiis: 1728. 237).
QUAESTIO. An Christus sanaverit omnes male habentes ad se adductos, vel solùm aliquos eorum. Et quomodo fides operabatur in eis?
Quaeretur, an Christus nunc sanaverit omnes male habentes adductos ad se, vel solum aliquos eorum? Aliqui dicunt, quód omnes sanavit, quia dicitur supra in littera: Et omnes male habentes curavit, et Lucae cap. quarto dicitur: Omnes, qui habebant infirmos variis languoribus, ducebant illos ad eum; at ille singulis manus imponens, curabat eos; nemo ergo fuit, qui non sanatus effet.
Sed objicietur, quia Marc. cap. prim, dicitur: Cùm occidisset Sol, afferebant ad eum omnes male habentes, et daemonia habentes: et erat omnis civitas congregata ad januam: Et curavit multos, qui vexabantur variis languoribus, et daemonia multa ejiciebat, et sic non sanabat omnes languentes, nec omnes arreptitios, sed quosdam.
Dici potest.
Uno modo, quod Christus non sanavit nunc omnes male habentes in urbe Capharnaum, sed multos eorum, sicut dicit Marcus: et tamen Matthaeus, et Luc. dixerunt: Omnes ad modum loquendi Scripturae, quia solet dicere: Omnes pro multis, Genes. cap. quadragesimoprimo: Omnes Provinciae veniebant in AEgyptum, ut emerent escas; et tamen manifestum est, quod non poterant de omnibus partibus orbis venire ad AEgyptum tempore famis pro cibis, quia non suffecisset AEgyptus toti orbi pro una die, et etiam quia non erat possibile de toto orbe venire in AEgyptum; sic etiam Jerem. cap. nono: Omnis frater supplantans supplantabit, et omnis amicus fraudulenter incedet; et tamen non est verum hoc universaliter, sed solùm de multis.
Aliter potest dici, et melius, quod Christus sanaverit omnes male habentes, quod patet, quia quandocumque littera potest servari in rigore verborum, non debet trahi ad alienum sensum, idest, si ponitur universaliter, debet intelligi universaliter, nisi appareat aliqua cаusa, propter quam non роsset universaliter accipi, quia alias si liceret nobis ex arbitrio nostro mutare universale in particulare exponendo, periret tota certitudo Scripturae: et tamen nihil obstat ad hoc, quod intelligatur universaliter sanatos aegros, sicut universaliter ponitur; ergo debet sic intelligi.
Secundo patet per quamdam regulam generalem datam ad concordandum varia loca Scripturae, scilicet, quod si in variis locis Scripturae eadem res enarretur, et in uno ponantur plura, quam in alio, debet dici, verum esse, quod continent Scriptura, quae superaddidit, ut si alicubi dicatur, quod fuerunt mille homines in uno bello: et alibi dicitur, quod fuerunt sex millia, et non mille solum, et hoc modo utraque Scriptura vera est, quia si sex millia sunt, mille sunt: si autem stetur Scripturae minora dicenti, erit falsa ea, quae plus dixit: et tamen neutra potest esse falsa; ergo oportet stare plus dicenti. Sic est hic, quia Matthaeus, et Lucas dixerunt: Omnes male habentes curatos, Marc. dixit: Multos; ergo stabitur Matthaeo, et Lucae plus dicentibus; nam si omnes curavit, multos curavit, et non contrario.
Tertio patet, quia omnino est verisimile, quod omnes curaverit, quia viri de Urbe Capharnaum viderant, quomodo Christus spontè sanabat languentes, et sequenti die recessurus erat, ut ostensum est suprà quaest. 47. verisimile est, quôd omnes infirmos offerrent ei. Sic etiam dicitur Marc. cap. 1. nam licet dicitur: Quod sanavit multos: dicitur tamen: Quod afferrebant ad eum omnes male habentes: non est autem verisimile, quod aliqui infirmi offerrentur Christo, quos ipse non sanatet, quia, vel illi haberent fidem, vel non: si haberent fidem, sine dubio sanaret eos, quia fides merebatur obtinere sanitatem. Sic enim ipse dixit Lucae cap. 7. Fiat tibi, sicut credidisti, et iterum. Fides tua te salvam fecit; si autem non crederent, ipse adjuvaret incredulitatem eorum, increpans eos, ut crederent, et sic sanaret ipsos. Sic dicitur Marc. cap. 9. de quodam, qui obtulit Christo filium suum malè habentem, dicens: Domine, si quid potes, adjuva nos: Christus autem dixit: Si potes credere, omnia possibilia sunt credenti, et ille ait: Credo, Domine, adjuva incredulitatem meam, et tunc sanatus est filius ejus: ita ergo fieret de habitatoribus Capharnaum, etiam non est verisimile, quod Christus aliquos relinqueret nunc incuratos curando alios, quia cùm noviter inciperet facere miracula, putaretur, quod ex impotentia proveniebat, quia aliquos posset sanare, et alios non. Sic enim patet Joannis cap. 11. quando Christus audito, quad Lazarus esset mortuus, flevit coram Judaeis, et illi per hoc putantes, quod non poterat cum suscitare, dixerunt: Non porerat iste, qui aperuit oculos caeci, facere, ut hic non moreretur; erat tamen inconveniens, quod nunc putaretur aliqua impotentia in Christo, antequàm plenè ab omnibus cognosceretur ejus virtus in faciendo miracula; ideo etiam, si nunc non crederent plenè isti languentes, ipse suppleret incredulitatem eorum, et sanaret eos; ideo dicendum est, quod omnes languentes de urbe Capharnaum sibi oblatos Christus nunc sanavit.
MALDONADO, Juan (1533-1583), S.J., exegete
on Mark 1:34 (Comentarii, Venetiis, 1606, vol. I, pag. 703-704)
Et curavit multos. Non significat multos ex aegrotis, qui afferebantur, curasse, alios non curasse: omnes enim curavit, ut ait Matthaeus c. 8. 16. et Lucas c. 4.30. Sed significat illos omnes, qui curati sunt, magno fuisse numero, quo illustrius fuisse miraculum intelligamus, maioremque vim habet, quod multos curatos dicit, quam si certum, quamvis magnum numerum, designasset. Dum enim in certum ponit numerum, eumque magnum fuisse dicit, fuisse quodammodo indicat innumerabilem. Eodem modo intelligendus Lucas est c. 4. 41. quodque hoc loco continuo subjicitur, et daemonia multa ejiciebat. Omnia enim ejiciebat ex eis, qui ad se adducebantur, sed ea omnia erant multa. Sic Euthymius et Theophylactus. Aliam Theophylactus interpretationem assert, sed minus, ut mihi videtur propriam, non omnes, qui adducebantur, sed eorum multos curatos fuisse: quia non omnes credebant, et nolebat Christus non credentes in se curare. Caeterum, ut hoc verum esse concedatur, quod in universum tamen verum non est, ut exemplum illud docet Malchi servi Pontificis, cui non credenti Christus abscissam restituit auriculam Lucae 22. 51, tamen ad Christi gloriam pertinebat, neminem ex iis, qui sibi offerebantur, aegrotis, incuratum relinquere, ne quis maligne interpretaretur, quod quosdam non curaret, non ipsorum culpa, sed ejus infirmitate fieri. Et non legimus, Christum ullum sibi ad curandum oblatum aegrotum non curavisse.
LAPIDE, Cornelius a (1567–1637), S.J., exegete, theologian.
on Mark 1:34 (Lapide, XV, 572)
And He healed many, namely all who were offered, according to Matthew 8:16, for they were many. So Theophylact and Euthymios.ET CURAVIT MULTOS. Scilicet omnes qui ipsi offerebantur, ut habet Matthaeus, cap. viii, 16; hi enim erat multi. Ita Theophylactus et Euthymius.
And also all later modern catholic exegetes that I see, followed this interpretation, that word "many" here means "all" (as we see from Matthew and Luke and from Euthymius etc.).
 
 
PIROT, Louis (1881-1939), translator, exegete.
He even translated this word "many" by word "all."
translation and exegesy of Mark 1:34a (La Sainte Bible. Paris: 1935. [Marc], p. 417-418)
And He healed all who were sick with divers diseases, and cast out all demons;Il guérit tous les malades affligés de diverses maladies; il chassa aussi tous les démons

We would be inclined to believe, judging from the parallel accounts of Matthew (8:16) and Luke (4:40-41) and the expression πολλούς, πολλά ["many"], which uses Mark (1:34). This expression corresponds to παντας ["all"] Mark (1:32). However, often πολλοί equals πάντες in N. T., and it is fail that it was given too often - in the translations - a restrictive sense (see Levesque, in Rev. apologétique, 1920, p. 423-429).

Nous serions porté à le croire, à en juger par les récits parallèles de Matthieu (VIII, 16) et de Luc (IV, 40, 41) et par l'expression πολλούς, πολλά dont se sert Marc (I, 34). Cette expression correspond à παντας de Marc (I, 32). Or, bien des fois πολλοί équivaut à πάντες dans le N. T., et c'est à tort qu'on lui a donné trop souvent, dans les traductions, un sens restrictif (cf. Levesque, dans Rev. apologétique, 1920, p. 423-429).
 
 


Similar paralells are Mt 4,24 vs. Lk 7, 21 which was in the same manner used by theologian Billuart (†1757) and Masius (†1772) in our controversy.
Mt 4, 24:
They presented to him all sick people that were taken with divers diseases and torments, and such as were possessed by devils, and lunatics, and those that had the palsy, and he cured them
Lk 7, 21:
He cured many of their diseases and hurts and evil spirits: and to many that were blind he gave sight.

Here we can add, that Luke himself shortly before says: "Power was coming from Him and healing them all." (Lk 6:19b).

 
 

Matthew 13

Matthew 13:17 (cf. Luke 10:24)
For, amen, I say to you, many prophets and just (men) have desired to see the things that you see, and have not seen them: and to hear the things that you hear and have not heard them.Amen quippe dico vobis, quia multi prophetæ et justi cupierunt videre quæ videtis, et non viderunt : et audire quæ auditis, et non audierunt.
ܐܰܡܺܝܢ ܓ݁ܶܝܪ ܐܳܡܰܪܢܳܐ ܠܟ݂ܽܘܢ ܕ݁ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ ܢܒ݂ܺܝܶܐ ܘܙܰܕ݁ܺܝܩܶܐ ܐܶܬ݂ܪܰܓ݂ܪܰܓ݂ܘ ܕ݁ܢܶܚܙܽܘܢ ܡܶܕ݁ܶܡ ܕ݁ܚܳܙܶܝܢ ܐܢ݈ܬ݁ܽܘܢ ܘܠܳܐ ܚܙܰܘ ܘܰܠܡܶܫܡܰܥ ܡܶܕ݁ܶܡ ܕ݁ܫܳܡܥܺܝܢ ܐܢ݈ܬ݁ܽܘܢ ܘܠܳܐ ܫܡܰܥܘ
ἀμὴν γὰρ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πολλοὶ προφῆται καὶ δίκαιοι ἐπεθύμησαν ἰδεῖν ἃ βλέπετε καὶ οὐκ εἶδαν, καὶ ἀκοῦσαι ἃ ἀκούετε καὶ οὐκ ἤκουσαν.
Origen (c.185–254) [ed. Klostermann. Origenes Werke, vol. XII. Leipzig, 1941. fragment 287-289] and consequently word-by-word identically: Peter of Laodicea [ed. Heinrici, Erklärung des Matthäusevangeliums, Leipzig, 1908, page 150], and similar Greeks [ed. Reuss. Matthäus-Kommentare. Berlin, 1957. page 301] said:
Neither all prophets, nor all just men did hear and see it, but many. For some - as Abraham and Moses and just men - saw and heard.οὐ πάντες δὲ οἱ προφῆται οὐδὲ πάντες οἱ δίκαιοι οἱ ἐπιθυμήσαντες ἰδεῖν ἤ ἀκοῦσαι οὐκ εἶδον ἤ οὐκ ἤκουσαν, ἀλλὰ πολλοί· τινὲς γὰρ ἐπιθυμήσαντες εἶδον καὶ ἤκουσαν ὡς Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Μωυσῆς καὶ οἱ διασημότεροι.
Similarly Jerome (c.347–420), who was inspired by Origen's commentary, said to Matthew 13, 17 (PL 26, 88 A; quoted by Thomas Aquinas in Catena)
This place seems to be contradicted by what is said elsewhere: Abraham rejoiced to see my day, and he saw it, and was glad. (John 8, 56). However He said not, "All prophets and just (men) have desired to see the things that you see" but "many"; for in case of "many" it can be, that some saw, and others saw not. But as this is a perilous interpretation, that we should seem to be making a distinction between the merits of the saints, at least as far as the degree of their faith in Christ, therefore we may suppose that Abraham saw in enigma, and not in substance. But ye have truly present with you, and hold, your Lord, enquiring of Him at your will, and eating with Him. Videtur huic loco illud esse contrarium quod alibi dicitur: Abraham cupivit diem meum videre, et vidit, et laetatus est (Joan. viii, 56). Non autem dixit, omnes prophetae et justi cupierunt videre quae videtis, sed multi. Inter multos potest fieri, ut alii viderint, alii non viderint: licet et in hoc periculosa sit interpretatio, ut inter sanctorum merita, discretionem quamlibet facere videamur. Ergo Abraham vidit in aenigmate, non vidit in specie: vos autem in praesentia eum tenetis, et habetis dominum vestrum, et ad voluntatem interrogatis, et convescimini ei.
And his follower Rabanus here wrote:
Isaias quoque et Michaeas et multi alii prophetae viderunt gloriam domini: qui etiam propterea videntes appellati sunt.
 
John 8, 56
Abraham your father rejoiced that he might see my day: he saw it and was glad.Abraham pater vester exsultavit ut videret diem meum : vidit, et gavisus est.Ἀβραὰμ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ἠγαλλιάσατο ἵνα ἴδῃ τὴν ἡμέραν τὴν ἐμήν, καὶ εἶδεν καὶ ἐχάρη.
Hebrew 11 (and especially vers 13)
Abel ... Henoch ... Noe ... Abraham ... All these died according to faith, not having received the promises but having seen them afar off and saluting them.Abel ... Henoch ... Noë ... Abraham ... Juxta fidem defuncti sunt omnes isti, non acceptis repromissionibus, sed a longe eas aspicientes, et salutantes.Ἅβελ ... Ἑνὼχ ... Νῶε ... Ἀβραὰμ ... Κατὰ πίστιν ἀπέθανον οὗτοι πάντες, μὴ κομισάμενοι τὰς ἐπαγγελίας ἀλλὰ πόρρωθεν αὐτὰς ἰδόντες καὶ ἀσπασάμενοι.
 
But still, there exists also another alternative.
EUThYMIOS
on Matthew 13:17 (PG 129, 401 C). Latin transl. by: John HENTEN (1499-1566), O.S.H. (later O.P.) in 1543; In our controversy referred by Richard Simon (1638–1712), C.O. (PG 129, 22).
  • Many, but not all, for some also saw and heard that, but supernaturally like Abraham and those prominent.
  • Multi, et non omnes; quidam enim haec et viderunt et audierunt, quanquam id supernaturaliter, ut Abraham et qui insigniores fuerunt.
  • Πολλοὶ, καὶ οὐ πάντες· τινὲς γὰρ ταῦτα καὶ εἶδον, καὶ ἤκουσαν· ὑπερφυῶς δὲ, ὡς ὁ Ἀβραὰμ καὶ οἱ ἐπισημότεροι.
  • Or "many" meaning all - as it is said also that "he healed many" (Mark 1:34), although he healed all as another Evangelist has (Mt 8,16). And also in that same place "he cast out many demons" (Mk 1,34), who simultaneously cast out all of them. Those [prophets, etc.] however desired to see incarnated God and Christ's miracles and to hear his doctrine.
  • Aut multi, hoc est omnes. Veluti quum dicitur : Et curavit multos; omnes namque tunc curavit, ut habet alius evangelista. Et rursum ibidem : Et daemonia multa ejecit. Tunc enim omnia ejecit. Desideraverunt autem Deum videre incarnatum, Christique miracula, et ejus audire doctrinam.
  • ἤ πολλοὶ, ἀντὶ τοῦ, πάντες. ὡς τὸ, καὶ ἐθεράπευσε πολλούς· πάντας γὰρ τότε ἐθεράπευσε. καὶ πάλιν, καὶ δαιμόνια πολλὰ ἐξέβαλε. πάντα γὰρ τηνικαῦτα ἐξέβαλεν. ἐπεθύμησαν δὲ ἰδεῖν, τὸν θεὸν ἐνανθρωπήσαντα, καὶ τὰ τοῦ χριστοῦ θαύματα, καὶ ἀκοῦσαι αὐτοῦ διδάσκοντος.
compare with modern exegete Maldonado.
 
And so in modern times
MALDONADO, Juan (1533-1583), SJ., theologian, exegete
on Matthew 13:17 (ed. 1606, p. 373)
However I judge that it is not probable what Jerome and Euthymius [in first part] noted - that he said many and not all since some of them saw it as Abraham rejoiced that he might see day of Christ, saw it and was glad (John 8:56) - because many is put for all, as opposition to apostle, who were few, as we see done in Rom 5,19 and in many other places. For even Abraham himself did not so see Christ as apostles saw.Quod autem Hieron. et Euthym. adnotaverunt non dixisse Christum omnes prophetae, sed multi; quod aliqui ex illis viderint, ut Abraham, qui exultavit, ut videret diem Christi, vidit et gavisus est, verisimile non esse arbitror; quin multos pro omnibus posuit; ut apostolis, qui pauci erant, opponeret, ut Rom. 5, 19, multisque aliis locis factum videmus. Nam ne ipse quidem Abraham ita Christum vidit, quemadmodum apostoli viderunt.
Note: let's see also second half of that passage.
For, amen, I say to you, many prophets and just (men) have desired to see the things that you see, and have not seen them: and to hear the things that you hear and have not heard them.Amen quippe dico vobis, quia multi prophetæ et justi cupierunt videre quæ videtis, et non viderunt : et audire quæ auditis, et non audierunt.ἀμὴν γὰρ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πολλοὶ προφῆται καὶ δίκαιοι ἐπεθύμησαν ἰδεῖν ἃ βλέπετε καὶ οὐκ εἶδαν, καὶ ἀκοῦσαι ἃ ἀκούετε καὶ οὐκ ἤκουσαν.
Abraham etc. not only didn't see him in such way as Apostles, but also he have not heard his doctrine, which he only desired to hear. And so second Euthymius' observation is more reasonably than first.
 
 

Matthew 10: many sparrows

Matthew 10:31
Fear ye not therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows.nolite ergo timere multis passeribus meliores estis vos
ܠܳܐ ܗܳܟ݂ܺܝܠ ܬ݁ܶܕ݂ܚܠܽܘܢ ܡܶܢ ܨܶܦ݂ܪܶܐ ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܳܐܬ݂ܳܐ ܡܝܰܬ݁ܪܺܝܢ ܐܢ݈ܬ݁ܽܘܢ
μὴ οὖν φοβεῖσθε· πολλῶν στρουθίων διαφέρετε ὑμεῖς.
Eustathius used this among various examples (including words of consecration) where word "many" signifies all saying:
(CFHB 32:36)
So we hear, that disciples "are of more value than many sparrows" (Mt 10:31, Lk 12:7). For it is visible, that this more simple word wanted to think all sparrows. ὡς ὁπηνίκα πολλῶν στρουθίων διαφέρειν τοὺς μαθητὰς ἀκούομεν· δῆλον γάρ, ὅτι πάντων στρουθίων ὁ ἁπλούστερος λόγος νοεῖν βούλεται·
Also in modern times theologians Casini (†1755), Sardagna (†1775) etc. - quoted below - used this example in our controversy about word "many" in consecration of Eucharist (Matthew 26:28).
 
 

Luke 7: the many sins

Luke 7:47a
Wherefore, I say to you: (The) many sins are forgiven herpropter quod dico tibi remittentur ei peccata multa
ܚܠܳܦ݂ ܗܳܕ݂ܶܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܐ݈ܢܳܐ ܠܳܟ݂ ܕ݁ܰܫܒ݂ܺܝܩܺܝܢ ܠܳܗ ܚܛܳܗܶܝܗ ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ
οὗ χάριν, λέγω σοι, ἀφέωνται αὐτῆς αἱ ἁμαρτίαι αἱ πολλαί

LAPIDE, Cornelius a (1567–1637), S.J., theologian, exegete.
on Luke 7:42 (vol. XVI, pag. 127) about Luke 7:47
Many - i.e. all - sins are forgiven her by me.multa, id est omnia, ei a me peccata esse remissa.
on Luke 7:47 (vol. XVI, pag. 128)
Wherefore He freed her not only from all guilts but also from all punishments of sin, and granted her free release. ... and therefore her "many", i.e. all.non tantum omnem culpam, sed et omnem poenam culpae debitam ei remisit, illique plenam omnium indulgentiam ... ac proinde huic multa, id est omnia.
Moreover, Panigarola (†1594), Perusinus (†1606), Henriet (†1688), Boucat (†c.1730), Graveson (†1733), L'Herminier (†1735), Milante (†1749), Gravina (†1787), Gerdil (†1802), etc. explicitly mentioned word "many" in this passage as an analogy of word "many" in words of consecration, namely that in both cases word "many" [lat. MULTI] signifies all.
 
 

Hebrews 1:1 and like

Theologian Henriet (†1688) in our controversy (quoted more below) pointed out to passage Hebrews 1:1 which in traditional Greek and Latin version says "many" and "many," while in traditional Syraic/Aramaic version it is said "all" and "all" (or rather "every" and "every," i.e. singular, because Aramaic and Hebrew languages have not plural word "all").
Greek and latin traditional version. Engl. tranl. from New American Standard Bible.
God, after He spoke long ago to the fathers in the prophets in many portions and in many ways Multifariam, multisque modis olim Deus loquens patribus in prophetisπολυμερῶς καὶ πολυτρόπως πάλαι ὁ θεὸς λαλήσας τοῖς πατράσιν ἐν τοῖς προφήταις
Syriac Aramaic traditional version - called Peshitta/Peshitto/Peschitto. Latin transl. (Venetiis: 1747). Engl. transl. by Lamsa.
From of old God spoke to our fathers by the prophets in every manner and in all waysOmnifariam, omnibusque modis locutus est Deus cum patribus nostris per prophetas quondam.
ܒ݁ܟ݂ܽܠ ܡܢܰܘܳܢ ܘܰܒ݂ܟ݂ܽܠ ܕ݁ܶܡܘܳܢ ܡܰܠܶܠ ܐܰܠܳܗܳܐ ܥܰܡ ܐܰܒ݂ܳܗܰܝܢ ܒ݁ܰܢܒ݂ܺܝܶܐ ܡܶܢ ܩܕ݂ܺܝܡ

4 Esdras 4:34

Book "4 Esdras" (sometimes designed as "2 Esdras") called also "Jewish Apocalypse of Ezra" was written in second half of first century. Although L. Gry argued that 4 Ezra was originally composed in Aramaic, most recent scholars agree with Wellhausen, Gunkel, Charles, Klijn, etc., that the original language was Hebrew (Schürer III.1, 300; Stone, 4 Ezra, 10-11; Metzger, “4 Ezra,” 519-520), which was translated into Greek, and then to Latin, Armenian, Ethiopian, Georgian, Syriac and Arabic, but the Hebrew and Greek editions have been lost. (see OCP: 4Ezra).
ancient Latin and Syriac translation
He answered me and said, "You do not hasten faster than the Most High, for your haste is for yourself, but the Highest hastens on behalf of many. et respondit ad me et dixit: non festina spiritu super Altissimum; tu enim festinas propter temet ipsum spiritum, nam Excelsus pro multis.
ܘܥ̣ܢܐ ܘܐ̣ܡܪ ܠܝ܂ ܠܐ ܡܣܬܪܗܒ ܐܢܬ ܝܬܝܪ ܡܢ ܡܪܝܡܐ܂ ܐܢܬ ܓܝܪ ܡܣܬܪܗܒ ܐܢܬ ܡܛܠ ܢܦܫܟ܂ ܡܪܝܡܐ ܕܝܢ ܡܛܠ ܣܓܝܐ̈ܐ܂
ancient Arabic translation.
Esdrae liber quartus arabice e codice vaticano nunc primum editus (Bonnae : Marcum, 1877. p. 8).
Latin transl. (of Arabic version) by: Johann Gildemeister (1812–1890)
And said me, "You do not hasten faster than the Most High, for your haste is for yourself, but the Highest hastens on behalf of all. Tum mihi dixit: non tu celerior es altissimo; tu festinas propter te ipsum, dum altissimus propter universos lente has res efficit.
انت .... لاخر .... ذقال نقال فقال قال عس عص على مهر يفعر هذه الاشياء ...

4 Esdras [arab.] 4:34

And there are also many other passages of similar phenomens, see below Panigarola, J.Jeremias, etc.
 
 

Predestinarianism

If 5th century, heretics called "predestinarians" denied Christ's death for all, and his universal salvific will, etc. They belied, that Christ died only for some group of predestined believers. And that Christ wished only those to be saved. Consequently they also denied free will of men, but rather they believed, that everyone is foreordained: some for salvation, others to damantion. According them, for who Christ died, he will be saved, while others will be lost. etc.

Denyig that Christ died for all they pointed out to following passages of Bible:
Matthew 26:28 / Mark 14:24
For this is my blood of the (new) testament, which is [or "shall be"] shed for many (for the remission of sins).Hic est enim sanguis meus (novi) testamenti qui pro multis effunditur/effundetur (in remissionem peccatorum).
ܗܳܢܰܘ ܕ݁ܶܡܝ ܕ݁ܕ݂ܺܝܰܬ݂ܺܩܺܐ ( ܚܰܕ݂݈ܬ݂ܳܐ ) ܕ݁ܰܚܠܳܦ݂ ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ ܡܶܬ݂ܶܐܫܶܕ݂ ( ܠܫܽܘܒ݂ܩܳܢܳܐ ܕ݁ܰܚܛܳܗܶܐ )
τοῦτο γάρ ἐστι τὸ αἷμά μου τὸ τῆς (καινῆς) διαθήκης τὸ περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχυνόμενον (εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν).
Matthew 20:28 / Mark 10:45
Even as the Son of man is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom/redemption for many.Sicut Filius hominis non venit ministrari sed ministrare et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis.
ܐܰܝܟ݁ܰܢܳܐ ܕ݁ܰܒ݂ܪܶܗ ܕ݁ܐ݈ܢܳܫܳܐ ܠܳܐ ܐܶܬ݂ܳܐ ܕ݁ܢܶܫܬ݁ܰܡܰܫ ܐܶܠܳܐ ܕ݁ܰܢܫܰܡܶܫ ܘܰܕ݂ܢܶܬ݁ܶܠ ܢܰܦ݂ܫܶܗ ܦ݁ܽܘܪܩܳܢܳܐ ܚܠܳܦ݂ ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ
ὥσπερ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἦλθε διακονηθῆναι, ἀλλὰ διακονῆσαι καὶ δοῦναι τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ λύτρον ἀντὶ πολλῶν.
Hebrews 9:28a (cf. Isaiah 53:12b according LXX).
So also Christ was offered once to bear/exhaust the sins of many.sic et Christus semel oblatus ad multorum exhaurienda.
ܗܳܟ݂ܰܢܳܐ ܐܳܦ݂ ܡܫܺܝܚܳܐ ܚܕ݂ܳܐ ܙܒ݂ܰܢ ܐܶܬ݂ܩܰܪܰܒ݂ ܘܒ݂ܰܩܢܽܘܡܶܗ ܕ݁ܒ݂ܰܚ ܚܛܳܗܶܐ ܕ݁ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ
οὕτως καὶ ὁ Χριστὸς ἅπαξ προσενεχθεὶς εἰς τὸ πολλῶν ἀνενεγκεῖν ἁμαρτίας
Others, of course, zelously opposed to predestinarians, e.g.
ARNOBIUS the Younger (5th century), do not confused him with Arnobius Elder as it was errorneusly made in some editions of early 16th century.
on Psalm 146/cxlvii (PL 53, 563 B)
Let it is known to you, predestinarian, what I say: Of all generally good will of Christ grace this order - which we say - precedes, since he still born for all, since still suffered for all. Nota tibi, praedestinate, quod loquor: Omnium generaliter bonam voluntatem Christi gratia hoc ordine quo diximus antecedit, si tamen pro omnibus natus, si tamen pro omnibus passus.
 
 
The most famous early predestinarian was Lucidus (5th century), a priest of Gaul.
His error was condemned by bishop Faustus of Riez (c.400-c.490)
in Council of Arles (c.473 AD), whose result was consequently repeated also by Council of Lyons (c.474 AD).
Faust's epistle to Lucidus (PL 53,682; cf. PL 58, 837 B), it is quoted also by Hincmar of Reims (806–882) against predestinatians (PL 125,80 B-C).
Anathema to him that said that Christ did not die for all, and that he does not will all men to be saved.Anathema illi, qui dixerit quod Christus non pro omnibus mortuus sit, nес omnes homines salvos esse velit.
 
 
As a result of that council, Lucidus publicaly renounced Predestinarianism:
Letter of Lucidus (5th century) in council of Arles (PL 53, 684 C), quoted also by Hincmar of Reims (806–882) against predestinarians of his time (PL 125, 82 C). Dezn. 160a-b; Dezn.-Sch. 330-342
Your public reproof is public salvation, and your opinion is medicine. From this I also draw the highest remedy, that by blaming past errors I excuse [them], and by healing confession I wash myself. just so in consequence of the recent statutes of the Council about to be published, I condemn with you that viewCorreptio vestra salus publica, et sententia vestra medicina est. Unde et ego summum remedium duco, ut praeteritos errores accusando excusem, et salutifera confessione me diluam. Proinde iuxta praedicandi recentia statuta concilii, damno vobiscum sensum illum
  • which states that the work of human obedience does not have to be united with divine grace;
  • qui dicit humanae oboedientiae laborem divinae gratiae non esse iungendum;
  • which says that after the fall of the first man the free choice of the will was totally destroyed;
  • qui dicit post primi hominis lapsum ex toto arbitrium voluntatis exstinctum;
  • which states that Christ our Lord and Savior did not incur death for the salvation of all;
  • qui dicit quod Christus Dominus et Salvator noster mortem non pro omnium salute susceperit;
  • which states that the foreknowledge of God violently impels man to death, or that they who perish, perish by the will of God;
  • qui dicit quod praescientia Dei hominem violenter compellat (impellat) ad mortem, vel quod (cum) Dei pereant voluntate qui pereunt;
  • which affirms that whoever sins after baptism which has been legitimately received dies in Adam;
  • qui dicit quod post acceptum legitime baptismum in Adam moriatur quicumque deliquerit;
  • which states that some have been condemned to death, others have been predestined to life;
  • qui dicit alios deputatos ad mortem, alios ad vitam praedestinatos;
  • which states that from Adam even to Christ none of the nations has been saved unto the coming of Christ through the first grace of God, that is, by the law of nature, and that they lost free will in the first parent;
  • qui dicit ab Adam usque ad Christum nullos ex gentibus per primam Dei gratiam, id est, per legem naturae, in adventum Christi fuisse/esse salvatos et/eo quod liberum arbitrium (ex omnibus / ex toto / eis omnibus) in primo parente perdiderint;
  • which states that the patriarchs and prophets or every one of the highest saints, even before the times of the redemption, entered into paradise.
  • qui dicit patriarchas ac prophetas, vel summos quosque sanctorum, etiam ante redemptionis tempora in paradisi habitatione deguisse;
  • qui dicit patriarchas ac prophetas, vel summos quosque sanctorum, etiam ante redemptionis tempora intra paradisum deguisse.
  • [which states that a fire and a hell don't exist.]
  • [qui dicit ignes et inferna non esse.]
All these I condemn as impious and replete with sacrileges.Haec omnia, quasi impia et sacrilegiis repleta condemno.
But I declare that the grace of God is such that I always unite the striving and efforts of man with grace, and I proclaim that the liberty of the human will was not destroyed but enfeebled and weakened, and that he who is saved, was tried; and he who perished, could have been saved.Ita autem assero gratiam Dei, ut adnisum hominis et conatum gratiae semper adiungam, et libertatem voluntatis humanae non exstinctam, sed adtenuatam et infirmatam esse pronuntiem, et periclitari eum, qui salvus est, et eum qui periit, potuisse salvari.
Also that Christ, God and Redeemer, as far as it pertained to the riches of His goodness, offered the price of death for all (cf. Hebr.2:9; 1 Tim. 2:4), and because He, who is the Savior of all, especially of the faithful (1Tim.4:10), does not wish anyone to perish (2Pt.3:9), rich unto all who call upon him (Rom. 10:12).Christum etiam, Deum et Salvatorem nostrum, quantum pertinet ad divitias bonitatis suae, pretium mortis pro omnibus obtulisse (cf. Hebr. 2, 9; 1 Tim. 2, 4), et quia nullum perire velit (2 Pt. 3,9), qui est Salvator omnium hominum, maxime fidelium (1 Tim. 4, 10), dives in omnibus qui invocant illum (Rom. 10, 12).
And because in such things of conscience it must satisfy, I remember me previously saying that Christ came only for those whom he fore-knew that they would believe, following Lord's sentences:Et quia in tantis rebus conscientiae satisfaciendum, memini me ante dixisse quod Christus pro his tantum quos credituros рraescivit advenisset, sententias Dominicas sequens, quibus ait:
  • "The Son of man is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister and to give his life a redemption for many." (Mat. 20:28)
  • Filius hominis non venit ministrari, sed ministrare, et animam suam redemptionem dare pro multis.
  • And that "For this is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins." (Mat. 26:28)
  • Et illud: Hic est calix sanguinis mei novi Testamenti qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
  • Or that of Apostle: "And as it is appointed unto men once to die, so also Christ was offered once to exhaust the sins of many." (Hebr.9:27-28a)
  • Vel illud Apostoli: Sicut statutum est hominibus mori, ita et Christus semel oblatus est ad multorum exhaurienda peccata.
Now by the authority of the sacred witnesses, which are found in great profusion through the extent of the Divine Scriptures, in accordance with the doctrine of our elders made clear by reason, I freely confess that Christ came also for the lost, because they perished although He did not will [it]. For it is not right that the riches of His boundless goodness and His divine benefits be confined to those only who seem to have been saved. For if we say that Christ extended assistance only to those who have been redeemed, we shall seem to absolve the unredeemed, who, it is established, had to be punished for having despised redemption.Nunc vero sacrorum testimoniorum auctoritate, quae abunde per spatia divinarum inveniuntur Scripturarum, ex seniorum doctrinae ratione patefacta, libens fateor Christum etiam pro perditis advenisse, quia eodem nolente perierunt. Neque enim fas est circa eos solum, qui videntur esse salvati, immensae divitias bonitatis ac beneficia divina concludi. Nam si Christum his tantum remedia adtulisse dicimus, qui redempti sunt, videbimur absolvere non redemptos, quos pro redemptione contempta constat esse puniendos.
I declare further that by reason and through the regular succession of the centuries some have been saved by the law of grace, others by the law of Moses, others by the law of nature, which God has written in the hearts of all (cf. Rom.2:15), in the expectation of the coming of Christ;Assero etiam, per rationem et ordinem saeculorum, alios lege gratiae, alios lege Moysi, alios lege naturae quam Deus in omnium cordibus scripsit (cf. Rom 2,15), in spe adventus Christi fuisse salvatos;
nevertheless from the beginning of the world, they were not set free from the original slavery except by the intercession of the sacred blood.nullos tamen ex initio mundi, ab originali nexu nisi intercessione sacri sanguinis absolutos.tamen ab initio mundi, ab originali nexu, nisi intercessione sacri sanguinis non absolutos.
I acknowledge, too, that the eternal fires and the infernal flames have been prepared in advance for capital deeds, because divine judgment, which they deservedly incur, who have not believed these I truths with their whole heart, justly follows those who persist in human sins.Profiteor etiam aeternos ignes et infernales flammas factis capitalibus praeparatas, quia perseverantes (in finem) humanas culpas merito sequitur divina sententia, quam iuste incurrunt, qui haec non toto corde crediderint.
Pray for me, holy lords and apostolic fathers.Orate pro me, domini sancti et apostolici Patres!
I, Lucius the priest, have signed this my letter with my own hand, and I affirm the things which are asserted in it, and I condemn what has been condemned.Lucidus presbyter hanc epistolam (meam) manu propria subscripsi, et quae in ea astruuntur assero, et quae sunt damnata damno.
 
 

Ransom/redemption FOR MANY (Matthew 20)

Matthew 20:28 (= Mark 10:45), referred by predestinarians.
Even as the Son of man is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom/redemption for many.Sicut Filius hominis non venit ministrari sed ministrare et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis.
ܐܰܝܟ݁ܰܢܳܐ ܕ݁ܰܒ݂ܪܶܗ ܕ݁ܐ݈ܢܳܫܳܐ ܠܳܐ ܐܶܬ݂ܳܐ ܕ݁ܢܶܫܬ݁ܰܡܰܫ ܐܶܠܳܐ ܕ݁ܰܢܫܰܡܶܫ ܘܰܕ݂ܢܶܬ݁ܶܠ ܢܰܦ݂ܫܶܗ ܦ݁ܽܘܪܩܳܢܳܐ ܚܠܳܦ݂ ܣܰܓ݁ܺܝܶܐܐ
ὥσπερ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἦλθε διακονηθῆναι, ἀλλὰ διακονῆσαι καὶ δοῦναι τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ λύτρον ἀντὶ πολλῶν.
However 1 Timothy 2:6
Who gave himself a ransom/redemption for all (men), a testimony in due times.Qui dedit redemptionem semet ipsum pro omnibus testimonium temporibus suis.
ܗܰܘ ܕ݁ܝܰܗ݈ܒ݂ ܢܰܦ݂ܫܶܗ ܦ݁ܽܘܪܩܳܢܳܐ ܚܠܳܦ݂ ܟ݁ܽܠ ܐ݈ܢܳܫ ܣܳܗܕ݁ܽܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܕ݁ܶܐܬ݂ܳܬ݂ ܒ݁ܙܰܒ݂ܢܳܗ
ὁ δοὺς ἑαυτὸν ἀντίλυτρον ὑπὲρ πάντων τὸ μαρτύριον καιροῖς ἰδίοις
 
 
John CHRYSOSTOM (c.349–407), Archbishop of Constantinople
on Matthew 20:28 [ad Matth. hom. 66 (al. 65), n. 4] (PG 58, 622-623). English transl. in Simonetti and more literal by George Prevost (and revised by M.B. Riddle).
[Simonetti, p. 118]
[Prevost-Riddle, NPNF 1 10:401-2]
He says, "The Son of man came not to be served but to serve and to give His life as a ransom for many." (Matthew 20:28)"Even as the Son of Man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give His life a ransom for many." (Matthew 20:28)Filius hominis non venit ul ministretur, sed ut ministret, et det animam suam in redemptionem pro multis.Ὥσπερ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἦλθε διακονηθῆναι, ἀλλὰ διακονῆσαι, καὶ δοῦναι τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ λύτρον ἀντὶ πολλῶν.
It is as if here were saying, "I willed not even to stop at death but even in death gve my life as a ransom. For whom? For enemies. For you. If you are abused, my life is given for you. It is for you. Me for you." So you need not be too picky if you suffer the loss of your honor. No matter how much it is lowered, you will not be descending as far as your Lord descended. And yet the deep descent of one has become the ascent of all.For not even at this did I stop - says He - but even my life did I give a ransom; and for whom? For enemies. But thou if you are abused, it is for yourself, but I for you. Be not then afraid, as though your honor were plucked down. For however much you humble yourself, you cannot descend so much as your Lord. And yet His descent has become the ascent of all, and has made His own glory shine forth.Neque enim hic substiti, inquit, sed et animam meam dedi in redemptionem: et pro quibus? pro inimicis. Tu vero si humiliatus fueris, pro te ipso agis: ego autem pro te. ...Οὐδὲ γὰρ μέχρι τούτου ἔστην, φησὶν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν ψυχὴν ἔδωκα λύτρον· καὶ ὑπὲρ τίνων; Τῶν ἐχθρῶν. Σὺ δὲ ἂν ταπεινωθῇς, ὑπὲρ σαυτοῦ· ἐγὼ δὲ ὑπὲρ σοῦ. ...
 
 
PETROS of Laodicea. His work was found in many manuscripts (see Heinrici, pag. ix-xii) and it was published by Carl Friedrich Georg HEINRICI (1844-1915) in Beiträge zur geschichte und erklärung, vol. 5.
on Matthew 20:28 ["the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many."] (Henrici, p. 227; Codex Bodmer 25, fol. 37a et al.)
He - who serves us - everyone's saving (1Tim 4,10) for all takes death upon himself (Hebr 2,9). Verily, I do not only come to serve, but I also remain for common salvation from death.διακονησάμενος ὑμῖν τὴν ἁπάντων σωτηρίαν τὸν ὑπὲρ πάντων ὑποστὰς θάνατον. ἤτοι οὐ μόνον ἦλθον ἐν διακόνου τάξει, ἀλλ᾽ ἵνα καὶ ὑπὲρ τῆς κοινῆς σωτηρίας θάνατον ὑπομείνω.
 
 
EUThYMIOS
on Matthew 20:28 ["a ransom for many"] (PG 129: 22 D, 544 D; ed.Matthaei: Commentarius, vol. i, p. 793). Latin transl. by John HENTEN (1499-1566), O.S.H. (later O.P.) in 1543
Now however he says "many" for all. For Scripture frequently calls all as "many." For he gave his life for all, and redeemed all (1Tim.2:6): even if many willingly remained in servitude.Multis autem, dicit nunc pro omnibus. Frequenter enim scriptura multos dicit pro omnibus. Itaque pro omnibus tradidit animam suam, omnesque redemit: quanquam multi sua sponte in servitute remanserunt.Πολλοὺς δὲ νῦν, τοὺς πάντας λέγει. πολλάκις γὰρ ἡ γραφὴ πολλοὺς, τοὺς πάντας φησίν. ὑπὲρ πάντων γὰρ ἔδωκε τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ, καὶ πάντας ἐλυτρώσατο, εἰ καὶ πολλοὶ θέλοντες ἐνέμειναν τῇ δουλείᾳ.
 
 
ThEOPHYLACTOS
on Matthew 20:28 (PG 123, 365 C). Latin transl. by: Ioannes Œcolampadius (1482–1531) in 1524. English transl. by Christopher Stade
I even give My life as a ransom for MANY, that is, (for) ALL. For all are many.ut et animam meam ponam redemptionem pro multis, hoc est, omnibus : omnes enim multi.ὥστε καὶ τὴν ψυχὴν δοῦναι λύτρον ἀντὶ πολλῶν, τουτέστι πάντων. Οἱ γὰρ πάντες, πολλοί.
On this he referred also when he noted to Hebrews 9:28 ["Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many"] (PG 125, 316 D - 317 A; BSB Cod.graec. 504 : fol. 366a line 32 - fol. 366b line 7).
[Latin transl. by: Christophorus Persona [Porsena] (1416-1485) and more exactly by Johann Lonicer (1499-1569)]
[Persona's transl.:][Lonicer's transl.:]
I found however in Gospel to that "and to give his life a ransom for many" it is interpreted "many" for all.
  • Reperimus tamen in evangelio, quod traderat animam suam in redemptionem pro multis, pro omnibus interpretantum.
  • Reperi autem apud eum Evangelii locum, Ut animam suam in redemptionis precium daret pro multis, annotationem quorumdam, qui intelligerent multis pro omnibus.
  • Εὗρον δὲ ἐν τῷ Εὐαγγελίῳ εἰς τὸ, Καὶ δοῦναι τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ λύτρον ἀντὶ πολλῶν, παραγραφὴν ἐκδεχομένην τὸ, πολλῶν, ἀντὶ τοῦ, πάντων·
For (also) all are many.
    Multi enim plerumque universos designant.
    omnes enim (etiam) multi sunt.
    πολλοὶ γὰρ (καὶ) οἱ πάντες.
 
 
Absalon [de Sancto Victore] Sprinckirsbacensis (c.1160-1203), O.S.A.
SERMO V. IN ADVENTU DOMINI. (PL 211:40 C)
Superficiem terrae irrigavit, quando ipsos peccatores et abundantes in seculo, tam Iudaeos quam gentiles ad fidei gratiam convertit, et non solum convertit, verum etiam a laqueo mortis redemit, sicut scriptum est de ipso: Quia venit filius hominis quaerere et salvum facere quod perierat (Luc. XIX): et animam suam dare in redemptionem pro multis (Matth. XX). Et fortassis expressius pro omnibus dixerim: quia peccaverant omnes et egebant gloria Dei (Rom. III), ideoque clamaverunt ad Dominum dum tribularentur, et de necessitatibus eorum liberavit eos (Psal. CVI).
 
 

Predestinarianism - II.

TODO Orange.
Hincmar (806–882), archbishop of Reims, reported to pope Nicolas I. the Great (†867), that new generation of predestinarians occured in that time, whose leader was Gottschalk of Orbais (†c.868). Similar were also Lupus Servatus of Ferrières (†c.862), Ratramnus of Corbie (†c.868), Prudentius of Troyes (†861), Florus of Lyons (†c.860), etc.
Hincmar's Epistle to pope Nicolas I. (PL 126, 44 B-C)
Gothescalcus, cum aliis communem vitam ducens, errori suo faceret esse communes, monasteriali custodiae mancipatus est, docente Apostolo: Haereticum hominem post primam et secundam correptionem de vita, sciens subversum esse hujusmodi et proprio judicio condemnatum (Tit. iii, 10). [...] Si autem vestra catholica sapientia vult scire quae contra catholicam fidem ex veteri haeresi Praedestinatiana, quae primum in Africa, postea in Galliis per idem tempus, quando et Nestoriana haeresis est exorta, et tempore Caelestini papae, ipsius auctoritate, et instantia sancti Prosperi est revicta, dicere videatur, de multis pauca vobis numero, sed non pondere, capitulatim significamus. Dicit, quod et veteres Praedestinatiani dixerunt, quoniam sicut Deus quosdam ad vitam aeternam, ita quosdam praedestinavit ad mortem aeternam. Dicit, quod et veteres Praedestinatiani dixerunt, quoniam non vult Deus omnes homines salvos fieri, sed tantum eos qui salvantur; omnes autem salvari quoscunque ipse salvare voluerit, ac per hoc quicunque non salvantur, penitus non esse voluntatis illius ut salventur. [...] Dicit, quod et veteres Praedestinatiani dixerunt, quod non pro totius mundi redemptione, id est non pro omnium hominum salute et redemptione Dominus et Salvator noster Jesus Christus sit crucifixus et mortuus, sed tantum pro his qui salvantur.
 
 
Gottschalk [Godescalcus] of Orbais (c.808–c.868), predestinarian, who opposed to Hincmar of Rheims. According to archbishop Hincmar of Rheims, Gottschalk refused to receive clothes from the monks who were in communion with the archbishop, walked naked and didn’t want to take baths and even wash his face and hands. Gottschalk asserted that the Son entered him and then the Father and the Holy Spirit, having scorched his beard around the mouth. He also said that God forbad him to pray about Hincmar and prophesied that the archbishop would die and he himself would occupy the chair of Reims, but would be poisoned seven years later and die himself as a martyr. These prophesies were not fulfilled, and Hincmar wrote explicitly that his prisoner was possessed by a demon. Gottschalk wrote:
De Praedestinatione (Œuvres théologiques et grammaticales de Godescalc d'Orbais. Louvain : Spicilegium Sacrum Lovaniense, 1945. 683 pages)
IX, 3:
Certainly, that Son of God suffered only for those, who are elect, he himself openly expresses, when he says:Nam quod filius dei pro solis [sit] passus electis ipse palam patefacit dum dicit :
  • "The Son of man is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister and to give his life a redemption for many."
  • Filius hominis non uenit ministrari sed ministrare et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis,
  • And: "This is the Chalice of my blood, of the new and everlasting covenant, which shall be shed for you and for many unto the remission of sins."
  • et : Hic est calix sanguinis mei, noui et aeterni testamenti, qui pro uobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
XII:
Finally, it is said, that Lord suffered only for those, who are elect:Denique pro solis electis dominus passus est dicente eo :
  • "The Son of man is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister and to give his life a redemption for many."
  • "Filius hominis non uenit ministrari sed ministrare et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis,"
  • And again: "This is the Chalice of my blood, which shall be shed for you and for many unto the remission of sins."
  • et iterum : "Hic est calix sanguinis mei qui pro uobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum."
VII, 9

As indeed Christ and Church, like husband and wife, head and body and limbs, are one person, Scripture says: "Shall be two in one flesh" (Genesis 2:24), what Apostle says: "in Christ and in the Church" (Ephesians 5:32), which is - as he himself testifies - "his body and the fullness of him" (Ephesians 1:23), "of his flesh and of his bones" (Ephesians 5:30), rightly and surely we believe, solemnly trust and confide, that body and blood of Christ, delivered up and shed only for Christ's Church, Apostle declars: "Christ loved the Church and delivered himself up for it" (Ephesians 5:25), and again: "[Church] which he has purchased with his own blood" (Acts 20:28) to be united, to inherit and to gather into Christ's Church, i.e. "sons of the adoption" (Ephesians 1:5), "heirs of God and joint-heirs with Christ" (Romans 8:17), Christ's brothers, members of Christ, body of Christ. (Ephesians 5:30)

Cum enim Christus et ecclesia tamquam sponsus et sponsa caput et corpus et membra sint una persona dicente scriptura : Erunt duo in carne una quod apostolus dicit in Christo et in ecclesia quae est ut ipse testatur corpus eius et plenitudo eius de carne eius et de ossibus eius, iure nimirum credimus rite speramus atque confidimus quod corpus et sanguis Christi traditum et fusus pro sola ecclesia Christi dicente apostolo : Christus dilexit ecclesiam et seipsum tradidit pro ea et denuo : Quam adquisiuit sanguine suo et coniungantur et cohaereant et coadunentur ecclesiae Christi id est adoptiuis filiis dei heredibus dei coheredibus Christi fratribus Christi membris Christi corpori Christi.

Which indeed doesn't so owe to believe - in any manner - about reprobates, who are members of Devil and body of Antichrist.Quod profecto non ita debet credi ullo modo de reprobis qui sunt membra diaboli et corpus Antichristi.
For only to elect ones Lord says:Solis enim electis ait dominus :
  • "This is my body, which shall be delivered up for you," (1Cor 11:24)
  • Hoc est corpus meum quod pro uobis tradetur
  • and about his blood: "which shall be shed for you and for many unto the remission of sins." (Lk 22:20; Mt 26:28)
  • et de sanguine suo : Qui pro uobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
Note: in this manner also modern predestinarians argued, e.g.:
LUTHER, Martin (1483–1546)
Luthers Vorlesung über den Römerbrief 1515/1516 (Leipzig : Theodor Weicher, 1908) pag. 212-213
These sayings are always understood only for elect/chosen ones, as Apostle says in 2 Timothy: "All (things) for the elect's sakes." For Christ doesn't die for absolutely all, because he says: "This is my blood, which shall be shed for you" and "for many" - he doesn't say: for all - "unto the remission of sins."semper haec dicta intelliguntur de electis tantum, ut ait Apostolus 2. Tim.: "Omnia propter electos". Non enim absolute pro omnibus mortuus est Christus, quia dicit: "Hic est sanguis, qui effundetur pro vobis" et "pro multis" — non ait: pro omnibus — "in remissionem peccatorum".
 
 
HINCMAR (806–882), archbishop of Reims. He was opponent of Gottschalk and he also condemed Gottschalk's error at the second council of Quierzy/Chiersy [Concilium Carisiacum] in 853 (Mansi XIV, 921; DS 623; D 318).
849/850 AD, Epistle "Ad simplices suae dioceseos"
[“Zwei Schriften des Erzbischofs Hinkmar von Reims,” in Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 10 (1889): 258-309 on page 290.]
What however Gottschalk says:Quod autem dicit Gotescalcus,
    Lord said:
      "This is the Chalice of my blood, of the new and everlasting covenant, which shall be shed for you and for many unto the remission of sins,"
    — so God's speaking was bounded, that He said "for many", not "for all,"
    Dominum dixisse:
      Hic est calix sanguinis mei, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum
    — sic discrete Deum locutum fuisse, ut pro multis diceret, non pro omnibus,
he [Gottschalk] wrongly understood, since also Judas was between apostles and with apostles heard: "which shall be shed for you" (Lk 22,20), who took with them also sacrament of redemption and agreeing with his evil worthlessness after receiving sacrament was fully in perdition. Because Lord from his part gave sacrement of his body and blood indiscrete to all apostles for salvation, not for perdition. It was only he (Judas), who decided to separate himself from power of sacraments of salvation. So also without exclusion/exeption (Christ) says "for many", not as if he therefore want to redeem some and some doesn't, who said in another place of holy gospel: "And the bread that I will give is my flesh, for the life of the world."male intellexit, quoniam et Iudas inter apostolos erat et cum apostolis audivit: qui pro vobis [funde]tur; qui et sacramenta redemptionis cum eis suscepit et sua nequitia diabolo consentiens post perceptionem sacramentorum plenius perditus fuit. Qua de re sicut indiscrete Dominus omnibus apostolis, quantum ex se fuit, sacramenta corporis et sanguinis sui ad salvationem, non ad perditionem dedit, et ille unus se a virtute salvationis sacramentorum secernere decrevit, ita et sine exceptione: pro multis dixit, non quasi aliquos exinde vellet et aliquos non vellet redimere, qui dixit in alio sancti evangelii loco: Et panis, quem ego dedero, caro mea est pro mundi vita.
This argument (namely that also Judas heard "for you") was adopted also by many modern theologians, as we will see from
  • Suarez (†1617),
  • Passerini (†1677),
  • Muniesa (†1696),
  • Verani (†1713),
  • Durand (†1720),
  • Pozzoli (†c.1720),
  • Graveson (†1733),
  • Siri (†1737),
  • Serry (†1738),
  • Hörmonseder (†1740),
  • Heid (†1759),
  • Masius (†1772),
  • Trivellato (†1773),
  • Gravina (†1787),
  • Perrone (†1876),
etc.
 
 

Liturgies

Traditional Roman Liturgy also said "world", e.g.
    "Agnus dei, qui tollis peccata mundi."


And:
    Offerimus tibi, Domine, calicem salutaris, tuam deprecantes clementiam: ut in conspectu divinae maiestatis tuae, pro nostra et totius mundi salute, cum odore suavitatis ascendat. Amen.

And in Greek liturgy after consecration is said: "tua ex tuis donis tibi offerimus, pro omnibus et propter omnia".
Simillary Cyrillus lib 4 in S. Joan explicans illa Christi verba "panis quem ego dabo caro mea est pro mundi vita" in such manner:
    Crucifixus est Christus pro omnibus et propter omnes ut uno pro omnibus mortuo omnes in ipso vivamus
Finally, by John's version ("panis quem ego dabo caro mea est pro mundi vita") was inspirated some Oriental rites, e.g.:

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2.32. S.Jacobi
accipite, manducate ex eo vos omnes: Hoc est corpus meum, quod pro vobis et pro multis frangitur et datur, in remissionem peccatorum et vitam aeternam. ... Accipite, bibite ex eo vos omnes. Hic est sanguis meus Testamenti novi, qui pro vobis et pro multis fidelibus effunditur et datur in remissionem peccatorum, et vitam aeternam.
2.164.S.Joannis Evangelistae. http://books.google.sk/books?id=AjsTAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA164
Accipite manducale ex eo: Hoc est corpus meum, quod pro vobis et pro omnibus in me credentibus frangitur et dividitur, ad expiationem delictorum, remissionem peccatorum et vitam futuram in saecula. ... Hic est calix sanguinis mei, Novi Testamenti, accipite, bibite ex eo omnes: iste effunditur pro vita mundi, ad expiationem delictorum, remissionem peccatorum, omnibus in me credentibus in saecula saeculorum.
189 S.Clementis Romani. http://books.google.sk/books?id=AjsTAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA189
Accipite, et manducate ex eo, quia Hoc est corpus meum, quod pro vobis frangitur et datur, ad veniam omnium fidelium, plurimorum pro quibus immolatur, et dividitur ad propitiationem delictorum, remissionem peccatorum et vitam aeternam. ... Accipite, bibite ex eo vos omnes: Hic est sanguis meus qui confirmat testamentum mortis meae, qui pro vobis effunditur et pro multis datur, et dividitur ad propitiationem delictorum, remissionem peccatorum, et vitam aeternam.
2. 216. Sancti Ignatii http://books.google.sk/books?id=AjsTAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA216
In nocte Paschatis in qua tradebatur pro vita et salute mundi, accepit panem in manus suas sanctas, sanctificavit eum, † et fregit † deditque † discipulis suis Apostolis sanctis, dicens: Accipite, edite ex eo: Hoc est corpus meum quod vos et multos praeparat ad remissionem peccatorum et vitam aeternam. ... Accipite bibite ex eo vos omnes: Hic est sanguis meus, quem pro vita mundi do ego, vos autem et multos praeparat ad remissionem peccatorum, et ad vitam aeternam.
2.262. S. Martuae Catholici http://books.google.sk/books?id=AjsTAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA262
Accipite, manducate, credite, et certi estote, alque ita praedicate et docete: quod corpus meum hoc est, quod pro salute mundi frangitur, et illis qui comedunt illud et credunt in me, dat expiationem peccatorum et vitam aeternam. ... Accipite, bibite ex eo vos omnes: et credite, certi estote, atque ita praedicate et docete: quod hic est sanguis meus, qui pro salute mundi effunditur: iisque qui bibunt illum et credunt in me, dat expiationem peccatorum, et vitam aeternam.
2.373. Beati Jacobi interpretis episcopi edessensi http://books.google.sk/books?id=AjsTAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA373
accipite edite ex eo: Hoc est Corpus meum, quod pro vita creaturarum frangitur, et dividitur, ad remissionem peccatorum et vitam aeternam. ... Hic est Sanguis meus quem effundo pro mundi vita, et eis qui credunt in me praeparat vitam aeternam.
-2.392 Mosis Bar-Caphae http://books.google.sk/books?id=AjsTAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA392
Accipite, edite ex eo. Hoc est corpus meum quod pro omnibus in me credentibus frangitur et dividitur, in expiationem delictorum, remissionemque peccatorum, et vitam aeternam. ... Accipite, bibite ex eo omnes. Hic est sanguis meus, qui pro vobis, et pro illis qui in me credunt, effunditur, et datur, omnes illum suscipientes praeparans ad vitam aeternam.
-2.458 Gregorii Catholici Orientis http://books.google.sk/books?id=AjsTAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA458
accipite, edite ex eo. Hoc est corpus meum, ipsum quod pro vobis et pro multis in me credentibus frangitur et dividitur ad expiationem delictorum, et remissionem peccatorum, vitamque novam in aeternum. ... Accipite, bibite ex eo vos omnes: Hic est sanguis meus qui pro vobis et pro multis in me credentibus effunditur, et datur, ad expiationem delictorum, remissionem peccatorum, et vitam novam in saecula saeculorum.
2.475.S.Joannis Patriarchae. http://books.google.sk/books?id=AjsTAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA475
Accipite manducate ex eo: Hoc est corpus meum, quod pro vobis et pro multis frangitur et datur ad expiationem delictorum, remissionem peccatorum, et vitam aeternam. ... Hic est sanguis meus: accipite et bibite ex eo vos omnes: hic effunditur pro mundi vita, ad expiationem delictorum, remissionem peccatorum, et vitam aeternam.
2.492. S. Dioscori Episcopi http://books.google.sk/books?id=AjsTAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA492
gratias egit, † benedixit, † sanctificavit, † fregit, deditque turbae duodecim suorum, postquam ipse communicavit, et dixit: accipite, edite ex eo. Hoc est Corpus meum quod pro vita mundi frangitur et datur, ad expiationem delictorum et remissionem peccatorum. ... accipite, bibite ex eo vos omnes: Hic est sanguis meus Novi Testamenti qui pro vobis effunditur, vosque et multos credentes praeparat ad vitam aeternam.
2.511 Ignatii Patriarchae http://books.google.sk/books?id=AjsTAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA511 renaudot2_1847.png renaudot_1987_2_511.png
tanquam sacerdos pro expiatione totius mundi: accepit panem ... et dixit: Accipite edite ex eo, Hoc est corpus meum verum, quod pro vita et salute totius humani generis, frangitur et datur ad expiationem delictorum, et vitam aeternam. ... Accipite, bibite ex eo vos omnes: Hic est sanguis meus vivus Testamenti Novi qui effunditur pro salute totius mundi, et eos qui credunt in me praeparat ad vitam aeternam.
2.526-527 Ignatii Patriarchae Antiocheni http://books.google.sk/books?id=AjsTAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA526
dedit eum duodecim suis sociis, et dixit: Accipite, manducate: Haec est caro mea quae pro vobis, et pro multis vestri similibus frangitur, sanctificatur, et datur, ad abolitionem criminum, et vitam aeternam. ... Accipite et bibite singuli ex manu alterius: quia hic est sanguis meus vivus, qui effunditur pro humano genere in me credente, ab abolitionem insipientiarum, et vitam aeternam.
---------------------- ETHIOPIC LITURGIES: www.ethiopianorthodox.org/biography/englishethiopianliturgy.pdf
latin> http://books.google.sk/books?id=Yxktto5ngIgC
"La Messe de Notre Dame"
81 of Mary
105. And gave it to His disciples and said unto them : take, eat this (pointing) bread is My body which will be given to you as a propitiation for the whole world. 106. People : Amen. Amen. Amen. We believe and confess, we glorify Thee, O our Lord and our God: that this is He we truly believe. 107. Priest : And likewise also the cup (+ three times) after supper : He pointed and said : Take, drink, this (pointing) cup is My blood which the spear will shed for your sake.
http://www.eden.co.uk/shop/die-thiopische-anaphora-unserer-herrin-maria-3960572.html http://www.chbookshop.co.uk/books/9781607249856/Die-Athiopische-Anaphora-Unserer-Herrin-Maria http://www.gorgiaspress.com/bookshop/pc-57236-101-euringer-sebastian-die-thiopische-anaphora-unserer-herrin-maria.aspx http://books.google.sk/books/about/Die_Athiopische_Anaphora_Unserer_Herrin.html?id=qleCkgAACAAJ&redir_esc=y http://books.google.sk/books?id=RQYsBLbJTP4C marienanaphora MS 29,3 http://www.thedigitalwalters.org/Data/WaltersManuscripts/html/W829/description.html
122 of Gregory
And gave it to His disciples and said to them. Take, eat, this (pointing) bread is My body, which is indeed the food of righteousness, and which is given for the salvation of all the world. He who will eat it shall live for ever. 34. People : Amen. Amen. Amen. We believe and confess, we glorify Thee. O our Lord and our God : that this is He, we truly believe. 35. Priest: He also looked upon this (pointing) cup. the water of life with wine, gave thanks, blessed (+ three times), sanctified, gave it to His apostles and said unto them, Take, drink; this cup is My blood which is the drink of life indeed. He who drinks of it will have eternal life. Take, drink of it, all of you, that it may be to you for life and salvation.
147 Anafora st. Cyril
64. Priest : Gave thanks, blessed, broke (+ three tunes, then he shall indent the Host lightly with his thumb in five places without separation). And said unto them. Take. eat. this (pointing) bread is My body which will be broken for you as a propitiation for all the world for the remission of sin. 65. People : Amen. Amen. .Amen. We believe and confess, we glorify Thee. O our Lord and our God: that this is He we truly believe. 66. Priest: Again after they had supped. He took a cup. gave thanks, blessed, hallowed (+ three times) and said unto His disciples. Take, drink, this (pointing) cup is My blood of the new testament which will be shed for you and given as a propitiation for all the world for the remission of sin.
160 Anafora st. Dioscorus
29. Priest: He looked Up to heaven towards Thee. His Father, gave thanks, blessed and broke (+ three times). At this time he shall indent the Host lightly with his thumb in fire places without separation. and He gave to His holy disciples and His pure apostles and said unto them Take. eat. this (pointing) bread is My body which will be broken for you for the remission of sin. 30. People : Amen. Amen. Amen. We believe and confess, we glorify Thee. O our Lord and our God ; that this is He we truly believe. 31. Priest : Again. He mixed water with wine, gave thanks, blessed, hallowed (+ three times) and gave it to His holy disciples and his pure apostles and said unto them Take, drink, this (pointing) cup is My blood which will be shed for you as a propitiation for many.
45 Apostles
Priest : And He gave to His disciples and said unto them : Take. eat. this (pointing) bread is truly My body which will be broken on your behalf for the remission of sin. 43. People : Amen. Amen. Amen. We believe and confess, we glorify Thee. O our Lord and our God: that this is He we truly believe. 44. Priest : And likewise also the cup giving thanks, blessing it (+over the cup three times), and hallowing it. He gave it to His disciples, and said unto them. take, drink ; this (pointing) cup is My blood which will be shed on your behalf as a propitiation for many.
 
 

Christ's words about Eucharist

When theologians such as Raulin (†1514), Suarez (†1617), Juan de Piña Madritensis (†1657), Passerini (†1677), Moncada (†1696), Natale (†1706), Boucat (†c.1730), Graveson (†1733), La Fosse (†1745), Collet (†1770), Josephus ab Expectatione (†c.1770), Cartier (†1777), Voit (†1780), Holtzclau (†1783), Marchisio (†1790), Bailly (†1808), Bauer (†1820), etc. defended interpretation of "for many" (Mt 26,28) as "for all" in words of consecration of Eucharist, they pointed out, that also Chrysostom in this place (homily 83 to Matthew) explained it in such manner. (Of course, his followers did here the same, as also such authors mentioned).

  • John 1:29: “Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin (singular!) of the world!”
  • John 3:16,17: “Indeed, God sent his Son into the world in order that the world might be saved through him.”
  • 1 John 2:2: “He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins and not for ours only but also for (the sins) of the whole world.”
  • 1 John 4:14: “We have seen and testify because the Father has sent his Son as the Savior of the world.”
  • John 6:33: “The bread of God is that which comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.”
  • John 6:51 (Vulg.52): “The bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”
in his famous homily 83 to Matthew. Namely he used there phrase "whole world", which was typical for him also in another similar places, e.g. in his commentary to Hebr 2, 9, which testifies, that Christ died for all.

Liturgy of Chrysostom
Yours from yours (gifts) we offer to You, in all and for all.tua ex tuis [donis] tibi offerimus, pro omnibus et propter omniaΤὰ σὰ ἐκ τῶν σῶν σοὶ προσφέρομεν κατὰ πάντα καὶ διὰ πάντα.
 
 
Theodoret of Cyrus (c.393–c.457)
on Psalm 110 [cix]: 4 ["You are a priest for ever according to the order of Melchisedech."] (PG 80, 1772 C)
However, Melchisedech is not priest of Jews, but of pagans. So also Lord Christ not for Jews alone, but for all men, gave himself to the God. Priesthoot however started in the night - after which he went to the cross - when took bread and blessed and broke and gave to his disciples and said: "Take and eat. This is my body." And taking the chalice, he gave thanks and gave to them, saying: "Drink all of this. For this is my blood of the new testament, shed for many unto remission of sins." (Mt 26,26-28)Melchisedech porro non Judaeorum, sed gentium est sacerdos. Sic et Dominus Christus non pro Judaeis tantum, sed pro omnibus hominibus semetipsum obtulit Deo. Exorsus autem est sacerdotium in nocte ista, postquam crucem subiit, cum accepisset panem, et gratias egisset, fregit, et dixit: «Accipite, et comedite ex eo, Hoc est corpus meum.» Similiter et calicem cum temperasset, dedit discipulis suis, dicens: «Bibite ex hoc omnes, Hic est enim sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.»Ὁ δὲ Μελχισεδὲκ, οὐκ Ἰουδαίων, ἀλλ' ἐθνῶν ἱερεύς. Οὕτω καὶ ὁ Δεσπότης Χριστὸς, οὐχ ὑπὲρ Ἰουδαίων μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὑπὲρ ἁπάντων ἀνθρώπων ἑαυτὸν προσενήνοχε τῷ Θεῷ. Ἄρχεται δὲ τῆς ἱερωσύνης ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ, μεθ' ἣν τὸ πάθος ὑπέμεινεν· ἡνίκα λαβὼν ἄρτον, καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασε καὶ εἶπε· « Λάβετε, φάγετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ· τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ σῶμά μου. » Ὡσαύτως καὶ τὸ ποτήριον κεράσας, ἔδωκε τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὑτοῦ λέγων· « Πίετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες· τοῦτο γάρ ἐστι τὸ αἷμά μου, τὸ τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης, τὸ περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχυνόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν. »
TODO
 
 
John CHRYSOSTOM (c.349–407), archbishop.
Similarly he teached it in hom.26 to Rom
And yet with it all Christ was not to gain all, yet still He died for all; so fulfilling His own part.
And hom. 43 [al.44] to Matthew (PL 57,458):
[strange English translation]: declaring both that He should die and "the ox that knows his owner, and the ass that remembers his crib." Isaiah 1:3 Even so here too, when He had by a comparison set forth their perverseness, He speaks afterwards of their punishment also.declarans se pro illis passurum, et illos nihil inde lucri accepturos esse. Hoc enim postea declaravit, et tamen cum haec sciret, mortuus est : tanta erat ejus providentia.
Similarly in his commentary to Gal 2,20 he says:
"In the Son of God, Who loved me, and gave Himself up for me." (Gal 2,20) How is this, O Paul! Why do you appropriate a general benefit, and make your own what was done for the whole world's sake? For he says not, "Who loved us," but, "Who loved me." And besides the Evangelist says, "God so loved the world;" John 3:16 and Paul himself, "He that spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up," not for Paul only, but, "for us all;" Romans 8:32 and again, "that He might purify unto himself a people for his own possession," Titus 2:14 But considering the desperate condition of human nature, and the ineffably tender solicitude of Christ, in what He delivered us from, and what He freely gave us, and kindled by the yearning of affection towards Him, he thus expresses himself. Thus theProphets often appropriate to themselves Him who is God of all, as in the words, "O God, you are my God, early will I seek You." Psalm 63:1 Moreover, this language teaches that each individual justly owes as a great debt of gratitude to Christ, as if He had come for his sake alone, for He would not have grudged this His condescension though but for one, so that the measure of His love to each is as great as to the whole world. Truly the Sacrifice was offered for all mankind, and was sufficient to save all, but those who enjoy the blessing are the believing only.
to Rom 8, 32
Ver. 32. "He that spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things?" And here the words he uses are high-wrought (μεθ᾿ ὑτερβολἥς) and exceedingly warm, to show his love. How then is He to neglect us, in whose behalf "He spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all?" For reflect what goodness it is not to spare even His own Son, but to give Him up, and to give Him up for all, and those worthless, and unfeeling, and enemies, and blasphemers. How then shall He not with Him also freely give us all things? What he means then is much as follows; If He gave His own Son, and not merely gave Him, but gave Him to death, why doubt any more about the rest, since you have the Master? Why be dubious about the chattels, when you have the Lord? For He that gave the greater thing to His enemies, how shall He do else than give the lesser things to His friends?
to Hebr 2,9 (Ad Hebr, Hom IV, 3; PG 63, 39), latin translation was made around 550 by Mutianus Scholasticus (PG 63, 263) and so it was often used by greek and latin authors, also in 9th century in controversy about predestination, namely Hincmar vs. Lupus. Also Thomas quoted it in his commentary to this place.

Then he says, "That He by the grace of God should taste death for all." [Hebr 2,9]

"That by the grace of God," he says. And He indeed because of the grace of God towards us suffered these things. "He who spared not His Own Son," he says, "but delivered Him up for us all." (Romans 8:32) Why? He did not owe us this, but has done it of grace. And again in the Epistle to the Romans he says, "Much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace which is by one man Jesus Christ, has abounded unto the many." (Romans 5:15)

"That by the grace of God He should taste death for all," not for the faithful only, but even for the whole world: for He indeed died for all; But what if all have not believed? He has fulfilled His own [part].

ita dicens: Qualiter gratia Dei pro omnibus gustaverit mortem.

Qualiter, inquit, gratia Dei. Et ille quidem propter Dei gratiam quae nobis donata, haec passus est. Qui proprio, inquit, Filio non pepercit, sed ipse pro nobis omnibus tradidit eum. Cujus rei gratia? Non enim debebantur haec nobis, sed gratia hoc fecit. Et iterum in Epistola ad Romanos dixit : Multo magis gratia Dei, et donum unius hominis Jesu Christi in multos abundavit.

Qualiter gratia Dei pro omnibus gustaverit mortem : non pro fidelibus tantum, sed pro mundo universo, et ipse quidem pro omnibus mortuus est. Quid autem si non omnes credunt? Ille quod suum erat implevit.

Εἶτά φησιν· Ὅπως χάριτι Θεοῦ ὑπὲρ παντὸς γεύσηται θανάτου.

Ὅπως, φησὶ, χάριτι Θεοῦ. Κἀκεῖνος μὲν διὰ τὴν χάριν τοῦ Θεοῦ τὴν εἰς ἡμᾶς ταῦτα πέπονθεν· Ὅς γε τοῦ ἰδίου Υἱοῦ οὐκ ἐφείσατο, φησὶν, ἀλλ' ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν πάντων παρέδωκεν αὐτόν. Τίνος ἕνεκεν; Οὐκ ὤφειλε τοῦτο ἡμῖν, ἀλλὰ χάριτι πεποίηκε. Καὶ πάλιν ἐν τῇ πρὸς Ῥωμαίους Ἐπιστολῇ φησι Πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἡ χάρις τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ ἡ δωρεὰ ἐν χάριτι τῇ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς τοὺς πολλοὺς ἐπερίσσευσεν.

Ὅπως χάριτι Θεοῦ ὑπὲρ παντὸς γεύσηται θανάτου· οὐχὶ τῶν πιστῶν μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς οἰκουμένης ἁπάσης· αὐτὸς μὲν γὰρ ὑπὲρ πάντων ἀπέθανε. Τί δὲ, εἰ μὴ πάντες ἐπίστευσαν; Αὐτὸς τὸ ἑαυτοῦ πεπλήρωκε.

on John 6:49-52 [Hom. 47 al. 46] (PG 59:261 middle)
["the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world."]
This blood, if rightly taken, drives away devils, and keeps them afar off from us, while it calls to us Angels and the Lord of Angels. For wherever they see the Lord's blood, devils flee, and Angels run together. This blood poured forth washed clean all the world; many wise sayings did the blessed Paul utter concerning it in the Epistle to the Hebrews.Hic sanguis digne acceptus daemonas procul pellit, angelos ad nos advocat, ipsumque angelorum Dominum. Daemones quippe fugiunt, ubi vident sanguinem Dominicum; accurrunt autem angeli. Hic sanguis effusus totum orbem abluit. Multa de hoc sanguine beatus Paulus in Epistola ad Hebraeos philosophice tradidit. Τοῦτο τὸ αἷμα ἀξίως λαμβανόμενον ἐλαύνει μὲν δαίμονας καὶ πόῤῥωθεν ἡμῶν ποιεῖ, καλεῖ δὲ ἀγγέλους πρὸς ἡμᾶς, καὶ τὸν Δεσπότην τῶν ἀγγέλων. Ὅπου γὰρ ἂν ἴδωσι τὸ αἷμα τὸ Δεσποτικὸν, φεύγουσι μὲν δαίμονες, συντρέχουσι δὲ ἄγγελοι. Τοῦτο τὸ αἷμα ἐκχυθὲν πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην ἐξέπλυνε. Πολλὰ περὶ τοῦ αἵματος τούτου καὶ ὁ μακάριος Παῦλος ἐν τῇ πρὸς Ἑβραίους ἐφιλοσόφησε.
on John 6:33 [Hom. 45, 1] (PG 59:252), quoted also by Thomas in Catena to this place.
["For the bread of God is that which comes down out of heaven, and gives life to the world."]
"The bread of God is He which comes down from heaven, and gives life unto the world."Panis Dei est qui descendit de coelo, et dat vitam mundo; Ὁ ἄρτος τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐστιν ὁ καταβαίνων ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ ζωὴν διδοὺς τῷ κόσμῳ·
Not, says He, to Jews alone, but to all the "world," non Judaeis tantum, sed universo orbi, inquit. οὐκ Ἰουδαίοις μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ πάσῃ τῇ οἰκουμένῃ, φησί.
not mere food, but "life," another and an altered "life." He calls it "life," because they all were dead in sins.Neque simpliciter cibum, sed vitam dicit alteram et diversam. Vitam autem dicit, quia omnes mortui erant. Διὸ καὶ οὐκ εἶπεν ἁπλῶς τροφὴν, ἀλλὰ ζωὴν ἑτέραν τινὰ καὶ ἐνηλλαγμένην, ὥστε δηλῶσαι, ἐπειδὴ ἅπαντες ἦσαν νενεκρωμένοι.
to Mt 26, 28 (in Matth. hom. 83 [82], 1; PG 58, 739), partially quoted by Thomas in Catena to this place.

And He gives thanks, to teach us how we ought to celebrate this sacrament, and to show that not unwillingly does He come to the passion, and to teach us whatever we may suffer to bear it thankfully, thence also suggesting good hopes. For if the type was a deliverance from such bondage, how much more will the truth set free the world, and will He be delivered up for the benefit of our race. Wherefore, I would add, neither did He appoint the sacrament before this, but when henceforth the rites of the law were to cease. And thus the very chief of the feasts He brings to an end, removing them to another most awful table, and He says, "Take, eat, This is my body, Which is broken for many."

And how were they not confounded at hearing this? Because He had before told unto them many and great things touching this. Wherefore that He establishes no more, for they had heard it sufficiently, but he speaks of the cause of His passion, namely, the taking away of sins. And He calls it blood of a New Testament, that of the undertaking, the promise, the new law. For this He undertook also of old, and this comprises the Testament that is in the new law. And like as the Old Testament had sheep and bullocks, so this has the Lord's blood. Hence also He shows that He is soon to die, wherefore also He made mention of a Testament, and He reminds them also of the former Testament, for that also was dedicated with blood. And again He tells the cause of His death, "shed for many for the remission of sins;" and He says, "Do this in remembrance of me." Do you see how He removes and draws them off from Jewish customs. For like as you did that, He says, in remembrance of the miracles in Egypt, so do this likewise in remembrance of me. That was shed for the preservation of the firstborn, this for the remission of the sins of the whole world. For, "This, is my blood," says He, "(which is) shed for the remission of sins."

Καὶ εὐχαριστεῖ, διδάσκων ἡμᾶς ὅπως δεῖ τὸ μυστήριον τοῦτο ἐπιτελεῖν, καὶ δεικνὺς ὅτι οὐκ ἄκων ἐπὶ τὸ πάθος ἔρχεται, καὶ παιδεύων ἡμᾶς, ὅπερ ἂν πάσχωμεν, εὐχαρίστως φέρειν, καὶ χρηστὰς κἀντεῦθεν ὑποτείνων τὰς ἐλπίδας. Εἰ γὰρ ὁ τύπος τοσαύτης δουλείας γέγονεν ἀπαλλαγὴ, πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἡ ἀλήθεια τὴν οἰκουμένην ἐλευθερώσει, καὶ ἐπὶ εὐεργεσίᾳ τῆς ἡμετέρας παραδοθήσεται φύσεως. Διά τοι τοῦτο οὐδὲ πρὸ τούτου παρέδωκε τὸ μυστήριον, ἀλλ' ὅτε λοιπὸν παύσασθαι ἔδει τὰ νομικά. Καὶ τὸ κεφάλαιον δὲ τῶν ἑορτῶν αὐτῶν καταλύει, ἐφ' ἑτέραν αὐτοὺς μετατιθεὶς τράπεζαν φρικωδεστάτην, καί φησι· Λάβετε, φάγετε· τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ σῶμά μου, τὸ ὑπὲρ πολλῶν κλώμενον. Καὶ πῶς οὐκ ἐθορυβήθησαν τοῦτο ἀκούσαντες; Ὅτι πολλὰ καὶ μεγάλα περὶ τούτου καὶ ἔμπροσθεν αὐτοῖς ἦν προδιαλεχθείς. Διόπερ ἐκεῖνο μὲν οὐκέτι κατασκευάζει· καὶ γὰρ αὐτάρκως ἦσαν ἀκούσαντες· τὴν δὲ αἰτίαν λέγει τοῦ πάθους, τῶν ἁμαρτημάτων τὴν ἀναίρεσιν. Καὶ αἷμα Καινῆς Διαθήκης καλεῖ, τουτέστι, τῆς ὑποσχέσεως, τῆς ἐπαγγελίας, τοῦ νόμου τοῦ καινοῦ. Τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ ὑπέσχετο πάλαι, καὶ τὴν Διαθήκην τοῦτο συνέχει τὴν ἐν τῇ Καινῇ. Καὶ ὥσπερ ἡ Παλαιὰ πρόβατα καὶ μόσχους εἶχεν, οὕτως αὕτη τὸ αἷμα τὸ Δεσποτικόν. Κἀντεῦθεν δείκνυσιν, ὅτι καὶ μέλλει τελευτᾷν· διὸ καὶ Διαθήκης μέμνηται· καὶ ἀναμιμνήσκει δὲ τῆς προτέρας· καὶ γὰρ καὶ ἐκείνη δι' αἵματος ἐγκεκαίνιστο. Καὶ πάλιν λέγει τοῦ θανάτου τὴν αἰτίαν· Τὸ ὑπὲρ πολλῶν ἐκχυνόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν· καί φησι, Τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. Εἶδες πῶς ἐξάγει τῶν Ἰουδαϊκῶν ἐθῶν, καὶ ἀφίστησι; Καθάπερ γὰρ ἐκεῖνο ἐποιεῖτε, φησὶν, εἰς ἀνάμνησιν τῶν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ θαυμάτων, οὕτω καὶ τοῦτο εἰς ἐμήν. Ἐκεῖνο ἐξεχύθη εἰς σωτηρίαν τῶν πρωτοτόκων; τοῦτο εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν τῆς οἰκουμένης ἁπάσης. Τοῦτο γάρ ἐστι τὸ αἷμά μου, φησὶ, τὸ ἐκχυνόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν.
In all this examples Chrysostom used phrase "all/whole the world". And such also in mentioned hom 83 to Matthew (commentary of Mt 26,28) he used exactly same "oikoumenés hapasés" as in Hebr 2. So, as we've quoted, Chrysostom's interpretations of Biblical passages about Eucharist (Jn 6, Mt 26) was:

"This blood poured forth washed clean all the world [...] Not, says He, to Jews alone, but to all the world. [...] That [blood of old testament] was shed for the preservation of the firstborn, this for the remission of the sins of the whole world."

Similarly it was interpreted by his followers:
 
 
EUThYMIOS
on "blood shed for many" Mt 26:28 (PG 129: 22 D, 668 A; ed.Matthaei: Commentarius, vol. i, p. 1017, Lectiones I, 23). Latin transl. by: John HENTEN (1499-1566), O.S.H. (later O.P.) in 1543
Previous blood [of lambs of Old Testament] was shed for Jews alone, this however for all men. For he said here "many" for all. For all are many.Ille quidem sanguis pro solis effundebatur Hebraeis: hic autem pro omnibus hominibus. Multos siquidem hîc dicit omnes: nam omnes multi sunt.ἐκεῖνο μὲν γὰρ τὸ αἷμα ὑπὲρ τῶν ἑβραίων μόνων ἑξεχεῖτο· τοῦτο δὲ, ὑπὲρ πάντων ἀνθρώπων. πολλοὺς γὰρ, τοὺς πάντας ἐνταῦθα λεγει. καὶ γὰρ οἱ πάντες, πολλοί.
on "(for many) for the remission of sins" Mt 26:28 (PG 129: 668 A; ed.Matthaei: Commentarius, vol. i, p. 1017, Lectiones I, 23). Latin transl. by: John HENTEN (1499-1566), O.S.H. (later O.P.) in 1543
For that was shed only for preservation of firstborns, this however for remission of sins of all men.Ille siquidem in salutem tantum primogenitorum effundebatur: hic autem in remissionem peccatorum omnium hominum.Ἐκεῖνο μὲν γὰρ εἰς σωτηρίαν τῶν πρωτοτόκων μόνων ἐξεχεῖτο· τοῦτο δὲ, εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν τῶν πάντων ἀνθρώπων.
 
 
ThEOPHYLACTOS
on Matthew 26:28 (PG 123, 444 D [lat. ibid. col. 443 D]; Humphry: 436-437).
Latin transl. by: Ioannes Œcolampadius (1482–1531) in In quatuor Euangelia enarrationes (Basileae : Cratandrus, 1524).
English transl. by: Christopher Stade
He said [however], "shed for many," meaning "(shed) for all," for all are also many.Pro multis autem dicit effundi, hoc est, pro omnibus. Sunt enim et omnes multi.Περὶ πολλῶν δὲ εἶπεν ἐκχύνεσθαι, ἀντὶ τοῦ, περὶ πάντων· καὶ οἱ πάντες γὰρ πολλοί εἰσι.
 
 
Pseudo-Chrysostom [ex catena Possini]. Poussines in his introduction said about that ancient catena: "Collector aeujus Catenae ex eodem fonte hausit cum Theophylacto"
namely:
    "ea quae plurima hic noster quicumque est Collectionis Compilator hujus, attribuit Chrysostomo, fere apud Theophylactum reperiri, sententiam si spectes; nam verba quantum animadverti, semper diversa sunt. interdum copiosior noster: Est et ubi Theophylactum in pauciora cogat. si tamen Theophylactum vidit umquam: et non potius ex eodem unde Theophylactus totus pendet, hausit ipse quoque communi utriusque fonte Chrysostomo."
on Matthew 26:28 (Symbolae In Matthaeum. Tolosae : Boude, 1646, p. 350). Latin transl. by: Pierre Poussines (1609–1686).
That for many - he said - to be shed, that is for all.quem effundendum pro multis ait, hoc est pro omnibus.ὃ περὶ πολλῶν, εἶπεν ἐκχύνεσθαι, τουτέστι περὶ πάντων.
 
 
ANASTASIOS I of Antioch (called "Sinaïta") [Αναστάσιος Α΄ Σιναΐτης] (c.525-599), the Greek Patriarch of Antioch and a friend of Pope Gregory I
c.570 AD, Oratio IV. De passione. cap. IX (PG 89, 1353 B). Latin transl. by: Francisco Torres (c.1509-1584), S.J.
His blood is shed as to be a ransom for many (Mt 26:28). Perhaps better however is to say "for all", for they are "all, who are many."Effusus enim est sanguis ejus, ut esset pretium redemptionis pro multis (Matth. xxvi, 28). Fortasse autem melius esset dicere, pro omnibus : omnes enim sunt, qui sunt multi.


Note: this author is referred by following manner by theologian Pierre Collet (1693-1770), C.M. in Tractatus Dogmatico scholasticus - De Deo, vol. III, cap. III. (ed. Bruxellis, 1769, p. 174):
Scripture often by "many" understands all, since all are a great number. So in Rom 5:19 Paul says, that "by the disobedience of one man, many were made sinners" that "by the offence of one (Adam) unto all men to condemnation" (Rom 5:18). So also word "many" in this text "which shall be shed for many" (Matthew 26:28) is by Chrysostom, homil. 83 in Matth. and Theophylact in this place explicitly interpreted for all, because as here noted Anastasius Sinaite, although "many" can be also not all, on the other hand, still all are many. From this Augustine against Julian lib. 2. op. imperf. cap. 175 tells: all don't contradict to many, because all themselves are not few, but many.Scriptura passim per multos intelligit omnes, quando omnes sunt in magno numero. Sic Rom. 5. ait Paulus, quod per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, ut significet quod modo dixerat, unius, Adami, delictum in omnes homines transiisse. Inde est quod vocem multi in hoc textu, qui pro multis effundetur, passim cum S. Chrysostomo, Homil. 83. in Matth. et Theophilacto in hunc locum, de omnibus explicent Interpretes; quia, ut hic notat Anastasius Sinaïta, licet multi non sint omnes, vicissim tamen omnes multi sunt. Unde Augustinus Julianum impugnans, lib. 2. Operis imperfecti, cap. 175. ait non repugnare omnibus multos, quia ipsi omnes non pauci, sed multi sunt.
 
 
EUSTATHIOS of Thessalonica
(Eustathii Thessalonicensis opera minora, ed. P. Wirth, Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae 32. Berlin and New York, 2000, pag. 36)

So we hear, that disciples "are of more value than many sparrows" (Mt 10:31, Lk 12:7). For it is visible, that this more simple word wanted to think all sparrows. We hear indeed also: "many are called, but few chosen" (Mt 22,14). It and this notion is observed, for called are "many," which is "all." That he calls all, we can see, because also everyone receives (invitation): "Come indeed," says he, "all that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest" (Matthew 11,28). So also in a parable Christ used it. But also when we hear, that divine and salvific blood is shed “for many” (Mt 26,28), still nothing else than that "for all" we understand, because [it is] "for the life of the world" (John 6,51).

ὡς ὁπηνίκα πολλῶν στρουθίων διαφέρειν τοὺς μαθητὰς ἀκούομεν· δῆλον γάρ, ὅτι πάντων στρουθίων ὁ ἁπλούστερος λόγος νοεῖν βούλεται· καὶ ὅτε δὲ πολλοὺς μὲν ἀκούομεν κλητούς, ὀλίγους δὲ ἐκλεκτούς, τὴν αὐτὴν καὶ τοῦτο ἔννοιαν ὑποκρούεται· πολλοὶ γὰρ κλητοί, ὅπερ ἐστὶ πάντες· ὅτι δὲ πάντας ἐκάλεσε δῆλον, ὅτι καὶ σύμπαντας ὑποδέχεται· «δεῦτε γάρ, φησίν, πάντες οἱ κοπιῶντες καὶ πεφορτισμένοι ἀναπαυσόμενοι»· διὸ καὶ ἐν τῇ παραβολῇ πανδοχεὺς ὁ Χριστός· καὶ ἡνίκα δὲ τὸ θεῖον καὶ κοσμοσωτήριον αἷμα ὑπὲρ πολλῶν ἀκούομεν ἐκχυνόμενον, οὐδὲν ἐκεῖθεν, ἀλλ᾽ ἢ ὅτι ὑπὲρ πάντων μανθάνομεν· ὑπὲρ γὰρ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου ζωῆς·

 
 
Apollinaris of Laodicea (c.310-c.390)
to Matthew 26:28 (Codex Athos Lavra B 113, fol. 123a; ed. REUSS in TU 61, p. 46 [Apollinaris' fragment 134])
However saying blood to be shed "for many" he says for all. "Through the one the many will be made righteous." (Rom 5:19) This and that signify, that one suffers for many. ... "And the bread, which I will give you is my flesh for the life of the world" (John 6,51).Pro multis autem effundi sanguinem dicens, pro omnibus dicit. Per unum justos constitutum iri multos. Hoc et hic quoque significat, quod unus pro multis patitur. ... Et panis quem ego dabo vobis caro mea est pro mundi vita.Περὶ πολλῶν δὲ λέγων ἐκχύννεσθαι τὸ αἷμα περὶ πάντων λέγει διὰ τοῦ ἑνὸς δικαίου κατασταθήσεσθαι τοὺς πολλούς. τοῦτο δὴ καὶ ἐνταῦθα δηλοῖ, ὅτι εἷς ὑπὲρ πολλῶν πάσχει. ... καὶ ὁ ἄρτος, ὃν ἐγὼ δώσω, ὑμῖν ἡ σάρξ μού ἐστιν ὑπὲρ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου ζωῆς.
 
 
VICTOR of Antioch
on Mark 14:24. (Cramer vol. i, p. 423; Daille, ed. 1655, p. 850), Latin transl.: Theodor Anton PELTANUS (1511-1584), S.J. in 1580 AD

However saying blood to be shed for "many" he says for all. For all are many, as (also) Paul: "through the One," He said, "the many will be made righteous." (Rom 5:19). This and that signify, that one suffers for "many."
[transl. by Peltanus]
Pro multis (autem) effundi sanguinem dicens, pro omnibus dicit. Multi enim omnes. quemadmodum (et) Paulus dixit per unum justos constitutum iri multos. Hoc et hic quoque significat, quod unus pro multis patitur.
[cit. in Daille]
Περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχύνεσθαι λέγων τὸ αἷμα, τὸ περὶ πάντων λέγει, πολλοὶ γὰρ οἱ πάντες, ὥσπερ καὶ ὁ Παῦλος διὰ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἔλεγεν δικαίους κατασταθήσεσθαι τοὺς πολλούς· τοῦτο δὲ καὶ ἑνταῦθα δηλοῖ ὅτι εἷς ὑπὲρ πολλῶν πάσχει.
[publ. by Cramer]
Περὶ πολλῶν δὲ ἐκχύνεσθαι τὸ αἷμα λέγων, τὸ περὶ πάντων λέγει, πολλοὶ γὰρ οἱ πάντες, ὥσπερ καὶ ὁ Παῦλος διὰ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἔλεγεν δικαίους κατασταθήσεσθαι τοὺς πολλούς· τοῦτο δὴ καὶ ἑνταῦθα δηλοῖ ὅτι εἷς ὑπὲρ πολλῶν πάσχει τοῦτο.
 
 
PETROS of Laodicea. Following quotation was by Angelo Mai (1782–1854) S.J. and consequently also by Migne published under name of Peter of Laodicea, since this commentary was found in manuscripts among Peter's commentaries to other gospels. However, this commentary of Mark is almost identical with Victor's one, and so, e.g. Christian Friedrich Matthäi (1744–1811) published such commentary under name of Victor. But still there are in fact some differencies between that and classical verion of Victor's commentary. Mere referrence to Rom 5 - tyical for school of Antioch - was possibly not so clear for quite later authors, while 2 Cor 5 could seem to them as better passage for explaining words of consecration. And so, he said, what he said.
on Mark 14:24 (PG 86ii, 3328 B; Mai: NPB VI,544; Matthaei, vol. ii; Codex Bodmer 25, fol. 85a). Latin translation in left side is from Migne's PG 86ii:3327 B.
However saying blood (being) shed for "many" he says for all. For one, as Paul says, died for all, so that they should no longer live for themselves, but for Him who died for them, and rose again. (2 Corinthians 5, 14-15)Cum autem dicit sanguinem suum pro multis effusum, pro omnibus effusum esse significat: Unus enim, inquit Paulus, pro omnibus mortuus est, ut jam non sibi vivant, sed illi qui pro ipsis mortuus est et resurrexit.Pro multis autem effusum sanguinem dicens pro omnibus dicit. Unus enim, ut inquit Paulus, pro omnibus mortuus est, ut jam omnes non sibi vivant, sed illi qui pro ipsis mortuus est et resurrexit.Περὶ πολλῶν δὲ ἐκχυνόμενον λέγων τὸ αἷμα, τὸ περὶ πάντων λέγει· εἷς γὰρ, ὥς φησι Παῦλος, ὑπὲρ πάντων ἀπέθανεν, ἵνα οἱ πάντες μηκέτι ἑαυτοῖς ζῶσιν, ἀλλὰ τῷ ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν ἀποθανόντι καὶ ἐγερθέντι.
 
 
Augustine (354–430), bishop of Hippo [in Africa]
on John 15:26-27 [Joann., tractate 92,1] (PL 35,1863) The same is copied from him also by Beda (PL 92,850 C) and Rabanus Maurus (PL 107, 347 D)
For the blood of Christ was so shed for the remission of all sins [or "of sins of all"], that it also could wipe out even the very sin of shedding it.Christi enim sanguis sic in remissionem peccatorum omnium fusus est, ut ipsum etiam peccatum posset delere quo fusus est.
De Nuptiis et Concupiscentia, lib.2, cap. 33 / num 56 (PL 44,470) in year 419/421 AD. Referred in our controversy by eminent augustinian theologian Berti (†1766)
I repeat his words once more:Verba eius repeto:
    “You assert,” says he to me, “that they, indeed, who have not been ever born might possibly have been good; those, however, who have peopled the world, and for whom Christ died, you decide to be the work of the devil, born in a disordered state, and guilty from the very beginning.”
    "Illos ergo - inquit - qui numquam nati sunt, bonos potuisse esse dicis, istos vero, qui mundum impleverunt, pro quibus Christus mortuus est, diaboli opus et de morbo natos et ab exordio reos definis".
Would that he only solved the entire controversy as he unties the knot of this question! For will he pretend to say that he merely spoke of adults in this passage? Why, the subject in hand is about infants, about human beings at their birth; and it is about these that he raises odium against us, because they are defined by us as guilty from the very first, because we declare them to be guilty, since Christ died for them. And why did Christ die for them if they are not guilty? It is entirely from them, yes, from them, we shall find the reason, wherefore he thought odium should be raised against me.O si nodum solvat etiam contentionis, quomodo nodum solvit istius quaestionis! Numquid enim se modo de maioribus ista locutum esse dicturus est? De parvulis agitur, de nascentibus agitur, de his nobis, quia rei ab exordio definiuntur a nobis, ab illo invidia commovetur, quià eos dicimus reos, pro quibus Christus mortuus est. Cur ergo pro illis Christus mortuus est, si non sunt rei? Inde prorsus, inde obtinebimus causam, unde excitandam putavit invidiam.
He asks: “How are infants guilty, for whom Christ died?”Ipse dicit: "Quomodo sunt rei parvuli pro quibus Christus mortuus est?".
We answer: Nay, how are infants not guilty, since Christ died for them?Nos respondemus: Immo parvuli quomodo rei non sunt, pro quibus Christus mortuus est?
This dispute wants a judge to determine it. Let Christ be the Judge, and let Him tell us what is the object which has profited by His death?Ista controversia iudicem quaerat. Iudicet ergo Christus et, cui rei mors eius profecerit, ipse dicat.
    “This is my blood,” He says, “which shall be shed for many for the remission of sins.” (Matt. xxvi. 28.)
    Hic est, inquit, sanguis meus, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum (Matt. xxvi. 28).
Let the apostle, too, be His assessor in the judgment; since even in the apostle it is Christ Himself that speaks. Speaking of God the Father, he exclaims:Iudicet cum illo et Apostolus, quia et in Apostolo ipse loquitur Christus. Ciamat et dicit de Deo Patre,
    “He who spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all!” (Rom. viii. 32).
    quia proprio Filio non pepercit, sed pro nobis omnibus tradidit eum (Rom. viii. 32).
I suppose that he describes Christ as so delivered up for us all, that infants in this matter are not separated from ourselves. But what need is there to dwell on this point, out of which even he no longer raises a contest? For the truth is, he not only confesses that Christ died even for infants, but he also reproves us out of this admission, because we say that these same infants are guilty for whom Christ died. Now, then, let the apostle, who says that Christ was delivered up for us all, also tell us why Christ was delivered up for us. “He was delivered,” says he, “for our offences, and rose again for our justification.” (Rom. iv. 25).Puto, quod ita dicat Christum traditum pro omnibus nobis, ut in hac causa parvuli non separentur a nobis. Sed quid opus est hinc satagere, unde iam nec iste contendit, quandoquidem non solum confitetur mortuum fuisse etiam pro parvulis Christum verum etiam inde nos arguit, quod eosdem parvulos reos dicimus, pro quibus mortuus est Christus? Iam itaque Apostolus, qui dixit pro nobis omnibus traditum Christum, dicat etiam quare sit pro nobis traditus Christus. Traditus est, inquit, propter delicta nostra et resurrexit propter iustificationem nostram (Rom 4, 25).
If, therefore, as even this man both confesses and professes, both admits and objects, infants, too, are included amongst those for whom Christ was delivered up; and if it was for our sins that Christ was delivered up, even infants, of course, must have original sins, for whom Christ was delivered up; He must have something in them to heal, who (as Himself affirms) is not needed as a Physician by the whole, but by the sick; (Matt. ix. 12.)Si igitur, sicut iste et confitetur, et profitetur et dicit et obicit, in eis sunt et parvuli, pro quibus traditus est Christus, et propter delicta nostra est traditus Christus; habent profecto et parvuli delicta originaria, pro quibus est traditus Christus, habet quod in eis sanet, qui sicut ipse ait: Non est opus sanis medicus, sed male habentibus (Matt. ix. 12);
He must have a reason for saving them, seeing that He came into the world, as the Apostle Paul says, “to save sinners;” (1 Tim. i. 15).habet cur eos salvos faciat, qui venit in mundum, sicut dicit apostolus Paulus, peccatores salvos tacere (1 Tim. i. 15);
He must have something in them to remit, who testifies that He shed His blood “for the remission of sins;” (Matt. xxvi. 28).habet quod in eis remittat, qui sanguinem se fudisse testatur in remissionem peccatorum (Matt. xxvi. 28);
He must have good reason for seeking them out, who “came,” as He says, “to seek and to save that which was lost;” (Luke xix. 10.)habet propter quod eos quaerat, qui venit, ut dìcit, quaerere et salvum facere quod perierat (Luc. xix. 10.);
the Son of man must find in them something to destroy, who came for the express purpose, as the Apostle John says, “that He might destroy the works of the devil.” (1 John iii. 8).habet quod in eis solvat Filius Dei, qui propterea venit, sicut dicit apostolus Ioannes, ut solvat opera diaboli (1 Jo. iii. 8).
Now to this salvation of infants He must be an enemy, who asserts their innocence, in such a way as to deny them the medicine which is required by the hurt and wounded.Huic ergo parvulorum saluti inimicus est,qui eorum sic asserit innocentiam, ut sauciatis et vulneratis neget necessariam medicinam.

TODO
 
 

"For You" as for all

While John referred words "for life of world" and Matthew with Mark "for many," now Paul and Luke referred "for you." Nevertheless, when God says to men "for you," it can be understood as for your human genere / for whole mankind / for all men.
So Chrysostom - and consequently also Theophylact - paraphrased "this is my body broken for you" (1Cor 11:24 in byzantine text and liturgies) as "broken for all." And Theophylact (quoted also by Thomas in Catena) interpreted Luke's "given for you" and "shed for you" as for whole mankind.
These observations are presented in our controversy by famous theologian Gabriel Vasquez (†1604), quoted below.
 
 
todo: ignatius ad Ph. longer.
John CHRYSOSTOM (c.349–407), archbishop
to 1 Corinthians 11:24 [in 1 Cor., hom. 27, n. 4/5] (PG 61, 229). English transl. by: Talbot W. Chambers.
"Take, eat: this is My Body, which is broken for you." (1 Cor. 11:24)Accipite, manducante; hoc est corpus meum quod pro vobis frangitur.Λάβετε, φάγετε· τοῦτό μού ἐστι τὸ σῶμα τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν κλώμενον.
If therefore you come for a sacrifice of thanksgiving, do thou on your part nothing unworthy of that sacrifice: by no means either dishonor your brother, or neglect him in his hunger; be not drunken, insult not the Church. As you come giving thanks for what you have enjoyed: so do you yourself accordingly make return, and not cut yourself off from your neighbor. SinceChrist for His part gave equally to all, saying, "Take, eat." He gave His Body equally, but dost not thou give so much as the common bread equally? Yea, it was indeed broken for all alike, and became the Body equally for all.Si vero propter eucharistiam accedis, tu nihil eucharistiae indignum facito, neque pudore afficias fratrem, nec esurieatem despicias, ne inebrieris, ne Ecclesiam contumelia afficias. Accedis gratias agens pro iis quae accepisti: ergo et tu vicem repende, ne-que te abscindas a proximo. Etenim Christas omni-bus aequaliter dedit dicens, Accipite, comedite. Ille corpus aequaliter dedit ; tu vero ne communem quidem panem aequaliter das? nam pro omnibus similiter fractum est, et ex aequo fuit corpus pro omnibus.Εἰ τοίνυν ἐπ' εὐχαριστίᾳ προσέρχῃ, καὶ σὺ μηδὲν ἀνάξιον ποίει τῆς εὐχαριστίας, μηδὲ καταίσχυνε τὸν ἀδελφὸν, μηδὲ περιόρα πεινῶντα, μὴ μέθυε, μὴ ὕβριζε τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν. Προσέρχῃ γὰρ εὐχαριστῶν ὑπὲρ ὧν ἀπέλαυσας. Οὐκοῦν καὶ αὐτὸς ἀμοιβὴν ἀποδίδου, καὶ μὴ ἀπόσχιζε σεαυτὸν τοῦ πλησίον. Καὶ γὰρ ὁ Χριστὸς πᾶσιν ἐξίσης ἔδωκε λέγων, Λάβετε, φάγετε. Ἐκεῖνος τὸ σῶμα ἐξίσης ἔδωκε, σὺ δὲ οὐδὲ τὸν κοινὸν ἄρτον δίδως ἐξίσης; καὶ γὰρ ὑπὲρ ἁπάντων ὁμοίως ἐκλάσθη, καὶ σῶμα γέγονεν ὑπὲρ ἁπάντων ἐξίσης.
The same is presented also by
THEOPHYLACT
to 1 Corinthians 11:24 (PG 124, 705)
"Take, eat: this is My Body, which is broken for you." (1 Cor. 11:24)"Accipite, manducate : Hoc est corpus meum, quod pro vobis frangitur."Λάβετε, φάγετε· τοῦτό μού ἐστι τὸ σῶμα τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν κλώμενον.
...Recordamini, inquit, quod hanc ultimam vobis dederit institutionem; quodque ea etiam nocte qua mactandus erat, ipsum proditorem convivam habuerit : Et tu fratrem tuum indignum judicas? Edoetus es etiam gratias agere; quandoquidem et ille gratias egerit, exemplum nobis relinquens : atqui tu indigna gratiarum actione committis, injuriam inferens Ecclesiae, alioque esuriente ipse inebriaris. At vero ille communiter omnibus dixit, Accipite, edite, idque corpus suum, quod pro omnibus ex aequo fregit, in mortem tradens; tu vero edendo antevertis, neque communem panem in medium ponis, neque frangis ipsum uti detur multis, verum tibi ipsi contines. Ἀναμνήσθητε, φησὶν, ὃτι ταύτην ἐσχάτην ὑμῖν δέδωκε τὴν μυσταγωγίαν, καὶ ἐν ἀυτῇ τῇ νυκτὶ ᾗ σφάττεσθαι ἔμελλε, καὶ τὸν προδότην εἷχε συνέστιον· καὶ σὺ ἀπαξιοῖς τὸν ἀδελφόν; Καὶ ἐδιδάχθης μὲν εὐχαριστεῖν· καὶ γὰρ κὰκεῖνος ηὐχαρίστησε, τύπον ἠμῖν διδούς· ἀνάξια δὲ τῆς εὐχαριστίας ποιεῖς, ὐβρίζων τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν, καὶ πεινῶντος ἄλλου, αὐτὸς μεθύων. Καὶ ὁ μὲν πᾶσιν εἰπε κοινῶς, "Λάβετε, φάγετε," καὶ ταῦτα, το σῶμα αὐτοῦ, ὃ ὑπὲρ πάντων ἐπίσης ἔκλασε, διδοὺς εὶς θάνατον· σὺ δὲ προλαμβάνεις ὲσθίων, καὶ οἠδὲ τὸν κοινὸν ἄρτον εἰς τὸ μέσον τίθης, οὐδὲ κλᾷς αὐτὸν, ἴνα δοθῇ πολλοῖς, ἀλλὰ σαυτῶ κατέχεις.
 
 
ThEOPHYLACTOS
to Luke 22:20 (PG 123, 1069 B) Latin transl. Ioannes Œcolampadius (1482–1531) in 1524
Saying however "for you given" and "shed" he does not mean that for the Apostles only was His Body given, and His Blood shed, but for the human nature/genere. So, when he said "given for you [plural]", understand it "for your human nature/genere" !Dicendo autem, « Quod pro vobis datur et effunditur, » non pro solis apostolis signat corpus ejus esse datum, et sanguinem ejus esse effusum, sed pro humano genere. Quando igitur dicit, « Quod pro vobis datur, » intellige, Pro vestro hominum genere.Εἰπὼν δὲ, « Τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν διδόμενον καὶ ἐκχυνόμενον, » οὐχ ὑπὲρ τῶν ἀποστόλων μόνον δεδόσθαι δηλοῖ τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῶ, καὶ τὸ αἷμα ἐκκεχῦσθαι, ἀλλ᾽ ὑπὲρ τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης φύσιως. Ὅταν οὖν εἴπῃ, « Ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν διδόμενον, » ἀντὶ τοῦ, Ὑπὲρ τῆς ὑμετέρας φύσεως τῶν ἀνθρώπων, νόει.
It is summarized by
Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), O.P. to Luke 22:20 (Catena in Lc., cap. 22 lectio 5) [English transl. by Cardinal Newman (1801–1890)]:
Theophylact: [...] But when He says, for you, He does not mean that for the Apostles only was His Body given, and His Blood poured out, but for the sake of all mankind.Theophylactus: [...] Cum autem dicit : Pro vobis, non significat, pro solis apostolis corpus Christi datum et sauguinem effusum fuisse, sed causa totius humanae naturae.
 
 
Ephrem the Syrian [Ephraem] (c.306–373)
Sermo iv in Hebdomadam Sanctam [Homilies 4:6] (ed. Lamy, vol I, p. 423)

This is truly my blood, which is shed for you all. Take and all drink of this, because it is a new covenant in My Blood. As you have seen Me do, do you also in My memory.Hic est verus meus sanguis, qui pro vobis omnibus effunditur : Accipite, bibite ex eo omnes, quia novum testamentum est in sanguine meo.[see syriac original in Lamy, vol. 1, p. 423]
 
 

Modern exegetes and theologians

Note: abbrevitation after name denotes religious order, e.g.
  • "OSA" = Order of Saint Augustine = "Augustinians"
  • "OSB" = Order of Saint Benedict = "Benedictines"
  • "OP" = Order of Preachers = "Dominicans"
  • "OFM" = Order of Fraters Minor = "Franciscans"
  • "SJ"= Society of Jesus = "Jesuists"
etc. More in CE and another.
Abbrevitations in quotations of theologians:
  • Obj. = Objicies
  • R. / Resp. = "Respondeo" (or "Respondetur")
  • N. / C. = Nego / Concedo
  • A. / C. = Antecedent / Consequent
  • D. / Dist. = Distinguendo
etc. as it is used in logic.
 
 
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (1466–1536), the most famous and influent modern philologist. His exegetical works - firstly published in 1516 - were highly valuated as we can see also from papal letter to him, in 1518:
DILECTO FILIO ERASMO ROTERODAMO,
SACRAE THEOLOGIAE PROFESSORI,
LEO PPA, XS
Dilecte fili, salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. Valde nos delectarunt lucubrationes tuae in Testamentum Novum iam pridem aeditae; non tam quia nostro nomini dicatae fuerant, quam quod non vulgari, sed nova et insigni quadam eruditione praestabant, omniumque doctorum calculo plurimum laudabantur. Quas nuper a te recognitas et pluribus additis Annotationibus locupletatas illuatratasque fuisse certiores facti non mediocriter gauisi fuimus; ex prima illa aeditione, quae absolutissima videbatur, coniecturam facientes qualis haec futura, quantumue boni sacrae theologiae studiosis ac orthodoxae fidei nostrae sit allatura. Macte igitur istius animi tui esto, ac publicae vtilitati studens operi tam sancto, ut in lucem exeat, sedulo inuigila; dignam quidem tot laborum mercedem ab ipso Deo relaturus, a nobis vero meritam commendationem et cunctis Christifidelibus perpetuam laudem consecuturus.
Datum Romae apud Sanctum Petrum. Sub annulo piscatoris. Die X. Septembris M.D.XVIII. Pontificatus nostri Anno Sexto.
It was in Basel in 1514 when Erasmus found Greek manuscript of Theophylact's commentary on Gospels and Paul's epistles (cf. Collected works of Erasmus. 39:225, 56:15). From that manuscript 10 years later Ioannes Œcolampadius (1482–1531) published latin translation of Theophylact's commentary on Gospels (In quatuor Euangelia enarrationes. Basileae : Cratandrus, 1524). Although many parts of his commentary on Mark, Luke and John were already well known from Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), who quoted them in his Catena on Mark, Luke and John. (There Thomas also quoted Theophylact's commentary of Luke 22:20, where "for you" was interpreted as "for whole mankind"). Theophylact's commentary on Paul's epistles was whole already widely known from Porsena's latin translation firstly published in Rome in 1477 and falsely attributed to Athanasius. It was Erasmus, who observed, that it is Theophylact's one.
Nevertheless, Erasmus used that Greek manuscripts (of Theophylact's text and commentary) both for his famous publication of Greek text of Bible as well as for his commentaries of Gospels and Paul epistles. From that Erasmus used also Greek Theophylact's text and commentary of Matthew. See e.g. ed. 1527, p. 94-95, 97 [on Matthew 26:26!!!!], 100, etc. - even in commentary on words of consecration Matthew 26 he mentioned Theophylact's note on "this is my body":
on "this is my body" Matthew 26 (Annotationes In Novum Testamentum. Basileae 1527, p. 97; Basileae, 1540, p. 101)
[ed. 1527][ed. 1540]
Theophylact reminds that it was true body, not figure of body.Theophylactus fuisse verum corpus, non corporis figuramTheophylactus admonet fuisse verum corpus, non corporis figuram
Thus it is very probable, that Erasmus read also Theophylact's note that word "many" in words of consecration of Eucharist is put for "all", which was only 3 sentences (i.e. few lines) after passage, which he explicitly mentioned here - and similarly it is also in case of passage Matthew 20:28. But even statement that word "many" in "(this is my blood), which is shed for many" is put for "all" can be found in the same Erasmus' book as well as similar statement about Matthew 20:28.
on Matthew 20:28 (Annotationes In Novum Testamentum. Basileae : 1516, p. 279; 1522, p. 73; 1527, p. 79; 1540, p. 83)
"For many." ἀντί πολλῶν. Certainly differently sounds to the Greeks than to the Latins. To us it only opposes to a few, to those it sounds "the multitude of the people" and it sounds quite what crowd (sounds) to Latins.Pro multis. ἀντί πολλῶν. Aliud quiddam sonat Graecis, quàm Latinis: apud nos tantum opponitur paucis, apud illos populi multitudinem sonat, atque id fermè quod Latinis sonat vulgus.
on Romans 5:15 (Annotationes In Novum Testamentum. Basileae 1516, p. 433, 1522, p. 305; 1527, p. 348; 1540, p. 374). English transl. by Robert Dick Sider.
I should add that in this passage the Translator renders the same Greek word, πολλοὶ, sometimes as 'more,' sometimes as 'many.' Origen thinks it stands for 'all,' to correspond better to 'one.' And truly, where there are 'all,' there are also 'many.' "Many" for all.Illud adiiciendum, quod interpres hoc loco nunc vertit plures, nunc multi, Graecis eadem est dictio πολλοὶ, quam Origenes positam putat pro omnibus, quo magis respondeat unius. Etenim ubi sunt omnes, ibi sunt et multi.Multi pro omnes.
Index rerum ac vocabulorum (Annotationes In Novum Testamentum. Basileae 1527, multi and πολλοὶ; Basileae, 1540, multi and πολλοὶ), i.e. list of words, which was on the end of his book.
[ed.1527][ed.1540]
"Many" for all. Rom 5. as also that "which shall be shed for many."Multi, pro omnes, 348. f. ut et illic qui pro multis effundetur.Multi pro omnes 374. f. ut illic qui pro multis effundetur

"πολλοὶ" for all, as also that "which is shed for many."

πολλοὶ pro omnibus, ut et illic qui pro multis effunditur. 348. m

πολλοὶ pro omnibus, ut et illic qui pro multis effunditur. 374. f
Note: it must be said, that although he defended catholic teaching against protestants, etc., his works still required many deletions and only so they were permitted ["cum expurgatione permissa"], list of which can be found in Index expurgatorius of 1571 and later. Nevertheless passages quoted above were not deleted, and therefore were permitted (cf. Index expurgatorius: Erasmus, where numbering of pages are according ed. Basileae, 1540).

 
 
Almost identically also
Bible of Vatablus, published in 1545 and made according public lectures of François Vatable (c.1493–1547).
on Matthew 20:28 (in Matthew 20, note 6)
Greek word signifies the multitude of people, as if it says "for the whole multitude of men and flock."Vox Græca significat multitudinem populi, quasi dicat, pro tota multitudine hominum et vulgo.
Although Vatable was a catholic and it was claimed, that annotations were made according to collected notes of his auditors, those notes were collected and composed to one commentary by ex-catholic protestant Stephanus [Robert I Estienne] (1503–1559).
Catholic Encyclopedy says about it (XV, 276):
From the lecture notes taken by Vatable's pupils Robert Stephens drew the material for the scholia which he added to his edition of the new Latin translation of the Bible by Leo of Juda (4 vols., Paris, 1539-45); but it has been proven beyond doubt that these notes had been shamefully garbled by the Protestants of Zurich. The Sorbonne doctors sharply inveighed against the Lutheran tendencies of the notes of Stephens's Bible, and Vatable himself disowned them; yet, as they are a model of clear, concise, literary, and critical exegesis, the Salamanca theologians, with the authorization of the Spanish Inquisition, issued a new thoroughly-revised edition of them in their Latin Bible of 1584.
Council of Trent explicitly mentioned this book, in his rule III concerning prohibited books, which says:
Council of Trent : Concerning prohibited books, Rule III.
But if any annotations are made public with such versions as are permitted, or with the Vulgate edition, the suspected passages being expunged by the theological faculty of any Catholic University, or by a general inquisition, they may be allowed to the same persons, to whom the versions also [were permitted].Si quae vero adnotationes cum hujusmodi, quae permittuntur, versionibus, vel cum Vulgata editione circumferuntur, expunctis locis suspectis a Facultate Theologica alicujus Universitatis catholicae, aut Inquisitione generali, permitti eisdem poterunt, quibus et versiones.
On which conditions the entire volume of Biblia, which is commonly called the Bible of Vatablus, or parts of it, may be granted to pious and learned men.Quibus conditionibus totum volumen Bibliorum, quod vulgo Biblia Vatabli dicitur, aut partes ejus, concedi viris piis et doctis poterunt.
So inquisitors detaily inquired this book, and finally allowed it but with expurgation of some passages. And passage quoted above, which interpreted "for many" as "for whole multitute" was permitted/allowed (cf. Index).
However, from commentary to Matthew 26:28 ("blood shed for many unto remission of sins") there was prohibited commentary that seems to uses the restrictive interpretation of "many" as "faithful", namely: (in Matth. 26, note 18, cf. Index expurgatorius)
which gives remission of sins to faithfuls.quo peccatorum remissio datur credentibus.
 
 
In expurgations of Eramus' commentaries and Vatables' Bible we can see therefore, that there was not problem with interpretation "many" as all, but contrary: interpretation "many" as faithful was problem for its connection to heresy of Luther and many similar protestants, who teached, that Christ died not for all, but only for faithful or predestined. While catholics - e.g. council of Trent - teached, that Christ died for all.
Even Theophylact's commentary to words of consecration was very favorited by theologians and exegetes. Also mentioned Erasmus in commentary to words of consecration referred, that Theophylact testified, that Eucharist is not figure, but true Body of Christ.
Quotation of whole Theophylact's commentary to words of consecration - including interpretation "many" as all - is quoted by famous authors, such as:
  • Sante Pagnini (1470–1541), O.P. in Isagoge ad mysticos sacrae scripturae sensus. 1536, page 597
  • Jean Garetius (c.1499-1571), O.S.A. in his famous "an excellent treatise on the holy Eucharist" (CE) De vera praesentia corporis Christi in sacramento eucharistiae (Antverpiae, 1561, fol. 53b), etc.
And many others.
Moreover, since 1543 also latin translation of commentaries of Euthymius have been printed and so very fastly become extremely popular. And since he made similar testimony about Eucharist, theologians - e.g. jesuits Peter Canisius (1521–1597), Robert Bellarmine (1542–1621), and many others - often referred to Theophylact's and Euthymius' commentary of words of consecration (Matthew 26:26-28) as important patristic testimonies for defending catholic doctrine about transubstantiation and sacrifice of Mass.
 
 
VILLAVICENCIO, Lorenzo de (1501-1581), O.S.A., exegete, theologian.
Following passage is orthodox compilation of works of modern philologists, namely Erasmus and others of Erasmus' time.
Phrases scripturae sacrae, MULTI (Antverpiae, 1571, fol. 127b)
"MANY": Hebrews as also Greeks take it for ALL.MULTI, Hebraeis perinde ac Graecis pro omnibus accipiuntur,
  • When "many are called," [Mt. 22:14], that is, all indeed are called, namely through the preaching Apostolic word. For in the Romans it is accepted otherwise. "Those whom he called, them he also justified." [Romans 8:30].
  • quum multi sunt vocati, id est, omnes quidem vocati sunt, per praedicationis Apostolica verbum scilicet. Nam in Romanis aliter accipitur vocatio. Quos vocavit, hos et justificavit.
  • And in the I. Corinthians 10. "(There is) one bread, (we who are) MANY (are) one body" [1 Cor. 10:17, cf. Romans 12:5], that is all we who believe in Christ.
  • Et I. Corintheorum decimo. Unus panis et unum corpus multi, hoc est universi qui Christo fidimus, sumus.
  • Thus, for many is poured out the blood of Christ [Matth. 26:28], for all and for the whole multitude.
  • Sic pro multis funditur sanguis Christi, pro omnibus et pro universa multitudine.
  • Sometimes, the translator translates "more", now "many." In Greek it is the same diction πολλοὶ, which Origen cleans to be put for all, which would more respond to one.
  • Nonnunquam interpres vertit plures, nunc multi Graecis eadem est dictio πολλοι, quam Origines positam putat pro omnibus, quo magis respondeat unus,
    • As also that: "Which shall be shed for many." [Matth. 26:28]
    • ut et illic: Qui pro vobis et pro multis.
  • So also in Isaiah, the twenty-fourth, "after MANY days shall they be visited," [Is. 24:22], also all the days.
  • Sic et in Esaia, vigesimo quarto, Multi dies tantum pollent, atque omnes dies.
We can see this also in various other catholic greek-latin philological dictionaries of that time. The most important philologist was Erasmus (1466–1536), who also wrote dictionary. Following example was also inspired by his works and was revised by great number of philologist in time of Erasmus and later. About word "many" it says:
Dictionarium graeco-latinum: Πολλὸς, τοῦ πολλοῦ (Basileae. 1584, p. 1131)
Πολλὸς, τοῦ πολλοῦ, about which in Πολὺς, many, all, frequent/often, copious, numerous, ample.Πολλὸς, τοῦ πολλοῦ, de quo in Πολὺς, multus, omnis, frequens, copiosus, numerosus, amplus.
 
 
PERUSINUS, Guidellus Thaddaeus (1511-1606), O.S.A., theologian on council of Trent
on Isaiah 53:12 (Explanatio in Esaiam prophetam, Perusiae, 1598, tom. 2, 82-83)
according to St. Augustine from book 20 of The city of God, sacred scriptures often take "many" for all,ex Divo Augustino ex 20. libro de Civitate Dei, cap. 23. scripturam sacram frequenter accipere multos pro omnibus;
  • since it is said to Abraham: "I have set you as the father of MANY nations" (Gn 17:5), but still in another place it is said: "And in your seed shall ALL the nations of the earth be blessed, because you have obeyed my voice." (Gn 22:18).
  • nam Abrae dictum est patrern multarum gentium te constitui (Gen. 17). Et tamen alibi dicitur. In semine tuo benedicentur omnes gentes terrae, quia obedisti voci meae (Gen. 22)
  • And also it is said to Jonah IV,2: "God of many of compassion/mercy", i.d. all, where he takes "many" for all.
  • Sic etiam dicitur Jonae 4. Deus multae miserationis, idest omnis, ubi accipit multum pro omni.
  • So also Psalm 40,6: "You have made many (things), O Lord, who is similar to you?" Many, that is all.
  • Sic etiam psal. 53. Multa fecisti tu Domine, quis similis tui? multa idest omnia.
  • So we have also in this prophet in the end of this chapture (Isaiah 53,12b): "who - namely Christ himself - has borne the sins of many" i.e. all.
  • Sic etiam habemus apud hunc prophetam in calce hujus capituli, quod scilicet ipse Christus peccata multorum tulit, idest omnium.
  • And Matthew 20,28: Christ give his life a ransom for MANY - understand all!
  • Et apud Math. capite 20. Christus posuit animam suam in redemptionem pro multis, (intellige) pro omnibus.
  • And in Mark (14,24 resp. Matthew 26,28): This is my blood, which shall be shed FOR MANY for the remission of sins.. (for many) i.e for all.
  • Apud Marcum. Hic est sanguis meus, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum (pro multis) idest pro omnibus.
  • And in Luke Christ said to Mary Magdalene (Luke 7,47): MANY sins are forgiven you, (many) i.e. all.
  • Et apud Lucam dixit Christus Mariae Magdalenae. Remittuntur tibi peccata multa (multa) idest omnia.
    And many other places in the sacred scripture is repeated, where "many", "more", "the most" is taken for all.
    Et multa alia loca in sacris literis facile est reperire, ubi multa, vel plura aut plurima accipiuntur pro omnibus.
 
 
SALMERON, Alfonso (1515-1585), S.J., exegete, papal theologian on council of Trent. "After preaching the Lent at Bologna, he went with Lainez to the Council of Trent (May 18, 1546) as theologian to Paul III. [...] The two Jesuits at once won the hearts and respect of all; their discourses had to be printed and distributed to the bishops. [...] After serious sickness at Padua, Salmeron once again took up his council work. The next two years were in great part spent in preaching at Bologna, Venice, Padua, and Verona. On October 4, 1549, Salmeron and his companions, Le Jay and Canisius, took their doctorate in the University of Bologna, so that they might, at the urgent invitation of William IV of Bavaria, accept chairs in Ingolstadt. [...] after a few months was summoned by Ignatius to go back to the Council of Trent as theologian to Julius III. It was during the discussions preliminary to these sessions that Lainez and Salmeron, as papal theologians, gave their vota first. [...] Lainez appointed Salmeron first Provincial of Naples (1558), and vicar-general (1561) during the former's apostolic legation to France. The Council of Trent was again resumed (May, 1562) and a third pontiff, Pius IV, chose Salmeron and Lainez for papal theologians. The role was very delicate; the Divine origin of the rights and duties of bishops was to be discussed. During the years 1564-82, Salmeron was engaged chiefly in preaching and writing; he preached every day during eighteen Lenten seasons; his preaching was fervent, learned, and fruitful. His writings during this long period were voluminous; Bellarmine spent five months in Naples reviewing them." (CE)
Prolegomenon XI, quinquagenta III, canon XLII (Madriti, 1598, vol. I, pag. 269; Venetiis 1601, vol. I, pag. 203)
[MANY for ALL is often used by Scripture][Multos pro omnibus plerunque ponit Scriptura]
And to this, passages are referred such, in which "many" is used for ALL, according to that:Et ad hos locos referendi sunt illi, in quibus Multi ponitur pro omnibus, iuxta illud:
  • The Son of man came to give his life in ransom for many.
  • Filius hominis venit dare animam suam in redemptionem pro multis.
  • And again: This is my blood of the New Testament, which shall be shed for many for the remission of sins.
  • Et rursus. Hic est sanguis meus Novi Testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
  • Where Theophylact: "For many" - he says - "to be shed, that is, for all: for also all are many."
  • Ubi Theophylactus: Pro multis dicit effundi, hoc est pro omnibus: sunt enim et omnes multi.
  • And in Romans. 5. For if the offense of one, many died, much more, etc. But it is evident the death of sin, come down unto all men.
  • Et Rom. 5. Si enim unius delicto multi mortui sunt; multo magis, etc. Constat autem mortem peccati in omnes homines descendisse.
  • And Augustine. book against Julian, notes the same as the Theophylactus.
  • Et Augustin. lib. contra Julianum, idem cum Theophylacto prorsus annotavit.
Prolegomenon XIV, formula XXII (Madriti, 1598, vol. I, pag. 338; Venetiis 1601, vol. I, p. 256)
[Sometimes the Scripture says "many" for all][Interdum Scriptura multos dicit pro omnibus]
By "many" are sometimes called all, just as the Matthew 20.Multi, aliquando dicuntur omnes: quemadmodùm Matth. 20.
  • Even as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many: that is, for all.
  • Sicut Filius hominis non venit ministrari, sed ministrare, et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis: id est, pro omnibus.
The same thing Augustine, book. 6. against Julian [...] And Euthymius in cap. Matth. 26. on that: "Which is shed for many",Hoc idem Augustinus lib. 6. contra Julianum [...] Et Euthymius in cap. Matth. 26. in id: Qui pro multis effunditur:
    For he said here "many" for ALL. For all are many.
    Multos hîc dicit omnes: nam omnes multi sunt.
So they.Sic ille.
Similar are that:
    Just as through the disobedience of one man, many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one, many were made of the just.
Similia sunt illa:
    Sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis, peccatores constituti sunt multi: ita et per unius obeditionem, justi constituti sunt multi.
And again:
    If the offense of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and a gift in the grace of one man of Christ, hath abounded unto more.
Et rursus:
    Si unius delicto multi mortui sunt, multo magis gratia Dei, et donum in gratia unius hominis Christi in plures abundavit.
Where word "many" and "more" in Greek are said πολλούς.Ubi nomen multi et plures, Graecé dicitur πολλούς.
Commentarii, vol. IV, pars. III, tract. XXVIII (Madriti: 1599, p. 765-766; Coloniae, 1602, vol. IV,, p. 582)
[Scripture often uses "MANY" for ALL][Multos pro omnibus Scriptura frequenter usurpat]
Even as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to minister, and to give his life a redemption for many. [...]Sicut Filius hominis non venit ministrari, sed ministrare, et dare animam suam, redemptionem pro multis. [...]
what he says, for many, as Euthymius says, is equal as if he had said, "for all."quod ait, pro multis, ut inquit Euthymius, perinde est ac si dixisset, pro omnibus:
    For the Scripture often says "many" for all.
    frequenter enim Scriptura dicit multos pro omnibus.
  • So Isaiah said, "He himself hath borne the sins of many,"
  • Ita Esaias dixit: Ipse peccata multorum tulit:
  • and Paul: Just as through the disobedience of one man, the many were made sinners, that is, all.
  • et Paulus: Sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis, pecсatores constituti sunt multi, id est, omnes.
Thus he delivered his own life for all.Pro omnibus igitur tradidit animam suam.
 
 
Martín Martínez de CANTALAPIEDRA (1518-1579), theologian, philologian, exegete.
Hypotyposeon, lib. 6, cap. III [De signis universalibus] (Salamanticae, 1582. col. 461-462; Madrid, 1771, p. 184-185).
MULTI PRO OMNIBUS
Multi aliquando pro omnibus accipiuntur.
  • Matth. 20. Filius hominis non venit ministrari, sed ministrare, et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis.
  • et ca. 26. Hic est sanguis meus, qui est novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
  • Ex Theophy. in prædictorum locorum expositione. Item ad Hebræ. 9. Hæc dictio, inquit, multi pro omnibus ponitur. Ut animam suam daret pretium redemptionis pro multis, id est, pro omnibus, omnes etiam multi sunt.
  • Et August. contra Julianum Pelagianum. lib. 6. ca. 12. Hæc dictio multi pro omnibus ponitur.
    • Genes. 17. Patrem multarum gentium posui te,
    • et apud Paulum. Per unius inobedientiam peccatores constituti sunt multi.
  • Adde etiam ex Hiero. Isaiæ. 66. [PL 24, 683]
      Quod hic numerus multi semper in vitio est. Unde in Genesi narratur, quod cœperint homines fieri multi in terra.
    Haec ille.
  • et in Psalm. Multi insurgunt adversum me. Et in lege præcipitur. Ne acquiescamus iudicio multorum. Nam stultorum infinitus est numerus. Hincforte pauci pro justis accipi solent, ut in Psalm. 16. Domine a paucis de terra divide eos, in vita eorum.
it is whole quoted also by Manuel Bernardo de Ribera/Rivera (1720-1765), O.Ss.T. in Institutionum philosophicarum (Salmanticae, 1754, vol. 1, p. 196).
 
 
TOLETANUS [Tolet / de Toledo], Francisco (1532-1596), S.J., cardinal, theologian, exegete, philosopher, "preacher to the pope and cardinals for twenty-four years [...] Gregory XIII considered him one of the most learned men of his age, and Soto ranks him as a genius. [...] In his Scriptural commentaries he examines every sentence of the text, points out their relationship, gives Patristic references in the annotations, discusses and judges dogmatic questions learnedly and lucidly. By some he is considered the foremost interpreter of his century, and his exegetical works certainly deserve the first place. In his theological works he is clear, concise, and orderly." (CE)
annotation on Rom 5 (Commentarii. Romae : Lucensis, 1602. page 288)
August. lib. 6. contra Iulianum cap. 12. et lib. 1. de peccat. meri. cap. 15. in hac et illis sententiis Matth. 20. Venit filius hominis animam suam dare in redemptionem, et Matth. 26. Qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum, et in sequentibus hujus capitis sententiis; multos ab omnibus non distinguit, sed affirmat, multos pro omnibus positos esse.
 
 
SEWERYN, Lubomlcyzk [Lubomlius Severinus Cracoviensis] (1532-1612), O.P., theologian
(almost identically to Salmeron in Prol. XIV, formula XXII)
Monotessaron Evangelicum, vol. 1., De idiotismis et Graecae ac Hebraicae linguae phrasibus (Cracoviae, 1607, tom. 1, p. 463)
Quando haec dictio collectiva, multi, capitur pro omnibus, ut Math: 20. Sicut filius hominis non venit ministrari, sed ministrare, et dare animam suam in redemptionem pro multis, id est, pro omnibus. Hoc idem Augustinus lib: 6. contra Julianum cap: 12. docet. [...] Et Euthim: cap: 43 in cap: Matt: 26. supra id. Qui pro multis effundetur. Multos hîc dicit omnes, nam omnes multi sunt: haec ille. Similia sunt illa Rom. 5. Sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, ita per unius obeditionem justi constituti sunt multi. Et rursus ibidem. Si unius delicto, multi mortui sunt, multo magis gratia Dei, et donum in gratia unius hominis Christi in plures abundavit. Ubi nomen, multi, et plures, Graece dicitur πολλούς.
 
 
MALDONADO, Juan (1533–1583), S.J., exegete
on Psalms 110:6 [he will wound the heads over many countries] (Commentarii in Prophetas IV Accesit expositio Psalmi CIX, Paris, 1610, p. 826)
dicemus dictionem multus, saepissime praesertim, et Hebraice etiam significare universus, uniuersa, uniuersum, seu omnis, aut omne; quemadmodum, cùm ait Christus, Matth. 26. et Marc. 14. Hic est sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur, id est, pro omnibus, et cùm etiam ipse, ait, Matth. 20. et 22. multi sunt vocati pauci vero electi, multi significat idem, quod omnes, seu universi, quod eodem capite 22. adfert parabolam hominis regis, qui praecepit servis suis, ut vocarent omnes ad nuptias, et D.Paul. i.ad Timoth.2. idem, ait, velle Deum omnes homines salvos fieri, et ad cognitionen veritatis venire, et Hebraeorum 9. in fine, ait, Christum semel oblatum esse ad multorum exhaurienda peccata, id est, omnium. Quocirca hoc etiam loco terra multorum significat totum sive universum orbem terrarum, hoc est conquassabit capita, id est, occidet homines in universa terra.
tract. IV [De Providentia], Disputatio II. [De Praedestinatione] (Opera varia theologica. Paris: 1677. tomus III, p. 111-112)
Probabant autem antiqui Praedestinatiani hanc opinionem, ut refert Remigius Lugdunensis his argumentis. Primum, quod Scriptura multis locis doceat Christum non pro omnibus, sed pro multis mortuum esse, ut [...] Matth. 26. hic est sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur, et Marci 10 filius hominis non venit ut ministraretur ei, sed ut ministraret et animam suam daret in redemptionem pro multis, et ad Heb. 9. Christus semel mortuus est ad multorum exhaurienda peccata. [...]
Respondeo [...] loci Scripturae, ubi dicitur Christum esse mortuum pro multis, duobus modis explicandi sunt.
Primùm, ut Scriptura dicat multos pro omnibus, ut saepè solet, ad Rom. 5. sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis, peccatores constituti sunt multi, id est, omnes: ut eodem cap. declaratur, in omnes pertransiit.
Alio modo, ut sit graecismus, Graeci enim vocant τοὺς πόλλους, multos, totam mulitudinem, et universitatem hominum. Itaque idem valet Christum dedisse animam suam, redemptionem pro multis, atque si dicat, mortuum esse pro tota universitate hominum.
De sacramentis. De Eucharistia. De Forma.
(Disputationum ac controversiarum decisarum et circa septem Ecclesiae Romanae Sacramenta. Lugduni: 1614, tom. i, p. 136; Opera varia theologica. Paris: 1677. tom. I, col. 88-93)
Fundamentum enim est sanguis Christi, qui hîc nobis sub mysterio porrigitur; non palam et aperte jam ista verba; Qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur. Nullus Euangelilta dixit simul, sed Matth. et Marcus. dixerunt pro multis: Lucas et Paulus, pro vobis. Ecclesia ideo conjunxit, ut declararet, tantundem valere pro vobis atque multis. Tantundem autem valet pro multis. Atque pro omnibus: sicut apud Paulum ad Rom. 5. Cum per unum hominem multi dicuntur esse constituti peccatores; multi accipiuntur pro omnibus. Illa ergo verba, qui pro vobis effundetur, etiamsi ad personas Apostolorum dicta videantur; tamen non sunt accipienda indiuidue, sed generaliter. Ut sit sensus, pro vobis, id est, pro hominibus. Et quia homines sunt omnes pro omnibus: quemadmodum cum Joannes dicit, ipse vos baptizabit, non intelligit eos ipsos, quibuscum loquebatur, baptizandos fuisse à Christo postea: Nam fortasse non sunt baptizati: Sed sensus est, vos baptizabit, id est, omnes.
Index Verborum [List of words made by his editors - Dubois and Faure - as appendix to that book in ed. 1677]
Multi, id est, omnes. 89.
 
 
MARIANA, Juan de [Mariana of Talavera] (1536-1624), S.J., theologian, exegete, teacher of Suárez and Bellarmine.
Scholia in Vetus et Novum Testamentum: ad Robertum Bellarminum, Paris 1620.
to Matthew 20:28 (p. 757)
"For many" - that is for all, to Rom. 5:19, Many were made sinners - i.e. all.Pro multis - id est, pro omnibus : ad Roman. 5. v. 19, Peccatores constituti sunt multi - id est, omnes.
to Romans 5:15 (p. 819)
Multi mortui sunt, multi pro omnes. Sic Aug. contra Jul. libr. 6. cap. 12. Theoph. Matth. 20. exempla passim occurrunt, ubi multi sumuntur pro omnes.
 
 
Egidio da Presentaçao [Egidius a Praesentatione] (1539-1626), O.S.A., theologian.
De Immaculata Beatae Virginis Conceptione, q. 3, a. 2 (Conimbricae: 1617, p. 58)
Paul 2 Cor. 5 Christ died for all. [...] Adequate are words of Matthew 26: This is my blood, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins : "for many," I say, that is for all as Catholic Church declares.Paulo 2. Сor. 5: Christus pro omnibus mortuus est: [...] Satis sint verba Matthaei 26: Hic est sanguis meus, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum : pro multis, inquam, id est pro omnibus, ut Ecclesia Catholica declarat.
ibid., q. 5, a. 2, §. 3 (ed. 1617, p. 264-265)
Ad secundam confirmationem sumptam ex contextu Pauli [Rom 5] ... dicimus verbum multi a Paulo posteriori loco positum explicandum esse per verbum omnes positum priori loco, ut idem dicat, quod verbum omnes, quae est explicatio Augustini: nec enim novum est in sacris literis verbum multi idem dicere, quod verbum omnes, ut advertit Augustinus lib. 20. de Civitate Dei cap. 23 et patet
  • ex с. 20 Matthaei: Filius autem hominis venit dare animam suam pro multis
  • et ex с. 26. Matthaei: Hic est sanguis meus, qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur:
in quo utroque loco multi idem est, quod omnes, ut utrobique annotavit Theophylactus, et est communis explicatio. Ad Hebraeos etiam с. 9. Ut animam suam det pretium redemptions pro multis, id est, pro omnibus,
  • iuxta Catholicam explicationem: Daniel. 12: Et multi dormientium in terrae aggere ex[s]urgent, cum tamen omnes, qui in monumentis sunt, audient vосеm filii Dei, ut dicitur Ioan. 5. et docet Paulus I. Cor. 15. Omnes resurgemus.
Cum igitur constet in praecitatis locis verbum multi continere sententiae universalitatem; cur non dicemus in praecitato loco Pauli idem verbum eam continere? ut idem sit multi, quod omnes: maxime cum materia subjecta illam universalitatem postulet; et eandem satis convincat verbum omnes in priori propositione: quod juxta communem Ecclesiae interpretationem continet universalitatem sententiae; ut etiam probat Augustinus lib. 6. contra. Julianum сар. 24. et lib. I. de peccatorum meritis cap. 15. et libr. 2. de nuptiis, et concupiscentia cap. 27. ad finem, et est communis aliorum Patrum, et interpretum explicatio, ut patet ex Bellarmino lib. 4. de Amissione gratiae, et statu peccati cap. 8. ad 2. testimonium, et ex Pereira in eodem loco disp. 14. et ex aliis expositoribus.
 
 
ZUMEL, Francisco (c.1540-1607), O. Merced., theologian.
Comment. super Prim. Secun. D. Thom. quest. LXXXI, art. I, disput. I. (Zumel, Salmanticae: 1593, vol. I., p. 512)
When, however, it is objected:Quando vero obiicitur,
    Paul said that by the sin of one the many died, and through the disobedience of one the many were made sinners,
    Paulum dixisse quod unius delicio multi mortui sunt, et quod per inobedientiam unius hominis, peccatores constituti sunt multi:
it is responded:Respondetur,
    that word "many" is often put and taken for all,
    vocem illam, multi, saepè poni et accipi pro omnibus
    • as Matthew 20:
        "Son of man came to give his life as ransom for MANY."
    • ut Matthae. 20.
        Filius hominis venit dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis;
    • And cap. 26:
        "This is my blood which shall be shed for MANY."
    • Et ca. 26.
        Hic est sanguis qui pro multis effundetur.
    And this is the explanation of St. Augustine, lib. 6, against Julian. cap.12. And the reason is that the multiplicity is not opposition to universality, but to singularity.
    Et haec est explicatio D. August. lib. 6. contra Iulian. cap. 12. Et ratio huius est, quod multitudo non tam opponitur universali, quam singularitati
 
 
THYRAEUS, Petrus (1546–1601), S.J., theologian.
Divinarum Noui Testamenti, cap. IV (Cologne, 1611, p. 45)
Quocirca illud Multi apud Danielem cap. 12. non aliquos includit, aliquos excludit. Nullos excludit; omnes includit.
    Non putetur, inquit B. Augustinus, lib. 20. de Civit. cap. 23. diversum, quod cum ibi positum sit, Omnes, qui sunt in monumentis, hic non dicat Propheta, Omnes, sed multi dormientium in terra agere. Ponit enim aliquando Scriptura pro Omnibus vocabulum multos. Proptera et Abrahae dictum est Genes. 17. potrem multarum gentium posui te, cut tamen et alio loco dicitur (Genes. 22.) in semine tuo benedicentur omnes gentes.
Idem docet Theodoretus, et alio exemplo confirmat, sumpto ex cap. 5. Epist. ad Romanos: ubi Paulus, cùm prius dixisset,
    propter peccatum Adami factos esse omnes peccatores,
posterius subdit,
    propter eius inobedientiam multos esse constitutos peccatores,
manifestè est usus vocabulo Multorum, pro voce Оmnium.
Servit et hic illud Domini, Matt. 22. Multi vocati pauci electi.
In voce Multorum Omnes intelligi, non dubitat, qui attendit illud Pauli, I. Tim. 2. vult omnes salvos fieri.
Servit et illud, Matth. 26. Qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur.
 
 
PANIGAROLA, Francesco (1548-1594), O.F.M, bishop, theologian. "At the age of twenty-three he was sent to Rome, where his sermons attracted much attention. Pius V had him sent to Paris where for two years he studied the Fathers and the Councils, Greek and Hebrew. Returning to Italy he preached during thirteen years in the principal towns. He converted many Calvinists" (CE).
Lettioni sopra dogmi, cap. 9 (Venetia : Dusinelli 1584, 327 pp., page 137-138; Ferrara: Vasalini, 1585. p. 137-138)
When Christ said, that "Many are called, but few chosen/elect"(Mt 22:16 [20:16]), if this word "many" is right, then it seems, that some are called, and some aren't. However, who is skilled in Sacred Scripture, he sees, that here "many" means all. In this manner it is said Christo, quando disse, Multi sunt vacati pauci vero electi : perche se bene la parola, multi, pare che ad alcuni conceda la vocatione, et ad altri nò : Tuttavia chi è versato nelle sacre carte vede, che quà multi, significa omnes, in quella maniera che si dice
  • in Genesis (17:5) "I have set you as the father of MANY nations," i.e. all.
  • nella Genesi, eris pater multarurn gentium, id est omnium
  • in Jonah (4:2): "God of MANY of compassion/mercy", i.d. of all.
  • in Giona, Deus multae miserationis, id est omnis,
  • in Job (36:31) "he gives food to MANY mortals." i.e. to all.
  • in Giobbe, dat escam multis mortalibus, id est omnibus.
  • also Psalm (40:6): "You have made MANY [things]", i.e. all [things].
  • Ne i salmi, Multa fecisti tu domine, id est omnia
  • in Isaiah (53:12b): "he has borne the sins of MANY" i.e. of all.
  • In Esaia, peccata multorum tulit, id est omnium
  • in Saint Matthew (20:28): Christ give his life a ransom for MANY, i.e. for all.
  • in San Matteo animam suam redemptionem pro multis, id est omnibus
  • in Saint Mark (14:24) "which shall be shed FOR MANY", i.e for all.
  • In San Marco qui pro multis effundetur, id est omnibus.
  • in Saint Luke (7:47): MANY sins are forgiven you, i.e. all.
  • In San Luca, remittuntur tibi peccata multa, id est omnia.
  • to Romans (12:5): "We (being) MANY are one body", i.e. all.
  • a Romani. Multi unum corpus sumus, id est omnes.
  • to Hebrews (9:28): "to exhaust the sins of many", i.e. of all.
  • A gli Hebrei; ad multorum exhaurienda peccata, id est omnium.
 
 
SUÁREZ, Francisco (1548–1617), S.J., "a pious and eminent theologian, as Paul V called him" (CE).
disput. 50 [quaest. 56, art. 2], sect. 3, num. 7
Objection 2. (Opera Omnia, Paris, 1860, vol. XIX, p. 924)
Dan. 12:2 many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, Dan. 12: Multi de iis qui dormiunt in terrae pulvere, evigilabunt.
where it seems, that it is said many and not all.Ubi videtur dictum esse multi, et non omnes.
Response (Opera Omnia, Paris, 1860, vol. XIX, p. 926)
Words of Daniel (in objection) are not rightly explained, because it is expressly said:
    "many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt."
non plene referuntur verba Danielis; nam expresse dicitur:
    Multi ex iis qui dormiunt in terrae pulvere, evigilabunt, alii in vitam aeternam, alii in opprobrium.
Which therefore he said "many" as we've said above yet, that in Scripture it is often taken for allQuod ergo dicit, multi, jam supra diximus saepe in Scriptura sumi pro omnibus,
  • as Romans 5: "by the transgression of the one (the) many died",
  • and Matthew 26: "which shall be shed for you and for many."
So Theodoret and other expositors.
  • ut ad Rom. 5: Unius delicto multi mortui sunt
  • et Matt. 26: Qui pro vobis ac pro multis effundetur.
Ita Theod. et alii expositores.
 
 
VASQUEZ, Gabriel (c.1550-1604), S.J., "doctor acutus", theologian, "Benedict XIV called him the luminary of theology. He was noted for his exact knowledge of the opinions and theories of the different Schools and authors, and commendable for clearness of expression and a strict philosophical method. He made a complete study of the writings of St. Augustine, for whom he professed great devotion, as well as those of the other Fathers of the Church and St. Thomas." (CE)
Commentarium ac disputationum in tertiam partem Sancti Thomae, q. 78, art. 3 / disput. CXCIX, cap. I-II (Antverpiae, 1614, vol. 3, p. 333-334; Antverpiae, 1621, vol. 3, p. 308-309)
From fathers indeed. Theophylact, and Euthymius, also expressly trade it.Ex Patribus vero. Theophylactus, et Euthymius, eam etiam expresse tradunt.
  • For Theophylact in the that 1. Cor. 11 "For the Lord is Jesus, etc." on that "which is broken for you" [1Cor 11:24], as [also] the Vulgate has, so [he] explains:
  • Nam Theophylactus in illud 1. ad Cor. 11 Quoniam Dominus Iesus, etc. illud Quod pro vobis frangitur, ut habet Vulgata, ita exponit,
      Generally to all he said: take and eat his body, which equally for all is broken delivering unto the death.
      Generatim omnibus dixit: accipite, edite, idque corpus suum quod pro omnibus ex aequo fregit in mortem tradens.
  • And on that Luke 22. "Which is given for you", that "for you" values that is the same as for the human race.
  • Et in illud Luc. 22. Quod pro vobis datur, illud, Pro vobis, existimat idem esse, quod pro humano genere.
  • Euthymius explains in the same way that Matth. 26. "Which shall be shed for many," as to be the same, what "​​for all men," so to show that the blood of Christ was superior to the blood of Old Testament, which was shed only for the Hebrews.
  • eodem modo explicat Euthymius illud Matth. 26. Qui pro multis effundetur, ut idem sit, quod pro omnibus hominibus, ut ita ostenderet, quantum praestet sanguis Christi sanguini veteris testamenti, qui solum pro Hebraeis effundebatur.
[...] that words "for many," clearly marked many others than disciples, as above from Euthymius and Theophylact we note. [...] for that reason, to speak more expressly the price of blood, which was to be not only for the Apostles, but also for the whole human race[...] verbis illis, Pro multis, denotavit plane plures alios, quam discipulos, ut supra ex Euthymio, et Theophylacto notavimus. [...] ideo, ut expressius significaret pretium sanguinis, quod futurum erat non tantum pro Apostolis, sed etiam pro toto genere humano
 
 
ESCALANTE, Fernand/Fernando/Fernandus de (c.1550-1615), O.Ss.T., exegete.
Clypeus Concionatorum verbi Dei, lib. 4, cap. 28 (ed. 1622, col. 794-795). Note: For allowing this book by Inquisitors, Jacob Gretser (1562–1625), S.J. added some notes to last cap. of lib. 6 (which disputed about various latin catholic translations and editions of Bible), i.e. not to our passage, where Inquisitors did not require any note (cf. Index lib. prohib. : Decr. 3. Julii 1623).
The testimony of Daniel, cap. 12., verse. 2,Testimonium Danielis capite duodecimo, vers. secundo,
    many of those that sleep in the dust of the earth, shall awake: some unto life everlasting, and others unto reproach.
    multi de his qui dormiunt in terræ pulvere evigilabunt, alii in vitam æternam, et alii in opprobrium.
Perhaps you will answer that these words points not to resurrection of all, but of many - nevertheless, you would be easy convicted, if you have placed before the eyes custom of phrases of Sacred Scriptures, by which "many" are taken for all, what is noted by Jerome, Theodoret and other Fathers.Fortassis respondebis his verbis univesalem resurrectionem non indicari, sed multorum, veruntamem facile convinceris, si ante oculos posueris usitatam S.S. phrasim, qua multi pro omnibus accipiuntur, quod notavit Hierony. Theodoret. et alii Patres.
It is also clear from that Matth. 26. v. 28.Patet etiam ex illo Matth. 26. v. 28.
    For this is my blood of the New Testament, who shall be shed for many for the remission of sins,
    hic est enim sanguis meus novi testameti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum,
but it is established that the blood of Christ had been shed for all.constat autem sanguinem Christi pro omnibus fuisse effusum.
 
 
ÁLFARO, Gregorio/Grégoire de (c.1558-1660), O.S.B., theologian, Spanish translator.
He translated latin work of theologian Francois-Louis de Blois [BLOSIUS] (1506–1566), O.S.B.
While Blois' original latin text says:
Opera, Coloniae: 1572, p. 750; Coloniae, 1589, p. 691
... which shall be shed for many... qui pro multis effundetur
Álfaro translated it as:
Las Obras de Ludouico Blosio, (Barcelona: 1614, p. 553 )
... which shall be shed for all... que se derramara por todos
 
 
LORIN, Jean de [Joannes LORINI/LORINUS] (1559-1634), S.J., theologian, exegete.
to 1 Peter 4:8 ["love covers a multitude of sins"] (In catholicas tres B. Ioannis, et duas B. Petri Epistolas commentarii, Luguni, 1609, p. 282 ii - 283 i)
  • Multitudinem peccatorum. Multitudo universitatem significat, multa universa.
    • Sic enim in Proverbiis est, unde promptus hic locus, universae delicia operit charitas (10,12).
Sunt huius dicendi formulae alibi exempta non pauca.
  • Per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constitutos multos (Rom.5,19) Paulus dicit,
    • qui dixerat omnes in eo peccavisse (Rom.5,12):
  • patrem multarum gentium Abraham vocat (Rom.4,17) post Auctorem Genesis (17,4) et Ecclesiastici (4,20),
  • Daniel scribit, quod multi de his, qui dormiunt in terrae puluere, evigilabunt (12,2).
    • Subdit tamen partitionem, qua comprehenduntur omnes, alii, in vitam aeternam, et alii in opprobrium, ut videant semper (ibidem).
  • Christus ait
    • et sanguinem suum pro multis effusum (Matt.26,28):
    cum
    • Joannes dicat Christum propitiationem esse pro peccatis totius mundi (1Jo.2,2),
    nec dubitari possit cuiuis exhiberi vocationis gratiam sufficientem, quia
    • vult omnes Deus salvos fieri, et ad agnitionem veritatis venire (1Tim.2,4),
    • et Christus venit vocare peccatores ad poenitentiam (Matt. 9,13).
  • Notarunt Augustinus, ac Theophylactus multos poni nonnumquam pro omnibus: et idem est de enuntiationibus indefinitis habentibus universalium significationem: sicut etiam certum est, propositiones universali nota insignitas, capi debere pro indefinitis, definitis, et incertis.
  • Praecipit de istis rectè Salmeron (tom. 1. proleg. 11, quinquag. 3. can. 42).
And ibid. in "Index rerum" (in appendix to this book), referring to this passage it is said:
Multi pro omnibus in Scriptura frequens. 282.2.d.
to Act. 13:10 (In Acta Apostolorum commentaria, Lugduni, 1605, p. 570; Coloniae Agrippinae: 1621, p. 420)
multus pro omni.
  • Michaeas (cap. 4. 2) ait: quod properabunt ad Dominum gentes multae, id est, omnes, ас ex omnibus aliqui, juxta praedictionem CHRISTI (Matth.,24.14), et visionem Joannis (Apoc.7.9.).
  • CHRISTUS idem dixit sanguinem suum fundendum pro multis (Mat.26.28), hoc est, sine dubio pro omnibus, quantum ad sufficientiam:
  • sicut quod scribit Paulus per unins inobedientiam peccatores constitutos multos, intelligit reipsa omnes, sicut eodem loco expresserat (Rom.5.12,18,19).
to 1 Mach. 1:2 (Commentarii in Deuteronomium, Lugduni, 1625, p. 135)
multos pro omnibus ponere.
  • Matthaei 20. Venit filius hominis dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis,
ubi certum est multos significare omnes,
    • ut probat August. lib. 6. contra Julianum, с. 12.
Sicut et in illis Apostoli verbis ad Rom. 5.
  • per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi.
  • Matthaei 26. hic est sanguis meus qui pro multis effundetur, id est, pro omnibus,
    • ut ad haec verba Euthymius, Multos hîc dicit omnes: nam omnes multi sunt.
 
 
PÉREZ, Antonio (1559-1637), O.S.B., theologian, exegete.
on Rom 5:15 (Authentica Actuum Apostolorum, et epistolae ad Romanos fides. Lugduni : Sumptibus Ludovici Prost, 1625. 302 pages., page 196-197)
Ex quo sequitur sensum elogii esse, quod sicut Adam obfuit omnibus, sic Christus omnibus profuit, et non utcumque, sed largiùs, et abundantiùs. Et potest juvari hoc ex eo quod ly multi idem esse solet quod omnes. Vel uti cùm Christus Dominas dixit
  • Matth. 20. Venit filius hominis dare animam suam in redemptionem pro multis.
  • Et rursum in consecratione calicis, Pro vobis et pro multis effundetur.
imo et hîc vers. 19. Sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constuti sunt multi : ita et per unius obeditionem iusti constituuntur multi.
 
 
LAPIDE, Cornelius Cornelii a (1567–1637), S.J., theologian and one of the most famous catholic exegetes in history.
In 19th century his commentary to Gospels were translated also in English (see CE).
on Isaiah 53:12 (vol. xi, p. 638)
["he hath borne the sins of many"]
Of many - i.e. of all. For all are many.MULTORUM, - id est omnium. Omnes enim sunt multi.
on Hebrews 9:28 (vol. xix., p. 449)
["to bear/exhaust the sins of many"]
Of many. i.e. of all men, who are many, says Theophylact."Multorum," id est, omnium hominum, qui multi sunt, inquit Theophylactus.
on Matthew 26:28 (vol. xv, p. 559; Antverpiae: 1639, p. 483)
["blood ... which shall be shed for many"]
Which for many. - i.e. for all men. For these all are very many.QUI PRO MULTIS, - id est pro omnibus hominibus; hi enim omnes sunt valde multi.
on Daniel 12:2 (vol. xiii, p. 167)
["Many of those who sleep in the dust of the ground will awake"]
The sense is: all that are dead, shall rise again. Thus, the "many" is taken for all in Rom. 5:15 "by the offence of one, many died" and Matth. 26:28: "which shall be shad for you and for many." Thus St. Augustine, The city of God, XX:21, Theodoret and others.Sensus est, omnes qui mortui sunt resurgent. Sic τὸ multi capitur pro omnes, Rom. v, 15: "Unius delicto multi mortui sunt"; et Matth. xxvi, 28: "Qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur." Ita S. Augustinus, XX De Civit. xxi, Theodoretus at alii.
on 1 Peter 4:8 (Paris 1891, vol. XX, p. 355)
["charity shall cover the multitude of sins"]
MULTITUDE, i.e. universality, OF SINS. So it is said, that Christ suffered for many, i.e. for all. Matthew 26:28 and that many - i.e. all - will rise again in day of judgment. Daniel 12:2.MULTITUDINEM, id est universitatem, PECCATORUM. Sic dicitur Christus passus pro multis, id est pro omnibus, Matth.26.28 et quod multi, id est omnes resurgent in die judicii, Daniel 12. 2.
TODO Barbier
 
 
Jean Prévost [Joannes Praepositus] (1570-1634), S.J.
ad. ST III, q. 78. art. 3 / num. 25 [de sacramento Eucharistiae].
(Commentaria in tertiam partem S. Thomae de incarnatione verbi diuini sacramentis et censuris. Duaci : apud Gerardum Patte, 1629. p. 455)
In nostrâ liturgia praedictis verbis adduntur: novi et aeterni Testamenti, mysterium fidei, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum, quibus verbis significatur quod calix ... effundetur pro multis, id est omnibus, in remissionem peccatorum
 
 
GORCOMIUS [Joannes van Gorcum] (1572-1623), exegete. Follower of Lapide.
on Hebrews 9:28 (Epitome Comentariorum Guilielmi Estii et Cornelii a Lapide in omnes Pauli epistolas. Antverpiae: 1619, p. 903)
["to bear/exhaust the sins of many"]
Of many. i.e. of all men, who are many, says Theophylact.Multorum, id est, omnium hominum, qui multi sunt, inquit Theophyl.
 
 
HURTADO, Gaspar (1575-1647), S.J., theologian.
Tractatus de sacramentis. Disp. iii [de eucharistia], diffic. vii. (Tractatus de sacramentis. Antverpiae : 1633)
et dicitur, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum, quia effundendus erat pro Discipulis, qui significantur particulâ vobis; et etiam erat effundendus pro omnibus aliis, qui significantur particulâ multis.
 
 
MENOCHIO, Giovanni Stefano (1575-1655), S.J., theologian, exegete. He wrote his commentaries shorly after Lapide and also used his works.
on Isaiah 53, 12 ["he hath borne the sins of many"] (Brevis Explicatio Sensus Literalis Totius S. Scripturae. Coloniae Agrippinae: 1630, tom. II, p. 81; Biblia. Alosti: 1828. vol. VI, p. 513)
Of many. Of all. For all are many.Multorum. Omnium; omnes enim sunt multi.
on Matthew 20:28 (Brevis Explicatio Sensus Literalis in N.T.. Coloniae Agrippinae: 1630, p. 50; Biblia. Alosti: 1828. vol. IX., p. 132)
Redemption for many. For redemption of men.Redemptionem pro multis. Pro redimendis hominibus.
on Matthew 26:28 ["blood ... shed for many"] (Brevis Explicatio Sensus Literalis in N.T.. Coloniae Agrippinae: 1630, t. II, NT, p. 66; Biblia. Alosti: 1828. vol. IX, p. 174)
For many. For all, who are many. Shall be shed.Pro multis. Pro omnibus, qui multi sunt. Effundetur.
on Hebrews 9:28 ["to bear the sins of many"] (Brevis Explicatio Sensus Literalis in N.T.. Coloniae Agrippinae: 1630, p. 457; Biblia. Alosti: 1828. vol. XI., p. 120)
Of many. Of all men, who are many.Multorum. Omnium hominum, qui multi sunt.
 
 
REINA, Tommaso (1579-1653), S.J., theologian
Prediche quaresimali (ed. Rome : Corbelletti, 1649. vol. 2, p. 159-160; Venetia : Giunti, 1650. vol. 1, p. 91)
E questa è la ragione, perche Christo fù veduto nella sacra Apocalisse incoronato non con una corona come gli altri Beati, ma con molte, et in capite eius diademata multa (Apoc. 19).
Anzi con tutte le corone, secondo la frase della divina Scrittura, che spesse volte mette molto per tutto.
  • Venit fillius hominis dare animam suam pro multis, cioè pro omnibus, come interpreta Theofilatto.
  • Così s'intendono quegli altri luoghi: hic est sanguis, qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur,
  • appresso San Luca; ipse peccata multorum tulit,
  • appresso Isaia; per inobedientiam unius peccatores constituti sunt multi,
  • appresso à Paolo: unius delicto multi mortui sunt,
аррresso lo stesso, ne' quali luoghi tanto è à dir molti, quanto tutti: cosi dunque, in capite eius diademata multa, cioè omnia.
 
 
TIRINUS, Jacobus (1580–1636), S.J., theologian, exegete.
on Hebrews 9:28 (Antverpiae: 1632, t. III, p. 480)
MULTORUM, id est, omnium nostrum
 
 
Barthélemy de los Ríos y Alarcón (c.1580-1652), O.S.A., theologian.
Christus dominus in cathedra crucis docens et patiens, tract. 1., cap. XII (Bruxelle, 1645, p. 60-62)
Hic est calix sanguini mei, novi et aeterni testamenti, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum. Sed solosne hîc Apostolos compellat Christus, dum pro vobis dixit? aut beneficii hujus eos tantùm participes esse desiderat? Maxime, inquit Theodoretus, sed agit cum toto genere humano: licet enim solos alloqueretur Apostolos, ad omnes tamen sermonem suum extendi volebat [...] Ex Christi porro verbis (pro vobis) Superius allatis dubium ejuscemodi exoriri posset: si haec (pro vobis) ad universum genus humanum referuntur, ut qui pro omnibus sanguinem suum profudit pretiosissimum; quare adjungit aliam particulam, et pro mulis? ideo, ait idem Theodoretus, ut magis magisque ostenderet quàm vehementi teneretur desiderio, et quàm prodiga arderet sollicitudine omnibus beneficiendi.
 
 
PETAVIUS Aurelianensis, Dionysius [Denis Pétau] (1583–1652), S.J., “one of the most distinguished theologians of the seventeenth century” (CE).
Opus de theologicis dogmatibus, De incarnatione, lib. XIII, cap. II (Lutetiae Parisiorum: Cramoisy, 1650, vol. IV, pars II, p. 276; Venetiis: 1745, vol. 6, p. 144; 1757, vol. 5, p. 99)
Hoc ipsum et Graeci Interpretes sentiunt, Theophylactus et Euthymius in commentariis ad Matthaei caput vicesimum, ubi Christus venisse se dicit (Matth. 20, 28) dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis; quae sic exponunt illi, ut multi pro omnibus usurpentur.* Nam omnes sunt multi. Addit Euthymius, frequenter Scripturam multis dicere pro omnibus. Itaque pro omnibus tradidit animam suam, omnesque redemit; quanquam multi sua sponte in servitute remanserunt. De qua vocum permutatione vide quae Augustinus contra Julianum disserit in libro secundo operis imperfecti adversus ipsum (praesertim c. 134, et seq.).

* Theophyl. τουτέστι πάντων. οἱ γὰρ πάντες, πολλοί.
 
 
BONACINA, Martino (c.1585-1631), O.Ambr., "one of the foremost moralists of his age, whose theological works have been several times republished, and who died suddenly on his way to fill the position of Nuncio of Urban VIII" (CE)
Tractatus de Sacrosancta Christi Incarnatione, disp. III, quaest. V., punct. I., §. III, num. I (Lugduni, 1630, pag. 442)
Objection 1.:Obiicies primò,
    Daniel 12 says, that many will recurrect. "MANY", says he, "of those that sleep in the dust of the earth, shall awake: some unto life everlasting, and others unto reproach." Therefore not all will resurrect, but only MANY.
    Danielis 12. dicitur, multos resurrecturos, Multi, inquit, de iis, qui dormiunt, in terrae pulvere evigilabunt, alii in vitam aeternam, et alii in opprobrium. Ergo non omnes resurgent, sed solùm multi.
I response:Respondeo,
    word "many" according using of Scripture's phrases is taken for all, as it is clear from that
    nomen muti, juxta usitatam Scripturae phrasim accipi pro omnes, ut patet ex illo
    • Romans 5 "For if by the offence of one, many died,"
    • Roman. 5. Unius delicto multi mortui sunt,
    • and Matth. 26. "Which shall be shed for you and for many."
    • et Matth. 26. Qui pro vobis, ac pro multis effundetur.
So Francisco SUÁREZ, S.J. (1548–1617) in disp. 50. sect. 3. ad fin., Adam TANNER, S.J. (1572-1632) in tom. 4. disput. 2. quaest. 4. dub. 2. num. 39., ThEODORET and other expositors.Ita Sarez disp. 50. sect. 3. ad fin. Tannerus tom. 4. disput. 2. quaest. 4. dub. 2. num. 39. Theodoretus, et alii Expositores.
 
 
ANDRADE, Alonso de (1590-1672), S.J., theologian.
Meditaciones diarias: Meditacion XLI (Madrid: 1660, vol. 2, p. 231; 1725, vol. 2, p. 125; 1857, vol. 2, p. 100)
... which shall be shed for you and for allque será derramada por vosotros, y por todos
 
 
SILVEIRA/SYLVEIRA, João da (1592-1687), O.C.C., theologian.
Commentaria in textum evangelicum, lib. 7, cap. 7, q. 33 imp (Venetiis 1728, vol. 5, p. 112)
D. Matthaeus scribit, qui pro multis; D. Luc. pro vobis. Sanguis Christi pro Apostolis, et pro omnibus hominibus sufficienter est effusus, omnes autem homines multi sunt, ut notarunt Theoph. Euthym. Carthus. sic Matth. 20. nu. 28. ait Christus: Venit filius hominis dare animam suam iri redemptionem pro multis; id est hominum multitudine.
 
 
Jean de La Haye (1593-1661), O.F.M., biblical scholar
He composed famous "Biblia magna", where he quoted Menochio's commentary of words of consecration Matthew 26:28 (namely that "for many=for all"), and Tirinus' one on Hebrews 9:28, etc.
And also in Index of phrases of Bible, he summarized about word "many":
Index Phrasium Scripturae: MULTI (Biblia Magna. Paris: 1643. tom. V, p. 863)
Multi idest omnes. Dan. 12, 2. Matth. 20, 28. et 26, 28. Rom. 5,16.19.
    and similarly also in his other exegetical works:
Prolegomena in Pentateuchum Moysis, art. XXI (Commentarii literales et conceptuales in Genesim, Lugduni, 1638)
notat insuper Augustinus lib. contra Julianum cap. 12. quod nomen multi aliquando significat omnes et quando ponitur post signum universale non tollit universitatem, in quo deceptus fuit Galatinus, ut Matthaei 20. Venit filius hominis dare animam suam in redemptionem pro multis, id est pro omnibus et qui pro multis effundetur.
on Exodus 12:3 [in Exodum, vol. I, cap. XII, num. 26] (Commentarii literales et conceptuales in Exodum, Parisiis, 1648, p. 447)
Loquimini ad uniuersum coetum filiorum Israel, et dicite, tollat unusquisque agnum per familias et domos suas. Ita ut pro singulis familiis, vel saltem pro singulis domibus, dummodo in eis unica esset familia, unus occidebatur agnus, qui à morte unicum solum primogenitum a morte liberabat, cum Angelus percutiens primogenitum, in qualibet domo Aegytiorum interficiebat: nunc consulamus quid dixerit Christus Dominus Matth. 26. hic est sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effunderur in remissionem, cum ait: pro multis idest pro omnibus, quid nonne ille agnus Paschalis immolatus typus erat et figura agni, qui quotidie in altari sacrificatur? quomodo ergo solum nunc in qualibet domo primogenitum liberabit: huius autem sanguis pro omnium salute effunditur? qui agnus immaculatus in Eucharistia, infinitè in virtute superat agni Paschalis efficaciam, tum etiam quia sanguis agni a morte corporali homines liberavit, hic à morte aeterna, nempe à peccatis, quae vere sunt mors animae: subscribit S. Chrysost. apud S. Thomam in carena aurea in c. cit. Matth. sanguinem nominat et passionem suam pronuntiat dicens, qui pro multis effundetur, et rursus dicit causam mortis, cum ait in remissionem peccatorum, quasi dicat sanguis agni in Aegypto effusus est pro salute primogenitorum populi Israel, hic autem in remissionem peccatorum universi orbis terrarum.
ibid. num. 46 (ibid., p. 453)
omnes in universum homines vocandi sunt, neque tamen horum bonorum fontem exhautire poterunt, hoc quidem Dominus innuit in consecratione calicis, cum ait, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum, id est sacramenta quidem legalia, intra unius gentis et provinciae terminos concludebantur, est novi testamenti mysteria, et Eucharisticum sacrificium ad omnium hominum bonum diffluet
ibid. num. 285 (ibid. p. 512)
Erit vobis sanguis in signum in aedibus, et videbo sanguinem, et transibo vos. Sept. protegam vos, quosnam sanguis agni proteget? primogenitos Hebraeorum, ne simul cum primogenitis Aegyptiorum interficerentur: sed quid Christus Dominus de suo dixit sanguine? Matth. 26. Hic est sanguis meus novi Testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum. Hoc dictum putat Chrysost. per relationem ad agnum Paschalem, sed quae relatio potest esse inter utrumque? haec profecto, quod agnus ille legalis occisus, et illius sanguis effusus pro salute primogenitorum Hebraei tantum populi; ast Eucharistia, non modo instituta est pro salute primogenitorum, neque pro tuendo uno aut altero populo, sed pro omnibus populis, quotquot in toto terrarum orbe habitant, neque semel tantum, sed bis et iterum, et saepe in perpetuum, adde etiam illud in remissionem peccatorum, id est sanguis ille agni vitam corporalem attulit, ast Eucharistia vitam infert animae: audi Chrysostomum hom. cit. qui rem his verbis aperit, Sanguis ille ad primogenitorum salutem fuit effusus, hic in remissionem totius orbis peccatorum; hic est enim sanguis meus, inquit, qui effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
 
 
BORDONI, Francesco [Franciscus Bordonus/Bordon/Bordone] (1595-1671), O.F.M.tert., theologian.
Sacri Tribunalis, cap. 1 [De Vera Christi Ecclesia], num. 111 (Lugduni: 1665, p. 16)
Aug. lib. 6. cap. 12. contra Julianum Pelagianum, ita loquitur: Omnes pro multis, et multi pro omnibus frequenter in sacris literis ponuntur. Sic sumitur illud: Multi sunt vocati, id est, omnes vocantur ad salutem, quia Deus vult omnes salvos fieri.
De legatis. cap. IX [De applicatione Sacrificii Missae]. num. 6 (Parmae: 1688, p. 139)
Pro multis effundetur, hoc est, pro omnibus, quia Christus vult omnes homines salvos fieri, quantum est ex parte sua, et antecedenti voluntate.
TODO omnes
 
 
BONERBA, Raffaele (c.1600-1681), O.S.A., theologian.
Problemata S. in Evangelia. Feria VI. Dominica I. Quadragesimae, pars. I [introductio], num. XV (Moguntiae : 1670. pag. 163-164).
Ast non pertranseamus insignem quandam ultimae caenae speculationem. Accepto Christus pane, quem discipulis suis tradidit in cibum, ait: Hoc est corpus meum, quod pro vobis tradetur. Moxque accepto calice ait: Hic est meus pro vobis effundendus sanguis, sed in eo, quod dicitur: pro vobis : ingens suboritur dubium. Quis scis, inquit ille, utrum discipuli mei particulam hanc audientes: Pro vobis: genuinum intelligent sensum, scilicet quod ego pro iis moriturus sim; moxque pro majori cautela sequens superaddit verbum: Pro multis q.d. Charissimi Apostoli mei advertite, si vobis dixi praesentibus: Pro vobis : Non id asservi, quasi mors mea tantummodo in vestram esset salutem cessura; sed quia vos tanquam totius Eccleiae meae militantis contemplor capitain universo mundo; atque ita totum simul includo mundum, ita ut ly pro vobis, aequivaleat alteri, scilicet, pro omnibus; atque ideo superaddo: pro multis. Subsistamus tantisper o care Jesu. Nonne tu dicis, sanguinem tuum pro omnibus effundendum esse? ita : quare igitur duntaxât dicis, pro multis? si corpus tuum nulli non est exponendum tormento pro omnibus, quare igitur coarctas ad multos? certè non idem est, pro multis et pro omnibus. Respondet Christus, dicitque, vos non capitis rhetoricam meam. Tota haec dictio mea singularem quandam continet graduationem; ego per ly pro vobis, intellexi pro omnibus. Deinde quando dixi postea pro multis, quasi per ampliationem, intellexi pariter multos, non quidem illos omnes, comprehensos in particula pro vobis; sed multos omnes: pro multis omnibus. Non modò pro omnibus illis, qui fuêre, sunt aut erunt, praevisi et compraehensi in scientia libera seu visionis; sed etiam pro omnibus centenis millibus creaturarum humanarum possibilium, meae subjacentibus omnipotentiae imperio, et scientiae simplicis intelligentiae seu naturali, pro his, inquam, multis omnibus hoc corpus meum tradetur, et hic sanguis meus. Оffero sanguinem et mortem meam, volens, ut salutem promoveat non modò omnium, sed multorum omnium. Vide ô Christiane, inquit S. Paschasius, summam Christi clementiam, quòd pro multis omnibus voluisset ipse animam ponere.
 
 
MASTRI, Bartolomeo [Bartholomaeus Mastrius de Meldola] (1602-1673), O.F.M.Conv., theologian
Theologia Moralis: Ad mentem DD. Seraphici, et Subtilis concinnata (Venetiis: 1723, p. 671)
[Obj.:] Daniel. 12. Multi de his, qui in pulvere dormiunt, evigilabunt; ergo si multi, non omnes [...]
respondet Divus Bonavent. cit. cum August. 20. de Civit. capit. 6. quod ly multi significat omnes, et quod talis modus loquendi frequenter in Scriptura invenitur, ut
  • ad Roman. 5. Unius delicto multi mortui sunt,
  • et Matth. 26. Qui pro vobis, ac pro multis effundetur,
et ità etiam textum illum declarant Glossa Interlin. Lyranus, Theoderetus, et alii.
 
 
CARAMUEL Y LOBKOWITZ, Juan (1606-1682), O. Cist., bishop. theologian, logician, philologist.
Logica moralis, lib. ii, cap. ii: MULTI (Pandoxion physico-eticum. Campaniae: 1668, p. 104-105; Moralis seu politicae logicae. lib. ii. Viglevani: 1680, p. 100-101)
But also "many" is sometimes put for all as Augustine ...Whether "many" is taken for all.Sed et Multi aliquando poni solent pro omnibus, ut libr. 6. contra lulianum. cap. 12. nos monet S. Augustinus: qui hoc ipsum probat ex Apostolo dicente, per unum hominem in omnes transisse peccatum, et posteà, per unius inobedientiam peccatores multos esse constitutos. Verba Divini Doctoris sunt haec. Per unius justificationem in omnes homines ad justificationem vitae: et rursus: Per unius obedientiam iusti constituti sunt multi. non aliquibus exceptis, sed eosdem multos, omnes oportet intelligi ... Omnes ergo ad mortem per Adam, omnes ad vitam per Christum: quia sicut in Adam omnes moriuntur, ita et in Christo omnes vivificabutur...An Multi sumitur pro omnibus.
There are many places of Sacred Scripture, in which this doctrine would hold forth. Christ said tending his the most holy blood,Multi sunt Sacrae Scripturae loci, quibus facem praebeat haec doctrina. Dixit Christus, agens de suo sanctissimo sanguine,
    Which shall be shed for you and for many unto the remission of sins.
    Qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
...Error of heretics. Whether Christ died for all.Inferunt Calvinistae et pessimè, Ergo pro omnibus non fuit effusus. unde ad solos praedestinatos redemptionem restringunt. Inferimus Catholici, et bene. Ergo pro omnibus effusus est. quia multorum nomine omnes debent intelligi, non aliquibus exceptiis, ut paulo ante dicebat Augustinus.
Est pro hac veritate locus clarissimus in Tridentino sess. 6. cap. 3. cujus verba postulant, ut attente legantur. Sic lego.
Haereticorum error. An Christus fit mortuus pro omnibus?
...Decision of Tridentinum.
    Verum, et si ille (Christus) pro omnibus mortuus est, non omnes tamen mortis eius beneficium recipiunt, sed hi dumtaxat, quibus meritum passionis eius communicatur.
Trid. Decisio.
...Whether Council was legitime.Lutherani et Calvinistae inverecunde et temere Concilium Tridentinum reiiciunt, et in illud insolenter scribunt: unde contra eos haec non urgent verba, nisi probetur prius, illud fuisse Canonicum.An fuerit Concilium legitimum.
...It is a custom of heretics to jump Council, in which they are condemned.Et hoc facili negotio evincetur: quoniam Nicaenum, in quo condemnatus fuit Arrius, est Canonicum et legitimum, etiam Lutheranorum et Calvinianistarum sententia: Ergo et Tridentinum, in quo errores Lutheri et Calvini damnantur. Patet consequentia; quia nulla in Nicaeno fuit à Jure requinta solennitas, quae in Tridentino non fuerit. Quod autem Lutherani et Calvinistae insultent Tridentino, non videbitur mirum eis, qui historiam Ecclesiasticam legerint: nam Haeretici, morbo suo indulgent, se iniustè condemnari occlamant, et in condemnantes insurgunt; quod et olim sècerunt Arriani, Macedoniani, Eutychetii, Donatistae, Pelagiani, et alii.Mos est haereticorum insultare Concilio, in quo damnantur.
... Jansenists ... say, that Christ died for many, that is for all who are predestined and not for others, and so words of consecration "which shall be shed for many, etc." they so interpret, that by word "many" they understand not all men, but all who are predestined. ...Jansenists turn words of Council.Iansenistae, sunt minores haeretici, Tridentinum admittunt, et obtorquent. Verba adducta, sic ipsi exponunt, ut de praedestinatis intelligantur, Christus enim, ut ajunt, pro multis, hoc est, pro omnibus praedestinatis mortuus est, non pro aliis; unde verba consecrationis, qui (sanguis) pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur. etc. ita interpretantur, ut multorum nomine non intelligendi veniant omnes homines, sed omnes praedestinati; qui tametsi pauciores sint praescitis, multi quidem sunt, et multi potuerunt et debuerunt vocari.Verba Concilii obtorquent Iansenistae.
And against this Jansenists' heretical interpretation is the most evident demonstration as to the following form - so that you would grasp the strength - I reduce.But in vain.At contra hanc Jansenistarum haereticam interpretationem fit demonstratio evidentissima, quam ad formam sequentem, ut vires percipias, reduco.Sed frustra.
BA: All, who will be saved, receive the benefit of Christ's death.
RO: But some, for who Christ dead, don't receive benefit of his death.
CO: Therefore some - for who Christ dead - will not be saved.
[therefore Christ died not only for those, who are predestined]
Demonstration for catholic doctrine.BA: Omnes, qui salvantur, mortis Christi beneficium recipiunt.
RO: Sed aliqui, pro quibus mortuus est Christus, ejus mortis beneficium non recipiunt.
CO: Ergo aliqui, pro quibus mortuus est Christus, non salvantur.
Demonstratio pro doctrina Catholica.
Consequence ist legitime, in mode and figure the most known: both premises are Tridentine's, therefore only he would deny the consequence, who doesn't know a logic, and only he would deny the consequent, who wants to be heretic.Consequentia est legitima, in modo et figura notissimis: utraque praemissa est Tridentini: ergo consequentiam solus negabit, qui Dialecticam nesciat; et solus negabit consequens, qui esse haereticus velit.
Therefore it remains standing to Catholic Faith be held, in those words, "which shall be shed for you, and for many", the word "many" be understood all men without exception.Stat ergo Fide Catholicâ tenendum esse, in illis verbis, qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur, nomine multorum omnes intelligi homines nemine dempto.
 
 
FERRER, Vicente (1606-1683), O.P., theologian.
Tractatus theologici in Priman secundae D. Thomae, tract. VIII [de peccato originali], q. I. §iii (Salmanticae: ex officina Lucae Perez, 1681., tom. II, p. 629)
[Obj.: ...] Rom. 5 [...] unius delicto multi mortui sunt: et quod per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi: ergo non omnes mortui morte peccati
[...Resp.:...] dico, quod ly multi ponitur pro omnibus.
    Sicut cum dicitur
    • Math. 20. Filius hominis venit dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis.
    • Et cap. 26. Hic est sanguis, qui pro multis effundetur,
    ly pro multis ponitur pro omnibus.
Et ratio huius aptae explicationis desumitur ex eo, quod multi non opponitur omnibus; opponitur uni singulari: voluit ergo dicere Paulus, quod per inobedientiam unius hominis, non solum ipse inobediens constitutus fuerit peccator, sed etiam alii multi per ipsum. Quanti autem fuerint isti multi, jam dixerat ibi: Et ita in omnes homines mors intravit, in quo omnes peccaverunt.
 
 
PLATEL, Jacques (1608-1681), S.J., theologian.
Synopsis Totius Cursus Theologici accuratissima, pars. IV, num. 378 (Coloniae, 1694, p. 226; Duaci: 1706, p. 461)
It is indeed true that Scripture, when dealing with the death of Christ and the redemption, from time to time uses this word "many"Verum quidem est quod Scriptura, agens de Christi morte et redemptione, subinde utatur hac voce, multi
  • as in Matt. 20. The Son of man came to give his life a ransom for many.
  • ut Matth. 20. Filius hominis venit dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis.
  • And 26. For this is he, my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many, etc.
  • Et 26. Hic est enim Sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis, etc.
But more often it is used word "all," as it is clear from quotations above num. 360 thus word "many," does not exclude "all", since all are many, as Jansenius Yprensis himself adverted in his commentaries on Matthews' (gospel).At saepius utitur hac voce, omnes, ut patet ex citatis sup. num. 360 deinde ly multi, non excludit omnes, quando omnes sunt multi, ut advertit ipsemet Jansenius Ipren. in suis commentariis in Matth.
  • Add that word "many" (according to the testimony of Augustine: book. 6. of earlier work against Julian. ch. 12, and b. 2. of the later, ch. 134., also book 20 of The City, ch. 32) is frequently used in scriprure for that word "all"
  • Adde quod ly multi (teste August. l. 6. operis prior, contra Julian. c. 12. et l. 2. posterior. c. 134. item l. 20. de Civit. c. 32) frequenter in scriprura usurpetur pro ly omnes
    • as Dan. 12. "And many of those that sleep, in the dust of the earth, shall awake," that is, all rise again in the day of Judgement,
    • ut Dan. 12. Et multi de his, qui dormiunt, in terrae pulvere, evigilabunt, id est, omnes resurgent in die judicii,
    • and the Romans, ch. 5. For if by one, beloved for many are dead.
    • et ad Rom. 5. si enim unius dilecto multi mortui sunt.
 
 
HESER, Georg (1609-1686), S.J., theologian, exegete.
on Psalm 118 [cxvii]:10 (Psalmi, Monachii, 1675, vol. 2, pag. 401)
["many" for all][MULTI PRO OMNIBUS]
that word "many," is now by the Hebrews used for all, as:nomen illud, Multi, nunc ab Hebraeis usurpari pro Omnibus: ut
  • Daniel 12:2.
      Many of those that sleep in the dust of the earth, shall awake: some unto life everlasting, and others unto reproach, to see it always.
    Certain however is by divine faith, not only many, but all of dead ones should rise.
  • Danielis cap. 12. v. 2.
      Multi de his, qui dormiunt in terrae pulvere, evigilabunt, аlii in vitam aeternam, et alii in opprobrium, ut videant semper.
    Certum autem est ex Fide divinâ, non tantùm multos, sed omnes ex mortuis resurrecturos.
  • Christ Matth. 26:28 said:
      This is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many for the remission of sins.
    Similarly it is certain, that the blood of Christ is shed for all, so that they can obtain remission of sins.
  • Christus Matth. 26. v. 28. dixit:
      Hic est sauguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
    Itidem vero certum, quod sanguis Christi pro omnibus hominibus sit effusus, ut remissionem peccatorum consequi possint.
 
 
HENRIET, Protais [Prothasius Henriet Sezaniensis] (c.1610-1688), OFMRec, theologian, exegete.
Harmonia evangelica, cap. XX [Mark 1:19ff, Matt.8:14ff, Luke 4:38ff] (Paris: 1660, p. 29; Paris: 1665, p. 56)
Matth. et Lucas, dicunt Dominum Jesum, omnes curasse, Marcus vero dicit: curavit multos et ubi Matth. dicit absolute; spiritus ejiciebat, Marcus dicit daemonia multa ejiciebat. Quid est hoc quod alii dicunt multos, alii omnes? si multos curavit, nonne omnes curavit? et si omnes curauit, nonne multos? quid ergo dicemus; nisi quod omnes illi erat multi; quando Dominus omnes infirmos curavit, multos curauit; Undè saepe qui dicit multos, plus videtur dicere quam qui omnes, quia saepe omnes non sunt multi, v.g. quinque duntaxat erant in domo aliqua, et ipsi exierunt, recte dicitur: omnes exierunt, sed non bene dicitur, multi exierunt, dum erant tantùm quinque; sic quando Dominus dicit: multi sunt vocati, ostendit quos vocavit esse multos quia omnes homines sunt multi.
  • Quando etiam Dominus dicit: hic est sanguis meus qui pro multis effundetur, dixit multis quia omnes homines sunt valdè multi.
  • Dixit etiam de Magdalena Luc. 7. remittuntur ei peccata multa, illud multa, sonat ut omnia, quare subjunxit statim ipsi peccatrici; remittuntur tibi peccatatua tua.
  • Apostolus Heb. 1. dicit: multifariam multisque modis, et versio Syriaca dicit: omnifariam, omnibusque mоdis. Plus ergo sonat illa dictio multi quam illa omnes.
 
 
NEESEN, Laurent (1612-1679), theologian
Theologia (ad mentem SS Augustini et Thomae), tract. XVI, dub. I (Insulis: 1687, vol. 1, p. 167; Antverpiae: 1693, p. 157)
Obj. Apost. Unius delicto multi mortui sunt; Ergo non omnes; sed illi solum, qui peccando Adamum imitati sunt.
Resp. ... vocem, multi, in Scriptura Sacra saepè sumi pro voce, omnibus;
  • prout Gen. 17. dicitur: Patrem multarum gentium constituam te.
    • Et Gen. 22. dicitur: Benedicentur in semine tuo omnes gentes terrae.
  • Ita quoquè Matth. vigesimo dicitur Filius hominis non venit ministrari, sed ministrare, et dare animam suam, redemptionem pro multis.
  • Et Marci capite 14. Hic est sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur.
  • Quod vero hoc loco vox, multis, sumatur pro omnibus, inde probatur;
    • Quia Roman. 5. dicitur: Unius delicto omnes mortui sunt.
 
 
AVINATRI, Vincenzo (1612-1685), C.O., theologian.
Calix inebrians ex suavissimo Christi Passi botro eliquatus : De Coena Christi, cap. 4. (ed. Neapoli : Raillard, 1694. 415 pages, page. 59) almost identically to Lapide (1567–1637)
"Which shall be shed for many unto the remission of sins.". Matt. 26."Qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum". Matt. 26.
For many, i.e. for all; for these all are very many.Pro multis, id est pro omnibus; hi enim omnes sunt valdè multi.
 
 
Francesco Lorenzo Brancati di Lauria (1612-1693), O.F.M.Conv., Cardinal, theologian
De Sacrosancto Incarnationis Divini Verbi Mysterio. Disp. XX, art. IV.
(Commentaria P. Laurentii Brancati de Lauraea, in III Librum Sententiarum Magistri Fr. Joannis Duns Scoti. Romae: 1682. tomus I. p. 577-578)
230 Euthimius super illud Matt. 20. venit animam suam dare in redemptionem pro multis, dicit, Omnes sunt multi, subdens, scripturam multis dicere pro omnibus, itaque pro omnibus tradidit animam suam, omnesque redemit, quamquam multi sua sponse in servitute remanserunt.
231 Augustinus [...]
232 Prosper [...]
233 Tandé ne ultra progrediar prob. ex Concilio Trident. [...]
234 Confirmatur ex damnatione quintae propositionis Jansenii Episcopi Iprensis facta per Innocentium X. et confirmata per Alexandrum 7. quae erat quod Christus mortuus non sit pro omnibus omnino hominibus. Ergo est omninó de fide.
Ob. I. ex sacrae scripturae locis habetur Christum pro multis tantùm mortuum, multos justificasse, multorum peccata portasse, et pro multis orasse. Ergo non pro omnibus omninô hominibus mortuus est. Anteced. prob. Isaiae 53. 11. et 12. de Christo, de quo totum illud caput loquitur sic dicitur. Justificabit ipse justus servus meus multos, et iniquitates eorum portabit. Et post, Pro eo quod tradidit in mortem animam suam, et cum sceleratis reputatus est, et ipse peccata multorum tulit, et pro transgressoribus rogavit. Salvator ipse Matt. 20. 28. ait, sicut filius hominis non venit ministrari, sed ministrare, et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis; Eadem verba habentur, Marci 10. 45. ergo sicut praedictum fuerat, Christus operatus est, morieus pro multis, et redimens muItos.
235 Respond. Hoc fuisse unicum Argumentum Praedestinatianorum, ut supra patuit. His autem locis opponimus alia supra allata, quae concordantur, ut idem sit dicere multos, et omnes juxtà subjectam materiam. Nam Rom. 5. 15 dicitur. Si enim unius delicto multi mortui sunt: multo magis gratia Dei, et donum in gratia unius hominis Jesu Christi in plures abundavit. Est autem de fide, quod omnes mortui sunt ex delicto Adae, ex ipsomet Apostolo 1. Cor. 16. omnes in Adam moriuntur. Non potest autem sibi contradicere Apostolus. Quod clarius patebit in art. 5. et diffuse.
 
 
Augustin GIBBON de Burgo (1613-1676), O.S.A., theologian.
Theologiae Scholasticae In Primam Secundae Divi Thomae, Tomus Secundus, q. 81-83; tract. VII / disp. XII., dub. I, num. 8 (Erffurti, 1674, p. 217)
[Obj.] Pelagiani [...]
  • 1. Apostolus subjungit: Quod unius delicto mortui sunt multi
resp. (ibid.)
Ad 1. fundamentum expositionis Pelagianor.
respondeo, тὸ multi loco cit. significare omnes, nam frequenter in Sacra Scriptura nomine multorum intelliguntur omnes,
  • ut Matth. 20. 28. Sicut Filius hominis venit dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis.
Constat autem ipsum mortuum fuisse pro omnibus.
  • Item Matth. 26. 28. Hic est sanguis meus, qui pro multis effundetur, id est, pro omnibus.
Наec expositio est S. August. lib. 6. contra Julian. c. 12.
 
 
Le BLANC, Thomas (1617-1669), S.J., theologian, exegete.
on Psalm 22:14 [in Psalmum xxi, vers xv] (Coloniae : Metternich, 1726, vol. II, p. 370)
Christus consecrans calicem dixit Matth. 26. 28. Hic est sanguis meus novi testamenti (Syr. novi foederis) qui pro multis (pro omnibus, qui omnes sunt multi) effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
mentionable can be also his In Psalm. LXVI, vers. I (Coloniae Agrippinae: 1679, tom. 4, col. 256) where talking about Luke 10:24 and Matthew 13:17 he argued:
Saepè enim multi in Scripturis ponitur pro omnes, ut apud eundem Matthaeum cap. 20, 16. Multi enim sunt vocati, pauci vero electi. Certum autem est, omnes vocatos esse ad vitam aeternam.
 
 
DUHAMEL, Jean-Baptiste (1624-1706), C.O., theologian, exegete.
Prolegomena Scripturae Sacrae, dissert. IV, cap. IV. (Biblia Sacra. Venetiis: 1758, vol. 1, pag. xxxiv; Venetiis: 1763, pars 1., pag. XLIV)
Isa. 53. Ipse peccata multorum tulit, id est, omnium, ut habetur v. 6. Posuit in eo Dominus iniquitatem omnium nostrum. Rom. 5. Si unius delicto multi mortui sunt, id est, omnes, ut exponitur v. 18.
on Matthew 20:28 (Biblia Sacra Vulgatae. Venetiis: 1763. vol II, p. 283; ed. Migne: SS 21, 497), almost identically to Mariana (1536-1624)
For many, for all, so Rom v. 19, Many were made sinners - i.e. all.Pro multis, pro omnibus; sic Rom. 5, 19: Peccatores constituti sunt multi - id est, omnes.
 
 
José Sáenz de Aguirre (1630–1699), O.S.B., cardinal, theologian.
S. Anselmi Theologia, commentariis, tract. VII, cap. LXVIII, disp. CXXVI: sect. IV / num. 40 (Salmanticae: 1685. p. 473-474; Romae, 1690, vol. III, p. 525), [similarly as Petavius said above].
Quod autem quidam ex Adversariis opponunt,
    Christum Matthaei 20. v. 28. testari se venisse, dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis; atque adeo non pro omnibus;
nullam difficultatem ingerit. nam, ut observant Graeci Interpretes cohaerenter ad alia testimonia Scripturae superiùs memorata, eо loco multi idem sunt, ac omnes.
  • Quare Theophylactus ad eum Matthaei locum ait: οἱ γὰρ πάντες πολλοί Nam omnes sunt multi.
  • Addit Euthymius ibidem, Scripturam frequenter MULTIS dicere pro OMNIBUS. Itaque pro omnibus tradidit animam suam, omnesque redemit; quanquam multi sua sponte in servitute remanserunt.
  • Porro de ea vocum permutatione legendus Augustinus libro secundo Operis Imperfedi contra Julianum cap. 134. et seqq.
Et haec sufficiant circa Patres Graecos, praetermissis pluribus aliis.
 
 
Bernadine a Piconio [Bernardin de Picquigny] (1633–1707), OFM.Cap., theologian, exegete.
Triplex expositio in Sacrosancta domini Nostri Jesu Christia Evangelia (Lutetiae Parisiorum: 1726)
on Mark 10:45 (p. 376-377)
et daret animam suam redemptionem pro multis, seu pro omnibus omnino hominibus; nomen enim multi saepius in Scriptura, nomen est collectivum, et sumitur pro omnibus.
on Mark 14:24 (p. 416)
Qui pro multis, seu pro omnibus, qui multi sunt. Vox multi saepe sumitur collective pro omnibus.
 
 
HABERT, Louis (1635-1718), theologian. His "Theologia dogmatica" has 7 + 1 volumes (8th volume is summarization of previous 7).
De incarnatione: De merito Christi (Theologia dogmatica et moralis, Augustae Vindelicorum: Rieger, 1751, vol. 2, p. 288)
Dices 1. Matth. 26. Christus discipulis porrigens poculum sanguinis sui, ait; qui pro multis effundetur: ergo non pro omnibus. Respondeo negando consec. namque vox multi, usurpari solet vel comparate et distributive ad significandam magnam totius collections partem, ut Joan. 4. Multi crediderunt in eum Samaritanorum: Vel absolute et collective ad denotandam totam collectionem, quo sensu dicimus de eo, qui totam suam substantiam et quidem amplam devoravit; hic multam consumpsit pecuniam. Et Apostolus scribit Rom. 5. Per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, id est, omnes. Quod autem hoc posteriori sensu Christus Dominus de suo sanguine dixerit, qui pro multis effundetur, discimus non solum ex sanctis Patribus, sed ex ipsomet Apostolo 2. Cor. 5. Pro omnibus mortuus est Christus: pro omnibus, inquam, voluntate sufficienti et conditionata; pro multis vero voluntate efficaci et absoluta. Ita sanctus Thomas in caput vigesimum sextum Matthæi: Si consideretur sufficientia, inquit, ipse est propitiatio pro peccatis totius mundi; sed si consideremus effectum, minorem habet effectum, in iis nempe, qui salvantur, et hoc ex culpa hominum.
And in summarized version (Theologia dogmatica et moralis, Paris: 1719, p.180; Augustae Vindelicorum: Rieger, 1751, vol. 8, p. 188)
Dices. Christus (Matth. 26.) dicit sanguinem suum pro multis effundendum: ergo non pro omnibus. Nego conseq. Nam vox multi aliquando collective sumitur, ut multus exercitus; aliquando distributive, ut multi ex exercitu. Porro collectivc hic sumitur, idemque significat ac omnes; ait enim Apostolus 2. Cor. 5. Pro omnibus mortuus est Christus. Et Rom. 5. voces illas multi, et omnes promiscue usurpat ad unum, et idem significandum: Sicut per unius delictum, inquit, in omnes homines in condemnationem; sic et per unius justitiam in omnes homines in justificationem. Sicut enim per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi; ita et per unius obeditionem justi constituentur multi: hic multi, et omnes idem prorsus significat.
 
 
BOTTENS, Fulgentius (1636-1717), O.F.M.Rec., theologian, exegete.
Oeconomia Sacra Sapientiae, pars. VII, disp. 11 / q. 4.: Regulae breviores ex SS. patribus collectae, regula CXLI ("synecdoche") / vol. II. num. 450 (Gandavi: typis Michaelis Masii, 1691, p. 498)
Interdum etiam pars populi gentilis [puta Graecus] pro toto populo gentili: et unum ponitur pro multis vel multi pro omnibus. Ut Matth. 20. et 26.
 
 
MEZGER, Paul (1637-1702), O.S.B., theologian.
"His chief production is: Theologia scholastica secundum viam et doctrinam D. Thomae (4 volumes, Augsburg, 1695, 1719), probably the best work on dogmatic theology that has been produced by a German Benedictine." (Catholic Encyclopedia)
Theologia scholastica secundum viam et doctrinam D. Thomae Aquinatis, Doctoris Angelici. (Augustae Vindelicorum, 1719, tom. 2, p. 257)
tract. VII, disp. XXVI, art. I. §. II. num. 3
[obj. 3] Tertio ibidem dicit Apostolus:
    Per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi:
ergo non omnes per originem, sed multi per imitationem facti sunt peccatores.
[resp. ad 3]
Ad 3. dico, Tò multi idem significare, quod omnes,
  • cùm immediate Apostolus praemiserit illa verba: Per unius delictum in omnes homines in condemnationem,
  • quomodo etiam Christus dixit: qui pro multis effundetur, hoc est, pro omnibus.
Theologia scholastica secundum viam et doctrinam D. Thomae Aquinatis, Doctoris Angelici. (Augustae Vindelicorum: 1695, tom. 1, p. 156)
tract. I, disp. XV, art. III. §. iii. num. 8
[Obj.:] Objicies secundo nonnullas Authoritates, quibus videtur indicari, Christum non pro omnibus esse mortuum. Ita [...] Matth. 26 qui pro multis effundetur.
[...Resp...] Ad secundum locum Matt. Resp. ly pro multis ibidem accipi pro omnibus. ut saepius contingit in S. Scriptura.
 
 
GUERRA Y RIVERA/RIBERA, Manuel (1638-1692), O.SS.T., theologian, philosopher.
Oraciones varias (Madrid 1718, vol. 7, p. 109)
Which shall be shed for you and for many.Qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur.
The "for you" is allusion to disciples, the "for many" is for all.El pro vobis haze alusion a los Discipulos; el pro multis, es por todos.
 
 
SIMON, Richard (1638–1712), C.O., biblical scholar
about Euthymius' commentary
Histoire Critique des principaux Commentateurs Du Nouveau Testament, cap. XXIX (Rotterdam : Reinier Leers, 1693, p. 414-415; PG 129:22)
  • Ce docte Commentateur a remarqué sur ces mots πολλοὶ προφῆται, plusieurs Prophetes, qu'on peut les entendre de tous les Prophetes en general, parce que le mot de plusieurs est souvent dans le N. Testament pour celuy de tous, πολλοὶ ἀντὶ τοῦ πάντες: ce qu'il confirme par divers exemples.
  • Il repete cette observation en d'autres endroits qui sont d'une plus grande importance; comme au Chap. 20. v. 28. où il est dit que JESUS-CHRIST est venu pour servir, et donner sa vie en rançon pour plusieurs: il dit* que l'Evangeliste a mis en ce lieu-là plusieurs pour tous, selon le stile ordinaire de l'Ecriture: car J. CHRIST a donné sa vie pour tous, et a racheté tout le monde, bien que plusieurs soient demeurez dans la servitude, parce qu'ils ont voulu y demeurer.
  • Sur ces autres mots, C' est mon sang, le sang du N. Testament qui est repandu pour plusieurs, il observe que dans l'Ancien Testament le sang de l'Agneau n'étoit repandu que pour les seuls Juifs; mais que se sang de J. CHRIST est repandu generalement pour tous les hommes, le mot de plusieurs signifiant tous en ce lieu, πολλοὺς γὰρ τοὺς πάντας ἐνταῦθα λεγει.

* Πολλοὺς δὲ νῦν, τοὺς πάντας λέγει. πολλάκις γὰρ ἡ γραφὴ πολλοὺς, τοὺς πάντας φησίν. ὑπὲρ πάντων γὰρ ἔδωκε τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ, καὶ πάντας ἐλυτρώσατο, εἰ καὶ πολλοὶ θέλοντες ἐνέμειναν τῇ δουλείᾳ. Id. Euthym. in Cap. 20. Matth. v. 28.
about modern commentaries
Histoire critique des versions du Nouveau Testament, cap. XXIII (Rotterdam : Reinier Leers, 1690 [539pages], p. 271)
Au Chap. 20. du même Évangile, v. 28. où ils ont traduit conformément au Grec, utque daret animam suam redemptionem pro multis, ils ont observé dans leur note, que le mot de plusieurs signifie tous selon le genie de la langue Grecque, à moins qu'on ne dise que c'est aussi le sens que les Ebreux donnent à leur nom כל. Pro multis, disent-ils, id est, pro tota multitudine hominum. Sic enim Graeci solent τοὺς πολλοὺς vocare ipsam universitatem hominum; quamvis articulus absens nonnihil huic sensui derogaret: nisi Hebraei quoque sic uterentur suo כל. En effet le mot Ebreu כל se prend généralement pour une multitude, et peut être traduit tous ou plusieurs, selon les lieux où il est appliqué. Bien qu'on lui donne ordinairement la signification de tout dans les Dictionaires de la langue Ebraïque, il ne marque dans son origine qu'une universalité, soit tous, soit plusieurs. L'on doit donner la même signification au mot Grec πολλοί dans le Nouveau Testament. Par exemple, au Chap. 26. de Sr. Matthieu, v. 28. où il y a, C'est mon sang qui est répandu pour plusieurs, c'est-à-dire, pour tous.
 
 
HURÉ, Charles (1639-1717), member of the Port-royal society, professor of languages in the university of Paris, and at last principal of the college of Bencourt. He was considered a Jansenist, which is therefore curious for his referrence to Isa. 53, which is one of passages used by Jansenists for defending their heresy, that Christ died not for all, but only for those, who are elect.
Dictionnaire universel de l'Écriture Sainte, MULTI (Paris: 1715, tom. 2, p. 144)
Multi : Tous ensemble. Dan. 12. 2. Multi de his qui dormiunt evigilabunt : Tous les morts ressusciteront: Comme, Joan. 5. 28. Omnes qui in monumentis sunt : Tous ceux qui sont dans les sepulchres entendront la voix du Fils de Dieu. Rom. 5. v. 15. 19. Unius delicto multi mortui sunt : Tous sont morts par le peché d'un seul. Ps. 96. 1. Isa. 53. v. 11. 12. etc. V. OMNIS.
(it was republished by MIGNE in his Encyclopédie Théologique. Dictionnaire universel de philologie sacrée. Paris: 1846).
 
 
ULLOA, Juan/Joannes de (1639—c.1723), S.J., theologian.
De Primis Et Ultimis Temporibus, disp. III: cap. I / num. X (Augustae Vindelicorum: Veith, 1719. p. 142)
capitis duodecimi Danielis: Multi de his, qui dormiunt in terrae pulvere evigilabunt; [...] neque obstat, quod dicat multi non vero omnes evigilabunt:
quoniam, ut jam alibi adverti multi solet poni in scriptura pro omnes, v.g.
  • [Matth. 26,28] Pro multis effundetur (hoc est pro omnibus juxta Joannem [1.Joan.2]) in remissionem peccatorum.
  • Item [ad Rom. 5, 19] sicut enim per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, hoc est, omnes:
Et merito, nam omnes vere sunt multi.
De Primis Et Ultimis Temporibus, disp. III: cap. III / num. XXXIX (Augustae Vindelicorum: Veith, 1719. p. 165)
Sic ut supra notavi n. 10. cum sanguis Christi effundendus esset pro omnibus, ut affirmat Joannes, contentus fuit Dominus ipse dicere apud Matthaeum pro multis. Similiter cum per peccatum Adae peccatores simus omnes, Paulus contentus fuit dicere multi duntaxat. Scribit namque sicut per inobedientiam enim unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi etc. Similiter cum resurrectio ad vitam, vel mortem aeternam futura sit, Gabriel contentus fuit dicere Danieli, Multi de his, qui dormiunt in terrae pulvere, evigilabunt, alii in vitam aeternam, et alii in opprobrium etc. Vide Augustinum: nempè quia licet multi non imbibat omnes, veruntamen vox omnes, etiam significat multos.
De Primis Et Ultimis Temporibus, disp. III: cap. VII / num. CXXVII (Augustae Vindelicorum: Veith, 1719. p. 230)
quod Gabriel non dicit, omnes, qui dormiunt in terrae pulvere, sed multi, jam enim ostendi supra, morem esse Scripturae ponere Multi, pro omnes, v.g. Qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur, etc.
 
 
NOËL, Alexandre [Alexander Natalis] (1639-1724), O.P., theologian, historian, exegete.
on Mark 1:34 (Expositio litteralis et moralis sancti Evangelii Jesu Christi. Venetiis: 1704, col. 786; Lugduni: 1716, col. 786; Trajecti ad Mosam: 1721, p. 786; Parisiis, 1745, t. 2, p. 11; Parisiis: 1769, p. 328; Venetiis: 1777, p. 306)
et curavit multos, etc. Nemini ex iis, qui offerebantur, optatae negavit beneficium sanitatis, qui pertransiit benefaciendo, et sanando omnes oppressos à diabolo, quoniam Deus erat cum illo ... Sed multos curasse dicitur, quia omnes, qui illi offerebantur aegroti et daemoniaci, multi erant. Ita Christi sanguis pro multis effusus dicitur, qui pro omnibus effusus est.
 
 
GAVARDI, Federico Nicolò (c.1640-1715), O.S.A., theologian, "the most important interpreter of [Egidio] Colonna [(c.1243–1316), O.S.A.], composed 'Theologia exantiquata iuxta orthodoxam S. P. Augustini doctrinam ab Ægidio Columnâ doctoræ fundatissimo expositam …' (6 vols. fol., Naples and Rome, 1683-1696); this work was abridged by Anselm Hörmannseder in his 'Hecatombe theologica' (Presburg, 1737). Benignus Sichrowsky (d. 1737)" (CE)
His work was summarized by:
  • SICHROWSKY, Benignus (1675-1737), O.S.A., theologian.
    Theologia Scholastica Aegidio-Augustiniana, tract. I [De Deo Uno], q. XIII, art. I / n. 12 (Norinbergae, 1716, vol. 1, p. 768)
Obj.:
Matth. 26. habetur: sanguinem Christi effusum pro multis, ergo neque oratio Christi, neque sanguinis effusio est pro omnibus.
Resp.:
Ly pro multis non accipitur per oppositionem ad omnes, sed per oppositionem ad paucos; uti Abraham Gen. 17. dicitur: Pater multarum gentium, non quod non esset Pater omnium gentium, sed quia gentes, quarum erat Pater, sunt multae non paucae, ad differentiam eorum, qui sunt omnes, et pauci, ut v.g. tres pueri in fornace Babylonis sunt omnes, non tamen multi, sed pauci.
Obj.:
Objicitur I, Matth. 26. dixit Christus: Hic est sanguis novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum; non dixit, pro omnibus.
Resp.:
R. Quod ly pro multis sumatur per oppositionem ad paucos, non ad omnes; sicut dicitur, quod Abraham fuerit Pater multarum gentium, id est, omnium. Deinde, quando hoc Christus dixit, nunquid et Judas fuit praesens, qui tamen erat reprobus?
 
 
LAMY, Bernard (1640–1715), C.O., theologian, exegete.
Commentarius in Harmoniam sive Concordiam quatuor evangelistarum (Paris: 1699).
he doesn't wrote commentary to our passages, nevertheless, on Matthew 20/Mark 10 he gave referrence to 1Tim.2:6
and in commentary on Matthew 26/Mark 14 he gave referrence to Rom.5:15
 
 
LEPE Y DORANTES, Pedro de (1641-1700), Bishop of Calahorra and La Calzada; theologian.
Cartas pastorales (Valladolid: 1721, p. 86)
Qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur. Qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur.
My blood shall be shed for you and: for all - which is signification of "pro multis."Se derramara mi sangre por vosotros, y por todos, que esso significa: Pro multis.
 
 
VERANI, Gaetano Felice [Cajetanus Felix Verani] (1647-1713), C.R.T., theologian.
De sacro-sancto mysterio incarnationis, Disp. XIX. [De merito Christi]. Sectio XII [An Christus ... pro universis hominibus mortuus fuerit].
Theologia speculativa universa dogmatica et moralis (Monachii: Jaecklin, 1700, t. 7, p. 256)
Theologia polemica. lib. 6 [De Christi Impeccabilitate, Mediatione, ac Merito], cap. 11b [An Christus ... pro universis hominibus mortuus fuerit].
Theologia polemica seu Vindiciae Ecclesiae Catholico-Romanae. (Augustae vindelicorum: 1719, t. 1, p. 581)
[Theologia speculativa, etc.][Theologia polemica]
Obijcit tamen Jansenius contra hanc in concussam veritatem aliqua scripturae testimonia [...]Objicit nihilominus Jansenius contra hanc catholicam veritatem [...]
    Matth. 26. Hic est sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur.
    Matth. 26. Hic est sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur.
[Resp....] ex Matth. 26. respondetur absonum omnino esse vim facere in eo, quod Christus dicat: Hic est sanguis, qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur: etenim adfuit etiam tunc Judas cum caeteris discipulis ex communi Patrum sententia; et tametsi Judas fuerit unus ex reprobis; adhuc Christus dicit, quod pro ipso etiam Juda, utpote comprehenso in numero discipulorum sanguis suus effundetur: ergo ex allato testimonio clare apparet, Christum non pro electis tantùm; verùm etiam pro reprobis sanguinem suum fudisse. Neque vox illa multis vim ullam habet contra nostrum assertum, siquidem Apostolus ait: Si enim unius delicto multi mortui sunt: et sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi: ubi certissimum est etiam Jansenio nomine multorum significari omnes, quos Adae peccatum corrupit; unde non est insuetum in scripturis per multos significare omnes: quando igitur Christus dixit pro vobis, et pro multis; perinde est ac pro vobis, et omnibus aliis.[Resp....] ex Matth. 26. respondetur, absonum omnino esse vim facere in eo, quod Christus dixerit: Hic est sunguis, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur, siquidem adfuit tunc etiam Judas cum caeteris discipulis, ut fatentur sancti Patres, et nihilominus fuit Judas de numero reproborum: ergo Christus asserit se fudisse sanguinem etiam pro reprobis, cum illum fuderit pro Juda comprehenso in numero discipulorum: unde ex allato textu clare constat, Christum non solùm pro electis, sed etiarn pro reprobis sanguinem suum fudisse, neque obstat Christum dixisse, et pro multis effundetur, quia pro multis intelliguntur omnes omnino homines, quotquot fuerunt, sunt, et erunt, qui sine dubio multi fuerunt, sunt, et erunt. etenim etiam Apostolus usurpat eandem vocem ad significandum omnes omnino homines inquiens: Si enim unius delicio multi mortui sunt, hoc est, omnes omnino homines ob peccatum Adae, quod totam posteritatem infecit, et corrupit: Et sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, ubi Apostolus nomine multorum significavit omnes, quotquot Adae peccatum corrupit, neque est insuetum in scripturis per multos significare omnes: quando igitur Christus dixit pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur, perinde fuit, ас pro vobis, et omnibus omnino aliis.
 
 
MARTIANAY, Jean (1647-1717), O.S.B., "He is spoken of repeatedly in the Benedictine annals as "most learned in Greek and Hebrew", and he was ever engaged in perfecting his knowledge." (CE)
on Mark 10:45 (Essais de traduction ou Remarques, sur les versions françoises du N.T., Paris: 1710, p. 201-206)
Car le Fils de l'homme même n'est pas venu pour être servi, mais pour servir, et donner sa vie pour la redemtion de plusieurs. Cette traduction exprime mot pour mot le Latin, et daret animam suam redemtionem pro multis; et il n'y a personne qui puisse se plaindre de ceux qui traduisent de la sorte ce verset dans S. Matthieu et dans S. Marc. Aussi trouvons-nous une parfaite conformité de versions dans ces deux endroits de l'Evangile, Matthieu 20. 28. et Marc 10. 45. Cependant nôtre conscience nous reprocheroit d'avoir dissimulé le sens des paroles du Redemteur des hommes, si nous passions plus loin dans nos Remarques, sans nous arrêter sur la signification du terme multi, qui se prend souvent pour omnes, sur tout quand il est question du salut, ou de la perte du genre humain. Je n'en rapporterai que les exemples les plus incontestables. S. Paul raisonnant dans l'Epitre aux Romains, chap. 5. et sur le peché d'Adam qui nous a tous perdus, et sur le don de la grace qui nous a sauvés, donne la préference à la misericorde de Dieu, et à l'efficace de la grace du Liberateur, et dit: Mais il n'en est pas de la grace comme du peché: car si par le peché d'un seul plusieurs sont morts, multi mortui sunt, la misericorde et le don de Dieu, s'est répandu beaucoup plus abondamment sur plusieurs, par la grace d'un seul homme qui est Jesus-Chrìst. Je ne croi pas qu'il y ait un homme assez stupide pour soûtenir que l'Apôtre a excepté quelque particulier de la tache honteuse du peché originel, du peché d'Adam, parce qu'il s'est servi du terme multi, et qu'il a dit que plusieurs sont morts par le peché d'un seul. Il faut donc avoüer sincerement que le mot multi se prend en cet endroit pour omnes; puisqu'il est de foi que tous les hommes sans exception sont morts en Adam, sicut in Adam omnes moriuntur; et que Jesus-Christ est venu pour sauver tous les pecheurs, venit peccatores salvos facere. Mais ne cherchons point d'autre interprete des paroles de Jesus-Christ, que l'Apôtre S. Paul dans sa premiere Epitre à Timothée, chap. 2. v. 5. où il s'est servi des propres termes que nous examinons ici, en parlant sur le sujet de la redemtion des hommes: Il n'y a qu'un Dieu, dit-il, et un Mediateur entre Dieu et les hommes, Jesus-Christ en qualité d'homme, qui s'est donné lui-même pour être le prix de la redemtion de tous. Ce que Jesus-Christ avoit exprimé par un Hebraïsme, et daret animam suam redemtionem pro multis; S. Paul l'a rapporté par une expression commune et naturelle, qui dedit redemtionem semetipsum pro omnibus. Aprés une telle autorité, qui oseroit nous soûtenir, que Jesus-Christ, le seul Mediateur entre Dieu et les hommes, n'a pas versé son sang pour le salut de tous les hommes? Qui oferoit nous contester, que dans la bouche du Sauveur du monde pro multis, ne signifie point pro omnibus?
Je pourrois encore pour un plus grand éclaircissement de cette maniere de parler propre aux Hebreux, faire remarquer que chés eux le terme multitude se prend pour un tout, ou pour la totalité des choses dont on parle lorsqu'on se sert du mot multitudo. Par exemple, quand Moïse parle de la Loi qu'il avoit donnée à tout le Peuple d'Israël, il s'explique en cette maniere: Legem praecepit nobis Moïses, haereditatem multitudinis Jacob. Deut. 33. 4. Ce que nos Traducteurs François ont tourné en nôtre Langue avec toute l'exactitude possible: Moïse nous a donné une Loi, comme l'heritage de toute la maison de Jacob. Multitude se prend donc en cet endroit pour tout le Peuple Hebreu, et pour tout le Peuple de Dieu, qui composoit l'Eglise ancienne. Saint Luc dans les Actes des Apôtres, chap. 4. v. 32. semble avoir voulu imiter les expressions de Moïse, en parlant ainsi de l'Eglise nouvelle: Multitudinis autem credentium erat cor unum, et anima una. Tous les Fidéles n'étoient qu'un cœur et qu'une ame par l'unité de la charité, d'un même esprit, et de la même foi. Plût à Dieu qu'on, pût dire aujourd'hui la même chose des Fidéles et des enfans de l'Eglise.
 
 
DURAND, Bartélemy d'Antibes [Bartholomaeus Durandus] (c.1650-1720). OFM.Obs., theologian.
Fides vindicata, lib. 1, art. xxvii, §.iii. (Avenione: 1709, p. 94; Venetiis: 1726, p. 79)
[Obj.:]
Assertionem nostram impugnant haeretici Praedestinatiani ex nonnullis Sacrae Scripturae textibus, et praesertim ex illo Matth. cap. 26. Hic est sanguis novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum, inde enim concludunt, Deum non habere voluntatem salvandi omnes, et singulos homines, sed solum aliquos, seu eos, qui salvantur, quoniam (inquiunt) Christus, à cujus morte pendet nostra salus, ut docent communiter Theologi, mortuus est pro illis duntaxat, juxta illam authoritatem; nam dicendo, Christum sanguinem suum fudisse pro multis, aliquos excludit, pro quibus non effudit illum: ratio autem hujus exclusionis est, quia Deus non habuit voluntatem salvandi eos.
[Resp.:]
Huic authoritati respondetur, Christum Matth. 26. реr multos, significare, omnes, ac si dixisset: Hic est sanguis novi testamenti, qui pro omnibus effundetur. Nec potest haec interpretatio impugnari ab haereticis Praedestinatianis, nec ab aliis, nisi velint impugnare Scripturam: nam dum Apost. ad Rom. cap. 5. ait: Sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, ita per unius obedientiam justi constituuntur multi. Sumit particulam multi pro particula omnes, et per multos significat omnes, et singulos homines; alioquin sequeretur, non omnes, sed aliquos tantum peccasse in Adam, quod est absurdum apud ipsos Praedestinatianos contra Pelagianos, et falsum, ut ex eodem Apostolo constat. Deinde dum Sacra Scriptura loquitur de praedestinatis, non utitur hoc termino, multi, sed isto, Pauci: ait enim Matth. cap. 20. vers. 16. Multi sunt vocati, pauci vero electi, ubi, multi, idem est ас omnes, cùm omnes vocati fuerint ad fidem à Christo Domino dicente, Matth. ii. vers. 28. Venite ad me omnes, et pauci ad eum accesserint, seu fidem habuerint. Item ex illo Luc. 12. Nolite timere pusillus grex, quia complacuit Patri vestro dare vobis regnum: quo suadetur, praedestinatos non exprimi hoc nomine, multi, quoniam pauci sunt. Illi autem, qui comprehenduntur hoc nomine, multi, sunt reprobi, cum nullus sit homo, qui non sit praedestinatus, vel reprobus, et multi fuerint vocati, pauci vero electi. Mortuus est ergo Christus, et sanguinem suum fudit pro omnibus, et singulis hominibus, sic ordinante Deo Patre, ut per ipsam Christi mortem à Deo imperatam salvarentur omnes, et singuli homines.
Fides vindicata, lib. 1, art. xliii, §.iii. (Avenione: 1709, p. 145; Venetiis 1726, p. 122)
Refutatur iterum Jansenistarum responsio. Aliquis eorum, propter quos mortuus est Christus, periit, ut declarat Apostolus 1. ad Corinth. cap. 8. vers. 11. Peribit infirmus in tua scientia Frater: propter quem Christus mortuus est. Et ad Rom. cap. 14. vers. 15. Noli cibo tuo illum perdere, pro quo Christus est mortuus: ergo Christus mortuus est pro aliquo non electo, seu quem praevidebat morte sua abusurum, seu reprobum.
Christum pro omnibus corpus suum tradidisse, et suum Sanguinem fudisse, probatur etiam ex Evangelio Lucae cap. 22. vers. 19. et 20. ubi de ipso dicitur, quod accepto pane gratias egit, et dedit Discipulis suis dicens: Hoc est Corpus meum quod pro vobis tradetur. Et accepto Calice dixit: Hic est Calix Novum Testamentum in Sanguine meo, qui pro vobis fundetur. Dare quidem Corpus, et effundere Sanguinem, includit intentionem dandi utrumque. Нaeс autem corporis traditio, et effusio Sanguinis, sunt pro omnibus, et singulis hominibus: ergo Christus vult, quod Corpus et Sanguis prosint omnibus, et singulis hominibus; alioquin sequeretur quod tunc Christus inconsideratè locutus fuisset, quod non est dicendum. Vel quod per particulam, vobis, solos Apostolos comprehendisset: quod est falsum, cum multi ex meritis Passionis Christi sint verè Sancti, et Divina Beatitudine perfruantur in gloria: qui tamen non fuerunt Apostoli, nec praesentes in Coena Domini. Vel com prehendisset solos praedestinatos: quod est etiam falsum, quia unus Apostolorum, scilicet Judas est reprobus: ergo alloquendo Apostolos, vere et sincerè alloquebatur omnes, et singulos homines, et habebat voluntatem sinceram salvandi omnes morte sua, et effundendi Sanguinem pro omnibus, et singulis hominibus.
And also in the same paragraph [Fides vindicata, lib. 1, art. xliii, §.iii.] (Avenione: 1709, p. 148; Venetiis 1726, p. 124)
[Obj.: ...] Matth. 20. Sicut Filius hominis non venit ministrari, sed ministrare, et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis, plures homines excludit, et admittit tantum eos, quos Pater illi dederat, scilicet praedestinatos. Sunt alii similes textus, ex quibus infertur, Christum fuisse mortuum pro fidelibus duntaxat, ut suadet haec particula, pro multis quae est minor ista pro omnibus, et tantum sonat, quantum ista, pro pluribus.
Respondetur [...] Ad textum Matthaei dico quod nomine multi idem significatur, quod nomine omnes in Sacra Scriptura. Nam Matth. loco citato ab adversariis dicit, quod Christus dedit animam suam redemptionem pro multis. Et D. Paulus i. ad Timoth. cap. 2. vers. 6. idem significare intendens ait, qui dedit redemptionem semetipsum pro omnibus. Igitur ne in Sacra Scriptura habeatur formalis, et expressa contradictio, dicendum est quod illa verba, multi, et omnes, unum et idem significant, eamdemque quantitatem denotant in sacris paginis, ut in variis earumdem locis videri potest. Hoc verum esse probatur ex eodem Apostolo, qui in uno, eodemque capite, quos prius dixit multos, posteà dixit, omnes. Nam ad Rom. 5. vers. 15. ait: Sed si non sicut delictum, ita et donum: si enim unius delicto multi mortui sunt, et vers. 18. Igitur sicut per unius delictum in omnes homines in condemnationem, idcirco indifferenter utitur nomine multi et nomine omnes, ut suadeat, haec duo nomina, unum, et idem significare aliquando in Scriptura Sacra, praesertim in his, in quibus agitur de morte et Passione Christi, aut de remissione peccatorum.
Unde idem Apostolus vers. 19. inquit: Sicut enim per inobedientiam unius hominis, peccatores constituti sunt multi, ità per unius obedientiam, justi constituentur multi. Inde enim facile colligitur, multi significare idem ac omnes, et Apostolum, omnes et multi, aequaliter usurpare alioquin sequeretur quod omnes et singuli homines non fuistent constituti peccatores delicto Adae, sed tantùm aliqui, quod est falsum, quia omnes contraxerunt peccatum originale, et in Adam peccaverunt, ut scriptum est. ldeoque Evangelista per multos intendit exprimere omnes, ut fusiùs dictum est in articulo, in quo dixi contrà Praedestinatianos, Deum velle salutem omnium hominum.
TODO
 
 
DÉSIRANT, Bernard (1656-1725), O.S.A., theologian. He wrote against heretical book "Les Hexaples au Les six colomnes sur la Constitution unigenitus" (1715, p. 344) of jansenist Pasquier Quesnel (1634–1719) and his followers.
S. Augustinus vindicatus contra centum et unam damnatas Paschasii Quesnelli, liber. XXII. in XXXII. propositionem damnatam, cap. VIII. (Romae: 1721, pars III, pag. 271)
De iis quae ad Propositionem trigesimam secundam Paschasius Quesnellus cum suis dixit in Hexaplis.
[...]
HEXAPLISTA DIXIT
Sanctus Matth. cap. 26. v. 28. (Pag. 344.)
VERSIO HEXAPLISTÆ.
Ceci est mon Sang, le Sang de la nouvelle Alliance qui sera répandu pour plusieurs, pour la remission des péchez.
TEXTUS VULGATÆ.
Hic est enim Sanguis meus novi testamenti qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
RESPONSIO.
Ex hujus quoque textus adductione convinceris, quod propositionem tuam damnatam asserueris in sensu adæquato, et a morte Christi excluseris qui praedestinati non sunt. Quam vero impotenter id nitaris ex hoc textu exsculpere, quasi quia Christus sanguinem suum effundendum dixerit pro multis, id intelligi non possit pro omnibus, potueras ex S. Augustino discere, si stabat animo ab ipsius doctrina non recedere. Quid enim in illis, quos contra Julianum scripsit libris est familiarius, quam quod, ubi Julianus ad impugnandum similiter originale peccatum, adduxisset Apostolum ad Romanos 5. v. 19. dicentem, Peccatores constituti sunt multi, et tentasset inde concludere, quod igitur non omnes; S. Augustinus responderit, ipsi sunt multi, qui et omnes, et id ipsum variis argumentis demonstraverit? lib. 6. contra Julianum c. 24. n. 80. Norunt siquidem Sacrarum Scripturarum interpretes, tunc omnes et multos confundi, quando id quod pro omnibus gestum est, effectum suum non in omnibus, sed in multis obtinet. Unde Scriptura ex una parte dicit, Sicut enim per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi: ita et per unius obedientiam justi constituentur multi. Rom. 5. v. 19. Ex altera vero parte etiam dicit: quoniam si unus pro omnibus mortuus est, ergo omnes mortui sunt, et pro omnibus mortuus est Christus: ut et qui vivunt, jam non sibi vivant, sed ei, qui pro ipsis mortuus est et resurrexit. 2. Corinth. v. 14. et 15. Non solummodo Christum dicit mortuum pro omnibus qui mortui fuerunt, sed et finem addit, ut vivant: Quamquam hic finis in omnibus effectum suum non sortiatur. Finge nunc, O Quesnelle, Christum ideo non pro omnibus mortuum esse, sed pro multis; numquid adversus Paulum Apostolum armabis Julianum Pelagianum, parili argumento dicturum, sic mortuos esse multos, sicut unus pro multis mortuus est? Nan dixit autem Apostolus, si omnes mortui sunt, ergo unus mortuus est pro omnibus; sed verba ipsius fuerunt, si unus pro omnibus mortuus est, ergo omnes mortui sunt. Ut nemo posset aliquem ab incursa morte excludere Christum dicit pro omnibus mortuum esse. Ergo mortuus est pro omnibus qui mortui sunt nemine prorsus excepto.
HEXAPLISTA DIXIT
Sanctus Marcus x. 45. (pag 344.)
VERSIO HEXAPLISTÆ.
Le Fils de I'homme est venu pour donner sa vie pour la redemption de plusieurs.
TEXTUS VULGATÆ.
Filius hominis non venit ut ministraretur ei, sed ut ministraret, et daret animam suam redemptionem pro multis.
RESPONSIO.
IPSI sunt multi, qui et omnes, prout statim ex S. Augustino vidimus.
HEXAPLISTA DIXIT
Sanctus Paulus ad Hebratos ix. v. 28. (pag. 344.)
VERSIO HEXAPLISTÆ.
Jesus-Christ a été offert une fois pour effacer les péchez de plusieurs.
TEXTUS VULGATÆ.
Christus semel oblatus est ad multorum exhaurienda peccata.
RESPONSIO.
IPSI sunt multi, qui et omnes.
 
 
L'HERMINIER, Nicolas (1657-1735), S.J., theologian.
tractatus de peccatis: Solvuntur objectiones (Summa Theologiae Ad Usum Scholae Accomodata, Venetiis, 1741, vol. 6, p. 38)
[Obj.:] versu 19. apertè dicit Apostolus per peccatum Adami multos constitutos esse peccatores; sicut enim per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, ita et per unius obeditionem justi constituentur multi: atqui non alia ex causâ hâc voce multi utitur Apostous in priori parte propositionis, quàm ut significet multos quidem, sed non omnes peccato Adami fuisse contaminatos [...]
[Resp.:] Nego min. quia videlicet multos dicit ibi Apostolus quos ante dixerat omnes, in quo nihil occurrit reprehensione dignum; omnes enim homines, revera multi sunt, ut recte disserit S. Augustinus lib. 6. contra Jul. cap. 24. [...] Quibus adde vocem multi accipi nonnunquam in Scripturis pro omnes,
  • Lucae cap. 7. 47. Remittuntur ei peccata multa, id est omnia.
  • Mat. cap. 20. 28. Venit Filius hominis dare animam suam in redemptionem pro multis, id est pro omnibus.
  • Cap. 26. Hic est Sanguis meus Novi Testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur, id est pro omnibus.
tractatus de gratia dei: Solvuntur objectiones (Summa Theologiae Ad Usum Scholae Accomodata, Venetiis, 1741, vol. 4, p. 230)
Objicies 1. Scriptura restringit mortem Christi ad multos,
  • Math. 20. cap. Filius hominis non venit ministrari et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis.
  • Et cap. 26. Hic est enim Sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
  • Epist. ad Hebr. cap. 9. Sic et Christus semel oblatus est ad multorum exhaurienda peccata
[...]
[Resp.:]
Dist. ant. Scriptura restringit mortem Christi ad multos
  • sine exclustone caeterorum, C.
  • cum exclusione cæterorum, N.
non sunt igitur intelligenda hæc loca Scripturæ in quibus legitur Christum pro multis esse mortuum; quasi pro electis et prædestinatis pretium suae mortis impensum voluerit, non autem pro omnibus et singulis: idque duplici potissimum ex causa.
  • Primo, quia nullum est ex adductis testimoniis, in quo habeatur particula exclusia tantum [...]
  • Secundo, quia generatim loquendo vox ilia multis non est exclusiva omnium, quando in aliis locis eadem res tribuitur omnibus; quia nil vetat quominus aliquid dicatur de multis, quod revera convenit omnibus; vox enim multi continetur sub voce omnes: unde satentibus adversariis recte colligitur peccato originali obnoxios esse omnes homines nullo excepto, ex istis Apostoli verbis quæ leguntur cap. 5. Epist. ad Rom. in quo omnes peccaverunt; licet in eodem capite habeatur, per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi. Proindeque Scriptura non restringit mortem Christi ad multos cum exclusione cæterorum.
 
 
SERRY, Jacques-Hyacinthe (1659–1738), O.P., theologian.
Praelectiones theologicae, praelectio XIII (ed. 1742, vol. 1, p. 388)
[Obj.:] Danielis Oraculum producit in medium cap. 12., quo rem suam plane confici putat: Et multi, inquit Propheta, de his, qui dormiunt in Terrae pulvere, evigilabunt: alii in vitam aeternam, et alii in opprobrium, ut videant semper. Si multi evigilabunt, non igitur omnes, inquit Catharinus. ...
[Resp.:] At spuria profectò consecutio est. Quod enim inquit Propheta, multi, qui dormiunt absolutè, non comparatè dictum est; idemque sonat, ac omnes; quia et omnes illi numero multi sunt. Prophetae interpretem habemus Christum ipsum Joan. 5.; ubi et Catharihi Figmentum evidenter explodit: Omnes, inquit, qui in monumentis sunt, audient vocem Filii Dei, et procedent qui bona fecerunt, in resurrectionem Vitae: qui vero mala egerunt, in resurrectionem Judicii. Frustra ergo superesse aliquos colligit Catharinus, qui nec in Vitam aeternam abeant, nec in opprobrium, atque judicium, sed in medium aliquem locum. Neque verò huic Scripturae Loco singulare est, ut τὸ multi absolutè sumatur; idemque significet, ac omnes: hoc idem observamus ad Rom. 5., ubi cùm dixisset Apostolus: Per inobedientiam unius hominis, peccatores constituti sunt multi, dixit in antecessum, quasi id explicans, in quo omnes peccaverunt: et infra: per unius delitlum in omnes Homines in condemnationem. Id ipsum habemus in verbis consccrationis Vini: Qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur; cùm tamen Sanguinem suum pro omnibus omnino Hominibus, (saltem quo ad sufficientiam, ut Schola loquitur) fudisse Christum, Fidei veritas sit.
 
 
HENNO, Franciscus [Franz, François] (c.1660-1720), OFM., theologian.
Theologia dogmatica, moralis et scholastica (Venetiis: 1719, tom. 2, p. 213; 1768, tom. 6, p. 522; 1788, tom. 6, p. 381-382; Matritii: 1795, tom. 4, p. 399)
Obj. I. Matth. 20. legitur: Filius hominis non venit ministrari, sed ministrare, et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis: ergo non pro omnibus.
Resp. Neg. Conseq. Quia hic Multi, idem est ас Omnes, ut saepe usurpat Scriptura: nam Rom. 5. dicitur: Unius delicto MULTI mortui sunt, et tamen alibi legitur: In quo omnes peccaverunt. Praetereà, ut fatetur ipsemet Jansenius commentado in Matthaeum, ly Multi potest significare Omnes, quando Omnes sunt Мulti.
Theologia dogmatica, moralis et scholastica. De Eucharistia, disp. III, q. 5 (Matriti: 1795, vol. 5, p. 246-247)
Denique ponitur: Qui pro vobis, nempe sumentibus, et pro multis id est pro omnibus omnino hominibus, cum pro illis omnibus mortuus sit Christus, suumque sanguinem effuderit sufficienter; pro electis vero, etiam efficaciter.
 
 
Bartolomeo di S. Francesco (c.1660-1720), OFM., theologian.
praedica xxi (La rete apostolica nel mare del mondo, alla pesca dell' huomo; quaresimale. In Lucca : Frediani, 1710. p. 185)
Così l'Evangelista, illuminat omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum : così l'Apostolo, Deus vult omnes homines salvos fieri; e così Christo, pro vobis et pro multis (vuol dire) pro vobis, et pro omnibus effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
 
 
Juan Bautista Lardito (1660-1723), O.S.B., theologian.
Comment. in S. Anselmum De originali, primoque hominum peccato, dubium I.: §.2. / num. 22-24 (S. Anselmi tomus tertius scholiis ac comentariis illustratus, Salmanticae, 1703, p. 307)
[Obj.:] Per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constitui sunt multi: ergo non omnes. [...]
[Resp.:] dico: per multos saepè in Sacra Pagina intelligi omnes dicitur enim
  • Muthaei 20. Quod filius hominis dedit animam suam in redempitonem pro multis,
  • et cap 26. Hic est sanguis, qui pro multis effundetur,
cum tamen sit effusus pro omnibus, nam re vera effusus est pro multis, qui effusus est pro omnibus, et peccaverunt multi, si omnes peccaverunt, ut late expendimus tom. 2. trac. 3. de voluntate Dei, dub. 2. §. 6. praeter quamquod cum Apostolus expresse asserat omnes peccasse, non est cur expositione indigeamus.
 
 
Giovanni Bernardo Pozzolo/Pozzoli (c.1660—c.1730), C.R.S., theologian, canonist.
Rationale romani pontificis. De papa, et symbolo. Lib. I. pars III. caput VI. (Romae: 1727, p. 243)
Rursus divites sunt textibus illis. Qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum, at rursus sanguis effusus est pro Juda praescito, in ea particula Vobis expresso. Referunt illud Evangelistae, hic sanguis effundetur pro Vobis et pro multis, quippe multi in Scriptura significat omnes, et quod unus Evangelista explicat multi, alius exponit pro omnibus, imo in hac eadem materia, multi sunt omnes. Sicut per unius delictum omnes Homines in damnationem, sic per unius justitiam omnes Homines in justificationem vitae, sicut enim per inobedientiam unius Hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, ubi multi significat omnes, et quod evidens est pro vobis, sic effundetur pro Juda proditore, et saepè Auguitinus opponit novum Adamum veteri, quod iste dederit vitarn omnibus, ille omnibus mortem attulerit, imo repetit plus exprimere multos quàm omnes, quippe duo oculi sunt omnes oculi, nec tamen multi oculi inveniuntur.
 
 
SIMONNET, Edmond (1662-1733) S.J., theologian.
about Matthew 20:28
De deo uno, art. 4, obj. 2 (Institutiones Theologicae Ad Usum Seminariorum, Nanceii, 1721, vol. 1, p. 551)
Filius hominis venit dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis.
Resp. to obj. (ibid. p. 552)
hoc loco et aliis similibus, hanc vocem, multi, sumi pro ista, omnes, et recte quidem, quia ubi omnes sunt multi, multi apte ponuntur pro omnibus. Præterea, ut pluribus locis notavit S. Augustinus, familiare est Scripturis sacris, to multi usurpare pro to omnes. Sic sumitur v. g. Rom. c. 5. ubi dicitur: Si unius delicto multi mortui sunt, etc.
about words of consecration of Eucharist (Matthew 26:28/Mark 14:24/Luke 22:20)
de Eucharistia (Institutiones Theologicae Ad Usum Seminariorum, Nanceii, 1728, vol. 8, p. 261)
Additur denique 3° Qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum, ad significandum, quod sanguis Christi pro omnium hominum salute in cruce effusus fuerit.
about Hebrews 9:28
de Eucharistia (Institutiones Theologicae Ad Usum Seminariorum, Nanceii, 1728, vol. 8, p. 493)
sic et Christus semel oblatus est (et mortuus in cruce) ad multorum (id est, omnium; nam omnes sunt multi) exhaurienda peccata
 
 
WITHAM, Robert (c.1667-1738), theologian, president of catholic university in Douai, and even "is considered a second founder" (CE)
on Matthew 20:28 (Annotations on the New Testament, 1730, vol. I, p. 83)
Redemption for many i.e. for all, as it is sometimes the style of the Scriptures. see S. Paul. 1. Tim. 2. 6.
on Matthew 26:28 (Annotations on the New Testament, 1730, vol. I, p. 117; also quoted in Haydock, p. 1308)
For many. S. Luke and S. Paul, instead of many, say for you. Both are joined in the canon of the mass. Euthymius says, for many, is the same as for All mankind. This new alliance was made with all, and the former with the Jews only.
on Hebrews 9:28 (quoted in Haydock, p. 1593)
To exhaust the sins of many. That is, of all, according to the style of the Scriptures.
 
 
GRAVESON, Ignace Hyacinthe Amat de (c.1670-1733), OP., theologian, one of the greatest thomists of 18th century (cf. CE).
Obj. Epistolae Ad Amicum Scriptae Theologico-Historico-Polemicae (Romae: 1729. p. 318. Venetiis: 1741. vol. 2, p. 118; Bassani: 1774. vol. xvi. p. 118)
sic argumentantur Jansenii discipuli:
    [...] Christus c. 26. Matthaei dixit discipulis suis,
      Hic est sanguis meus, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
    Christus igitur non est mortuus pro omnibus, et singulis in individuo hominibus, sed tantummodo pro multis, idest, pro solis electis ac Praedestinatis.
Obj. Tractatus De vita, mysteriis, et annis Jesu Christi... Juxta germanam DIVI THOMAE mentem, vol. 1, Dissertatio XVI [De Morte Christi, seu utrum Christus Dominus mortuus sit pro omnibus omnino Hominibus?], Obj. 1:2
(Romae: 1711. p. 332-333; Venetiis: 1741, p. 255-256; Venetiis: 1742, vol. 1, p. 278-279)
Matt. cap. 26. Christus dixit discipulis suis: Hic est sanguis meus, qui pro Vobis, et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum etc. ergo Christus non est mortuus pro omnoibus, et singulis hominibus, sed solum pro multis, id est, praedestinatis, et electis.
Resp. (ibid):
dico: ex eo potius colligi, Christum etiam pro reprobis Sanguinem fuduisse. Christus enim Corpus, et Sanguinem suum etiam Judae proditori tradidit in ultima Cena, sicut docent S. Augustinus in Ps. 10. et Sanctus Leo Serm.3. de Passione Domini, aliique Patres; Judae vero non secus ас aliis Apostolis porrigendo sanguinem suum dixit: Hic est Sanguis meus qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum: Igitur pro Juda, reproborum omnium nequissimo, Sanguis Christi fuit effusus: Ecce timuit Judas, traditor Christi, sed non speravit in misericordia ipsius. Postea paenituit eum, quod tradiderit Dominum, et dxit; Peccavi, quod tradidi sanguinem justum. Bene quidem timuisti, sed si sperares in misericordia ejus, quem timuisti. Ille desperando obiit et laqueo se suspendit. Haec sunt in Ps.146. verba S. Àugustini, cui succinit fidissimus ejus interpres S. Fulgentius Ep.7. ad Venantiam cap. 5. ubi haec habet; Digne quidem pœnitentiam gessit (Judas) tradens sanguinem justum; sed ideo sibi fructum pœnitentia denegavit, quia peccatum traditionis suae, ipso, quem tradidit, diluendum sanguine non speravit. Dum ergo dixit Christus: hic est sanguis, qui pro multis effundetur, multorum nomine omnes intelligit, perinde ac dum Lucae cap.7. dicitur: remittuntur ei peccata multa, idest, omnia, et ad Rom. cap. 5. per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores consituti sunt multi, hoc est, omnes. Hinc S. Chrysostomus explicans hunc locum S. Matth. in objectione laudatum, ait, sanguinem Christi fuisse effusum in remissionem totius Orbis peccatorum. Addo etiam, quod si Christus suum duntaxat sanguinem effudisset pro electis et praedestinatis, non debuisset in ultima coena dicere: Hic est sanguis, qui pro multis effundetur, sed potius, hic est sanguis, qui pro paucis effundetur, cum certum sit, praedestinatos cum reprobis comparatos paucos admodum esse, juxta illud Matth. cap. 20. Multi sunt vocati, pauci vero electi.
 
 
Collective of theologians: Tyrocinium Seminaristicum. (Moguntiae: Joannis Joachimi Franckenbergii, 1735; approbated by: Franciscus Philippus Wolff). Book for catholic seminaries.
cap. VII, §. 5, r. 2, num. 5 (p. 310)
Omnes pro multis, et multi pro omnibus crebrò in S. literis ponuntur, ita, quando Christus de sanguine suo dixit. Qui pro vobis, et multis (id est omnibus) effundetur. Matth. 26. v. 28.
 
 
GINTHER, Antoine (c.1670-c.1740), theologian.
Unus pro omnibus (Augustae Vindelicorum : Happach, 1733, p. 298), it seems inspired by Le Blanc quoted above.
Christus in coena ultima consecrans calicem dixit Matth. 26. 28. Hic est sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis (pro omnibus qui omnes sunt multi) effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
 
 
PRUGGER, Ladislaus [Brugger] (c.1672–1732), OFMConv, theologian
Passionale Ruth Spicilegiantis Concionatoriae Evangelicae. (Augspurg 1735. p. 487)
Wann deme aber also, warumben nennet Ihme der H. Apostel alleinig den Erstgebohrenen unter vielen Brüderen : Primogenitus in multis fratribus? Ach! Er hat dieses nicht gesagt, als ob Er nicht der Erstgebohrene und Adelichiste unter allen Brüderen, keinen ausgenommen, wäre, sonderen er hat hierinnfalls wollen nachfolgen dem Gebrauch der Schrifft, welche zuweilen das Wort multi oder viel pro omnibus für alle nimmet, wie Theophylactus bemercket, also lesen wir in dem Heil. Evangelisten Marco cap. 10. Venit Filius hominis, ut ministraret, et daret animam suam redemptionem pro multis. Also stehet Matth. 26. geschrieben, daß Christus in jenem denckwürdigen Abendmahl den Kelch in seine Hand habe genommen, und gesprochen: Hic est sanguis meus, qui pro multis effundetur : Und Isa. 13. Ipse peccata multorum tulit : ad Rom. 5. Unius delicto multi mortui sunt : Also sähe der Heil. Evangelist Joannes Apoc. 19. In capite ejus diademata multa, auf seinem Haupt viel Cronen, id est omnia, das ist alle, weilen der Gebrauch der Schrifft schon ist, eines für das andere zu nehmen : Wann demnach der Heil. Apostel Paulus Christum benahmset den Erstgebohrenen unter vielen Brüdern, will er sagen unter allen, und folgsamb auch der Adelichiste unter allen.
 
 
ERHARD, Thomas Aquinas (1675—1743), O.S.B., theologian
on Matthew 20:28 (Isagoge et commentarius, 1735. vol I, p. 152), identically with DuHamel etc.
PRO MULTIS, for all, so Rom v. 19, Many were made sinners - i.e. all.Pro multis, pro omnibus; sic Rom. 5, 19: Peccatores constituti sunt multi - id est, omnes.
 
 
PELLETIER, Claude de (c.1675-1758), theologian.
Traite dogmatique et moral de la grace universelle tire du Nouveau Testament (Luxembourg: 1725)
(p. 5-6) about word "many" and passage "ransom for many", etc.
Il a apellé à la Foi les Juifs et les Gentils: la multitude entiere du genre humain. Tous n'ont pas repondu à la celeste vocation, et c'est par leur faute qu'ils n'ont pas été élus: Multi vocati, pauci vero electi. Tous ont été apellés: c'est le sens de la Vulgate et du Grec, confirmé par le témoignage de Jesus-Christ même: Venez tous à moí: Venite ad me omnes. Math. xi. Cependant peu sont élus, parce qu'ils n'ont pas voulu suivre celui qui les apelloit par sa parole animée de sa Grace, quoiqu'il soit venu donner sa vie, pour être le prix de la redemption de tous les hommes: de la multitude entiere du genre humain sans aucune exception. Filius hominis venit dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis.* C'est encore le vrai seus de la Vulgate et du Grec, et des meilleurs Interprêtes, confirmé par d'autres endroits de l'Ecriture.**

* Math. 20. v. 16. et 28. Marc, 10. 45
** Voyez St. Augustin et les autres Peres, Vatable, Erasme, Grotius, Diusius etc. qui soutiennent que pro multis s'entend pro omnibus. Rom. 5. 19. per unum hominem peccatores constituti sunt multi: c'est-à-dire, tous. Car nous sommes tous enfans de colere, comme dit le même Apôtre. Eph. 2. 3.
(p. 8) about "blood...shed for many"
On n'en peut douter quand on lui entend dire: Ceci est mon sang, le sang de la nouvelle Alliance, lequel sera repandu pour la multitude entiere de tous les hommes, pour la remission de tous les pechez. Hic est sanguis meus novi Testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum. (Matth. 26. 28) Le sang de Jesus-Christ a été repandu pour tous les hommes, je n'en puis douter aprés son témoignage. Dés que ce sang a été repandu pour chacun en particulier, je participe à la mort, à la redemption, et à la Grace de ce Sauveur. Ce sang a été repandu pour procurer à tous les hommes la remission de tous leurs pechez: In remissionem peccatorum.
(p. 70-71) his translation of Hebrews 9:28
de même Jesus-Christ a été offert, une seule fois, pour abolir tous les pechez de la multitude entiere du genre humain. (Heb. 9.)
 
 
GUARIN, Pierre (1678-1729), O.S.B., exegete, philologist
Grammaticae hebraicae et chaldaicae, Lib. II, tract. II., cap. IV. art. II (Lutetiae Parisiorum, 1726, vol. II., p. 234)
Synecdoche speciei est, cum species pro genere, vel particulate pro universali ponitur. [...] Signum particularitatis unicum est, nempe MULTUS, quod nomen pro omnibus accipitur.
  • Dan. 12. v. 2. Multi de his, qui dormierunt in terrae pulvere, evigilabunt, alii in vitam aeternam, et alii in opprobrium [...] In hoc autem versu multi pro omnibus ponuntur, uti explicat Christus Joan. 5. v. 28.
  • Isai. 53. v. 12. Ipse (Messias) peccata multorum tulit, h.e. omnium omnino hominum, ut dicit idem propheta v. 6. et ut explicat Apost. 2. Cor. 5. v. 15. Vide insuper Matth. 20. vv. 16. 28. c. 26. v. 28. Rom. 5. vv. 15. 18. 19. с. 8. v. 29. etc.
  • Huc etiam refert August. l. 20. de Civit. Dei, с. 23. tom. 7. nov. edit. col. 606. illud Gen. 17. v. 5. Patrem multarum gentium constitui te, i.e. omnium; capite enim 22. v. 18. dicitur: benedicentur in semine tuo omnes gentes terrae.
 
 
ANTOINE, Paul Gabriel (1678-1743), S.J., theologian.
He was very famous for his "Moral Thology" which "was so highly esteemed by Benedict XIV that he prescribed its use by the students of the College of Propaganda, and it was likewise received by many of the bishops throughout France and Italy." (CE). But also his "Theologia universa, speculativa et dogmatica" was very famous. It "embracing the whole field of scholastic inquiry met with an enthusiastic reception, and at once stamped the author as among the first theologians of the age. It went through nine editions during his life, and ten after his death. It is remarkable for its clearness and solidity." (CE)
Theologia universa, speculativa et dogmatica (Parisiis: 1736, tom. 2, p. 291; Augustae Vindelicorum et Cracoviae: 1755, t. 1, p. 405; 1762, t. 1, p. 297; Venetiis, 1762, t. 1, p. 283; Venetiis: 1821, tom. 1, p. 219)
Obj. 2.
    • Matth. cap. 20. Christus dicit se venisse dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis.
    • Et c. 26. Hic est sanguis meus, qui pro multis effundetur.
    Ergo non est mortuus pro omnibus.
Resp. Nego conseq. Quia
  • 1. vox multi non excludit omnes.
  • 2. Vox multi in illis locis significat omnes, ut constat ex aliis locis supra allatis, quia omnes sunt multi. Quandо autem omnes sunt multi, vox multi aptè ponitur pro omnibus, ut notat S. Augustinus Lib. 2. Operis imperfecti, n. 175. Ad hoc, inquit, jam responsum est, non repugnare omnibus multos, quia ipsi omnes, non pauci, sed multi sunt. Et vero saepè in Scriptura vox multi sumitur pro omnibus: sic Rom. cap. 8. Si unius delicio multi mortui sunt, hoc est, omnes Adami peccato mortui sunt.
Theologia universa, speculativa et dogmatica (Venetiis, 1762, t.1, p. 424; Venetiis: 1821, tom. 1, p. 327)
Obj. 6. Illud, Rom. c. 5. Per unius hominis inebedientiam peccatores constituti sunt multi. [...]
Resp. Nego conseq. Quia vox multi non excludit omnes; et Apostolus eodem hoc capite dicit et omnes et multo, eo quod omnes homines, per inobedientiam Adami constituti sunt peccatores, et illi omnes re vera sunt multi. Igitur, inquit, sicut per unius delictum in omnes homines in condemnationem, etc. Sicut Scriptura dicit Christum mortuum esse pro omnibus et pro multis, quia re-vera illi omnes, pro quibus Christus mortuus est, multi sunt, et multi omnes sunt. Item Scriptura dicit, omnes gentes in semine Abrahae benedicendas esse, et Abrahamum multarum gentium patrem constitutum esse; quia re-vera et omnes gentes benedicendae erant in semine Abrahae, nempe Christo, et omnes ille gentes benedicendae in Christo sunt multae.
 
 
Sebaldus a Sancto Christophoro [Johann Wolfgang HEID] (1678-1759), O.C.D., theologian.
Scientiae salutis Pars II. cap. I [De Praedestinatione hominis] : num. 279. / Controversia XIII. [Num Christus pro omnibus omninò hominibus sit mortuus?] Prob. 3, arg. VIII. (Scientia salutis. Bambergae et Francofurti: 1758. pars II, pag. 96)
S. Augustinus ex Apostolo retulerat seqq. textus ad Rom. 5. v. 15: Unius delictô multi mortui sunt et 2. Cor. 5. v. 14: Omnes mortui sunt, conciliat istas voculas omnes et multi dicens: Multi quippe isti ipsi sunt omnes, de quitus aliô loco dicit: sicut in Adam omnes motiuntur. Ex hoc
Argumentor: Juxta Augustinum et supra num. 176. adductas Scripturas Christus est mortuus pro omnibus, qui mortui erant in Adamo: atqui in hoc sunt mortui tam reprobi, quàm praedestinati: ergo juxta Augustinum etc. Christus est mortuus tam pro reprobis, quàm pro praedestinatis.
Scientiae salutis Pars II. cap. I [De Praedestinatione hominis] : num. 282. / Controversia XIII. [Num Christus pro omnibus omninò hominibus sit mortuus?] Objectiones Jansnii solvuntur. II. (Scientia salutis. Bambergae et Francofurti: 1758. pars II, pag. 96-97).. [Very similar to VERANI (1647-1713) Theologia polemica. (Augustae vindelicorum: 1719, t. 1, p. 581) quoted above. by which he was inspired.]
Objectiones Jansnii solvuntur.
282. Objicit [...]
    II. Matth. 26. v. 28. dicit Christus: Hic est sanguis meus novi Testamenti, qui pro multis: ergo non pro omnibus, effundetur.
[...] Ad II.
  • Resp. 1. Christum quoque Lucae 22. v. 20. ad Discipulos suos dicere: Hic est calix novum Testamentum in sanguine meo, qui pro vobis fundetur: atqui juxta SS. Patres ibi in numero Discipulorum fuit comprehensùs Judas, qui reprobus erat: ergo Christi sanguis fuit fusus etiam pro reprobis.
  • Resp. 2. N. cons. quia in textu per ly multis intelliguntur omnes omninò homines, quotquot fuerunt, sunt, et erunt: qui sinè dubio multi fuerunt, sunt, et erunt. Sic etiam Apostolus eandem voculam multi usurpat ad significandum omnes omninò homines, dum ait: Si enim unius Adae delictô multi, hoc est, omnes (solâ excepta DEiparâ) omninò homines, mortui sunt. Nec est in aliis Scripturis insuetum, per multos significare omnes. Vide Augustinum suprà fol. 96. sub num. VIII.
Scientiae salutis Pars II. cap. III [De Vitiis et Peccatis] : num. 46 / Controversia II. [De peccato originali]. Resolutio I. [Datur peccatum originale]. Solvuntur Objectiones. (Scientia salutis. Bambergae et Francofurti: 1758. pars II, pag. 177)
Objic. 2. Apostolus ad Rom. 5. v. 15 ait: Non, sicut delictum, ita donum, sed, si unius delictô multi mortui sunt, multò magìt gratia DEi et donum in gratia unius hominis JEsu Christi in plures abundavit. Insert Pelagius: ergo multi, et non omnes peccârunt in Adamo, sed adulti solùm, qui peccando Adamum imitati sunt. [...]
Resp. Apostolum ibi τὸ multi sumpsisse pro ly omnes; uti ex verbis cit. textum tam antecedentibus, quàm consequentibus constat; antea enim v. 12. dixerat: Per unum hominem peccatum in hunc mundum intravit, et per peccatum morts, et ita NB in Omnes homines mors pertransiit; in quo Omnes peccaverunt: postea verò v. 18. de eodem Adami peccato dixit: Per unius delictum in Omnes homines in condemnationem. Sic etiam saepiùs dicitur Christum animam suam dedisse pro multis; cùm tamen mortuus sit pro omnibus.
 
 
BETANCURT, Antonio (1679-1738), S.J., theologian
Sermoens offerecidos ao serenissimo senhor Infante D. Antonio. num. 26 (Lisboa Occidental: 1739. p. 35-36)
Quando Christo consagrou o Calix, e o offereceo aos Apostolos, usou desta forma: Hic est Calix sanguinis mei, qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur. Este he o Calix do meu sangue, que por vós, e por muitos se ha de derramar. Notavel modo de dizer! Se os Apostolos entravaõ no numero dos muitos, por quem Christo havia de derramar o seu Sangue, parecem termos superfluos o Vós, e Muitos: Pro vobis, et pro multis, como se lê no Euangelista. E se a palavra Muitos significa todos, porque por todos morreo Christo: Pro omnibus mortuus est, ainda se deixa ver mais a superfluidade de termos; porque dizendo Christo, que havia de morrer por todos, claramente affirmava, que tambem havia de morrer pelos Apostolos. Assim parece: mas julgou o Divino Mestre, que a palavra Muitos naõ era accommodada aos Apostolos; porque os Apostolos nesta occasiaõ já naõ eraõ muitos, já tinhaõ commungado a Hostia, e por virtude desta já estavaõ unidos em amor, e charidade; já eraõ hum só paõ, e hum só corpo: Unus Panis, unum corpus. Este he o sangue (queria dizer Christo) que ha de ser derramado por vós, que já sois huma só cousa; e por muitos, que saõ todos os outros, a quem falta ainda a uniaõ Sacramental. Oppoz Christo à multiplicidade de todos os homens a unidade daquelles, que tinhaõ commungado: e para declarar esta opposiçaõ distinguîo entre hum, e outro termo: Pro vobis, et pro multis.
 
 
LIPSIN, Ludovicus [Ludovico / Louis] (c.1680-1767), OFMConv., theologian.
Catechismus, de Symbol., art. 11 (Augustae Vindelicorum: 1769, vol. 2, pag. 569)
Q. Daniel: Multi de his, qui in pulvere dormiunt, evigilabunt, cap. 12. Si multi : igitur non omnes : quid ad hoc?
R. dico, quod li multi significat omnes, sic enim pluribus in locis S. Scripturae sumitur.
  • Unius delicto multi mortui sunt, ad Rom. 5.
  • Qui pro vobis ac pro multis effundetur, Matth. 26.
deinde, omnes, sunt multi.
Similarly he said also about Matthew 20:28 and like (Catechismus. Augustae Vindelicorum: 1769, vol. 1, pag. 570-571)
Q. Quomodo intelligendi sunt alii Scripturae textus, in quibus dicitur, Christus dare animam suam Redemptionem pro multis?
R. Quod multi et omnes unum et idem significant, cum omnes reipsa sint multi, et in S. Scriptura non raro unum pro alio userpetur. Sic S. Paulus 1. Tim. cap. 2. ait, qui dedit Redemptionem semetipsum pro omnibus. Nullus tamen dicere audebit expresse, illum contradixisse Matthæo, cum et alibi dicat: unius deliclo multi mortui sunt. Ad Rom. 5. v. 15. et 18. Et per unius delictum in omnes homines in condemnationem. Ex quibus textibus apparet, quod indifferenter utatur nomine multi, et nomine omnes, ut suadeat hæc duo nomina unum et idem significare aliquando in Scriptura sacra, praesertim in his, in quibus agitur de morte et passione Christi, aut de remissione peccatorum.
Audiant haeretici pro fine hujus controversiae Apostolum dicentem: Tradidi vobis, quod et accepi, quoniam Christus mortuus est pro peccatis nostris secundum Scripturas. Non dicit pro peccatis aliquorum, electorum, prædestinatorum, sed pro peccatis omnium et singulorum hominum.
 
 
TRIVELLATO, Marco Antonio (1688-1773), theologian.
in controversy about Christ's death for all
Obj. [Enchiridion de verbi incarnatione., cap. 41 [arg. contr.], obj. 5] (Patavii: 1750, p. 258)
Quid opus (5.) est pluribus?
Apud Lucam cap. 22. apud Matthaeum cap. 26. haec alia Christi verba legimus:
    Hic est calix sanguinis mei, qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
Si ergo Christus professus est, se pro multis sanguinem suum effusurum, profecto negavit, se pro omnibus moriturum.
Resp. [Enchiridion de verbi incarnatione., cap. 42 [resp.] ad obj. 5] (Patavii: 1750, p. 262-263)
Quod si hactenus a nobis exposita (ad 5.) Scripturae loca nihil, ut probare studuimus, Calvini causam juvant, multo minus juvant alia Christi verba, quibus professus est, se pro multis sanguinem suum fusurum. Quid enim prohibet, quominus dicamus, Christum vocem illam multis non comparare, sed simpliciter, et absolute adhibuisse, et nomine multorum omnes ad unum homines significavisse? Omnes enim ad unum homines revera multi sunt.
  • Nonne Danielis cap. 12. vox eadem accipitur sic in verbis illis,
    • multi de terrae pulvere vigilabunt?
    Scimus enim omnes ad unum homines in extrema Mundi die resurrecturos.
  • Certe Paulus quando in Epistola ad Romanos cap. 5. dixit,
    • Unius delicto multi mortui sunt, ..... per unius inobedientiam peccatores constituti sunt multi,
    multorum nomine omnes ad unum homines intelligi voluit. Nemo quippe Catholicorum dubitat, ex Adae peccato in omnes homines et mortem, et peccatum illud, quod originale appellatur, derivari. Quod quidem capite eodem his verbis aperte tradit Apostolus idem
    • per peccatum mors, et ideo in omnes mors pertransiit, in quo omnes peccaverunt.
Quid quod verba illa Christi vel maxime Calvini causae adversantur? Quid ni ita est? Christus verbis illis,
    Hic est calix sanguinis mei, qui pro vobis effundetur,
Apostolos suos alloquebatur; in illorum numero certe Judas erat, Judam autem reprobum fuisse, eundemque aeternum periisse Christianorum nemo negat, dubitat nemo. Falsum est igitur, quod Calvinus dictitabat, Christum solummodo pro praedestinatis mortuum fuisse.

and similarly also in controversy about resurrection
Obj. [Enchiridion de verbi incarnatione. [cap. 82 [arg. contr.], obj. 3] (Patavii: 1750, p. 529)
Daniel ipse (3.) quoque c. 12. multos quidem resurrecturos dicit, omnes autem non dicit:
    multi, inquit, de his, qui dormierunt, de terrae pulvere evigilabunt.
Resp. [Enchiridion de verbi incarnatione. [cap. 83 [resp.], ad obj. 3.] (Patavii: 1750, p. 533)
Jam Daniel quando (ad 3.) multos resurrecturos dicit, omnes significat.
    Non autem, inquit Augustinus lib. 20. de Civitate Dei cap. 23. diversum putetur quod cum ibi (scilicet Joannis 5.) positum sit, omnes, qui sunt in monumentis, audient vocem Filii Dei, hic non ait Propheta omnes, sed multi dormientium in terrae aggere: ponit enim aliquando Scriptura pro omnibus multos.
Sic Christus Apostolis suis dixit,
    hic Calix, qui pro multis effundetur;
sic Apostolus:
    per unius delictum (inquit) peccatores constituti sunt multi;
utroque enim in loco vox multi ad significandos omnes accipitur.
 
 
VAUGIMOIS, Fyot de (1689-1758), P.S.S., theologian, "who wrote 'Conversations with Jesus Christ before and after Mass' (1721), very popular at that time, and ahost of other works for the sanctification of priests" (CE 13, 380 ii).
Entretiens abrégez avec Notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ avant et après la messe (1729, p. 104; 1746, p. 104)
For you and for many, that is first for Apostles, second for for the faithful specially, and to all men, since the Christ is the Saviour is of all men, especially of the faithful. (1 Tim. 4. v. 10). The word "many" sometimes signifies all. For all are many: and by this reason the Apostle says (Romans 5. v. 19.) "By one man many were made sinners", which is certainly here taken for all. Nothing, therefore, prevents it be said, that the Oblation of Mass is made for all men, since in it is offered Christ, "who is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only, but also for the whole of the world." (1. Joan. 2. v. 2.)Pro vobis et pro multis, id est primo pro Apostolis, secundo pro fidelibus specialiter, omnibusque hominibus; siquidem Christus Salvator est omnium hominum, maxime fidelium. 1 Ad Tim. 4. v. 10. Vox Multi quandoque significat Omnes. Omnes enim sunt multi: deinde quando dicit Apostolus Rom. 5. v. 19. Per unum hominem peccatores constituti sunt multi, profecto hic sumitur pro verbo Omnes. Nihil ergo vetat quominus dicatur Oblatio Missae facta pro omnibus hominibus siquidem in ea offertur Christus qui est propitiatio pro peccatis nostris, non pro nostris autem tantum, sed etiam pro totius mundi. 1. Joan. 2. v. 2.
 
 
DENS, Peter [Petrus Dens] (1690-1775), theologian.
Dictata de sacramento Poenitentia. Mechlin : Vander Elst, 1758. Appendix. pag. 249; Theologia ad usum seminariorum. (Mechlin: Hanicq, 1830. vol. VII., p. 420)
Objection: Matt 26 v 28. Christ says about Oblation his Blood: "which shall be shed for many", therefore not for all.Obj. Matt. 26. v. 28. Christus dicit de Oblatione sui Sanguinis : qui Pro multis effundetur, ergo non pro omnibus.
Response: I deny consequence, because word "many" there signifies "all men", because these all men are many.Resp. Neg. cons. Nam vox Multis ibidem significat omnes homines, quia hi omnes homines sunt multi.
And work, which was published by his name, but was not writen entirely by him, but was finished and greatly modified, by the professors of the seminary of Mechlin (cf. CE) says:
Tractatus de Eucharistia. N. 19. De forma consecrationis vini., n. 5 (Theologia Moralis et Dogmatica. Dublinii : Coyne, 1832. vol. V., p. 278)
For you apostles and for many so Jews as pagans, even all (which all are many) sufficiently shall be shed in Cross and also here in the Supper by libation and oblation in Sacrifice.Qui pro vobis Apostolis, et pro multis, tam Judaeis quam Gentilibus, imo pro omnibus (qui omnes sunt multi) quoad sufficientiam effundetur in Cruce et etiam hic in Coena per libationem oblationemque in Sacrificium.
 
 
AMORT, Eusebius (1692–1775), C.R.L., theologian, "he counted among his correspondents such scholars as Benedict XIII and Benedict XIV, Father Concina, Cardinals Leccari, Galli, Orsi, St. Alphonsus Liguori, and others." (CE).
Theologia Eclectica, Moralis Et Scholastica, sub auspiciis SS. D. N. Benedicti XIV., disputatio VI [de voluntate dei], q. III (Bononiae, 1753, vol. 1, p. 90; Augustae Vindelicorum et Wirceburgi: 1752, tom. I, pp.126-127)
Objicitur 2.
    • Matth. 20. dicitur: Venit filius hominis dare animam suam in redemptionem N B. Pro multis.
    • Item Matth. 26. Christus dicit: Hic est sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui Pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum;
    ergo non pro omnibus fusus est.
Respondeo dist.
  • Dedit animam pro multis sumendo Tὸ multis pro multitudine totius generis humani. c.
  • aliter. n.
Non est injustum sumere hunc terminum multis pro omnibus; sic enim Apostolus dicit ad Rom. 5.
    Sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt Multi,
    ita et per unius obeditionem justi constituentur Multi.
Ubi, ut observat S. Augustinus с. 17. l. 2. contrа Julianum, Tὸ multi idem sonat ас omnes.
 
 
KURTZ, Gregor [Gregorius Kurtz] (1693-1750), OSB, theologian.
Theologia sophistica in compendio detecta, contra Wicleffum, Hussium, Lutherum, Jansenium et Paschasium Quesnellum (Bambergae: 1746, p. 306)
[Obj.:] Videtur assertionis suae causam fundare in sacris litteris [...] Matth. 20. filius hominis venit dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis.
[Resp.:] Ad locum scripturae resp. to pro multis non sumi exclusive, sed comprehensive, quia et omnes sunt multi: patet ex alio loco id evidenter, nam Rom. 5. unius delicto mortui sunt multi, hoc est omnes.
 
 
COLLET, Pierre (1693-1770), C.M., theologian.
Institutiones Theologiae Scholasticae, De Deo, q.6, a.3 (ed. Lugduni 1768, vol. I, p. 181; ed. Gandae, 1826, vol. VI., p. 147)
Obj. contra 2. part. de morte Christi pro omnibus: obj. inquam, i.° id Christi apud Matth. 26. Hic est sanguis meus qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum; ergo non est effusus pro omnibus.
R. neg. conseq. et dico ibi per multos intelligi omnes. Ita interpretatur S. Chrysost. Homil. 83. in S. Matth. Theophylactus in eum locum: Pro multis, inquit, dicit effundi, hoc est, pro omnibus : sunt enim et omnes multi. Concinit ipse S. Augustinus Julianum impugnaris Lib. 2. Operis imperf. c. 175. ubi dicit non repugnare omnibus multos, quia ipsi omnes non pauci, sed multi sunt.
 
 
BERTI, Giovanni Lorenzo (1696-1766), O.S.A., theologian.
Opus de theologicis disciplinis, Lib. XIII. Cap. I. (Romae: 1739, tom. III, p. 15; Venetiis, 1760. tom. I. p. 4)
[ad obj. Rom. 5]
Ad secundum respondendum est, multos qui moriuntur ob Adae delictum esse omnes; nam praecedenti versu 12. jam Apostolus scripserat, In omnes homines mors pertransiit, in quo omnes peccaverunt. Sunt ergo illi multi isti omnes. Etenim etsi aliquando multorum nomine non omnes intelliguntur; tamen ubi dicuntur omnes, vereque sunt omnes, recte dicuntur et multi, lib. II. Op. Imperf. n. 145. et lib. vi. num. 8. [...] Eadem ratione Gen. xvii. 5. dicitur Abraham Pater multarum gentium, quae cap. xxii. 18. appellantut omnes gentes terrae. Usurpatur etiam vocabulum primum pro altero Luc. vii. 47. Matth. xx. 28. aliisque in locis compluribus.
 
 
GRAVINA, Giacomo [Jacobus] Maria (1697-1787), C.R.T., theologian.
Synopsis theologiae veterum patrum, ad mentem venerabilis Ioseph Cardinalis Thomasii
De voluntate Dei, num. 400 [De Christi morte pro omnibus] (Panhormi: 1732, pars I. p. 176-177)
Eam ob rem, ni volueris, effectum fructumque passionis suae respexisse, dum ait moriturus Dominus, pro multis sanguinem suum effundendum (Marci cap. 14. vers. 24); ibi multos valere idem, dicas, ac omnes, si e contra amorem suum intensissimum, intentionemque morientis. Phrasis haec in scripturis haud nova est: sic multa peccata (Lucae cap. 7. vers. 47.) remitti dicuntur Magdalenae, dum parcitur omnibus quae multa sunt; ac per unius hominis inobedientiam infectis singulis, peccatores, tamen dicitur, quod multi sunt constituti (Ad Roman. cap. 5. vers. 19.). Sed et totam etiam dubitationem aufert, si dum Christus Eucharistiam instituit, praesentem Judam habebat, ad quem tum sane, tametsi reprobum praescitumque, hanc una et ad reliquos: Sanguis meus pro vobis fundetur: sententiam direxisset.
 
 
Diego González Mateo (c.1700-1762), O.F.M., theologian.
Theologia, lib. ii, sent., tract. II de nat. et grat., disp. iii, q. iii, (Madrid, 1756, vol. 3, p. 377)
id exprimit Apostolus illis verbis;
    per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi.
Per multos autem omnes significantur: haec enim locutio non est infrequens in Sacra Scriptura.
  • Sic Genes. cap. 17. dicit Dominus Abrahamo: Patrem multarum gentium constitui te: et cap. 22. ipsi dicitur: Benedicentur in semine tuo omnes gentes. Ubi ponitur omnes cum cap. 17. multarum gentium dicitur.
  • Item Matth. 26. Hic est enim sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum: ubi in multis omnes significantur : quia pro omnibus passus, et mortuus est Christus.
 
 
Juan Picazo [Joannes Picazo] (cca.1700-cca.1770), O.F.M., theologian.
Tomus quartus Cursus theologici, Disputatio quinta [De SS.mo Eucharistiae Sacramento], quaestio quinta [quae sit forma consecrationis vini in sanguinem Christi?]
Tomus quartus Cursus theologici, num. 376 (Tomus quartus Cursus theologici, Madrid 1751. p. 157)
Pro vobis et pro multis significat, Christum pro omnibus sanguinem fudisse, atque mortem pertulisse.
 
 
DALL'OCCA, Giovanni-Battista [Joannes-Baptista] (c.1700-c.1770), theologian.
Institutiones Theologicae. tractatus de attributis divinis, dissert. IV [de voluntate dei],
cap. V. [Utrum Deus velit omnes homines salvos fieri]. art. II [Ostenditur Christum mortuum esse pro omnibus]
(Lucae: 1766; Bononiae: 1828, tom. I, pars. II, pag. 50-52)
Obj. ex Scripturis I. Christus dixit se pro multis mortem subiturum: Hic, inquit (Matth. 26), est sanguis meus novi Testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur. Ergo non pro omnibus; alias non dixisset pro multis, sed pro omnibus.
Resp. nomine multorum aliquando in Scripturis venire omnes. Ita dicitur (Daniel 12.): Et multi de his, qui dormiunt in terrae pulvere, evigilabunt: ubi per illud multi veniunt omnes; nam de facto omnes mortui in die Judicii resurgent; et Christus ait (Luc. 7.): Remittuntur ei peccata multa, quod communiter intelligitur de omnibus. Ergo etiam hoc loco possunt nomine multorum intelligi omnes, imo debent ex probatis. Ulterius cum Christus dixit pro multis non exclusit omnes. Sane homines, pro quibus mortuus est Christus, non sunt pauci. Ergo multi. Ergo etc.
 
 
HERMANN, Joseph [Hermannus Josephus a Sancto Hilario] (c.1700-c.1775), O.S.A., theologian.
Tractatus IV. Theologiae Scholasticae Augustiniano-Thomisticae, De voluntate Dei, praedestinatione et angelis. Juxta Mentem genuinam, et inconcussa Dogmata DOCTORIS ANGELICI D. THOMAE AQUINATIS., Q. 4 (Viennae: 1751, [vol. IV], 57-58)
[Obj.: ...] ex script. S. Math. c. 20. Filius hominis venit dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis. Idem habetur in consecratione calicis: Qui pro nobis, et pro multis effundetur [...] Ex quibus clare videtur colligi, Christum non fuisse mortuum pro omnibus, sed pro solis prædestinatis, aut fidelibus.

Sed Contra. [...] Ipse est propitiatio pro peccatis nostris, non pro nostris autem tantum, sed etiam pro totius mundi. 1. Joan c. 2. v. 2. Et 1. Timoth. c. 4. Qui est Salvator omnium hominum maxime fdelium: quæ restrictio satis indicat, Christum etiam pro infidelibus esse mortuum, quantum est ex parte sua, etsi fructum mortis non ita perceperint sicut fideles. Colligitur etiam ex eo, quod Apostolus ad Rom. 5. Donum redemptionis comparet damno ex peccato adæ secuto his verbis: Si enim unius delicto mors regnavit per unum, multo magis abundantiam gratiae, et donationis justitiae accipientes in vita regnabunt per unum JESUM Christum. Igitur sicut per unius delictum in omnes homines (sub intellige, pertransiit reatus) in condemnationem, sic per unius justitiam in omnes homines (subintellige, pertransiit redemptio) in justificationem vitae. Ergo sicut Adamus omnibus per suum peccatum fuit condemnatio, ita Christus tanquam secundus Adam, per suam mortem omnibus fuit ex parte sua redemptio.

Confirmatur Apostolus 2. Corinth. c. 5. ex eo, quod Christus pro omnibus sit mortuus, infert omnes in Adamo fuisse mortuos dicens: Quoniam si unus pro omnibus mortuus est, ergo omnes mortui sunt, et pro omnibus mortuus est Christus: sed in Adamo omnes in individuo vere mortui sunt: ergo etiam Christus pro omnibus mortuus est. Hoc argumento etiam utitur S. P. August. lib. 6. contra Julianum cap. 4. ubi probat omnes et singulos homines contraxisse peccatum originale ex illo loco Pauli, et infert tam vere omnes homines mortuos esse in Adamo, quam vere pro omnibus mortuus est Christus. Quando autem scriptura dicit redemptionem pro multis, accipit ly multis pro omnibus: quo sensu etiam dicit ad Rom. 5. Per unius hominis inobedientiam peccatores constituti sunt multi, cum tamen certum sit, omnes in Adamo peccasse. Accedunt SS. PP. Leo serm. 11. de Pass. et serm. 1. de nat. Dom. S. P. August. in Psal. 95.
Tractatus VIII. Theologiae Scholasticae Augustiniano-Thomisticae, tract. de peccatis, Q. 3 [de peccato originali], §. 1 (Viennae: 1751, [vol. VIII], 113-114)
Objicies. Ad Rom. c. 5. v. 19 Per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi: ergo non omnes.
R. Eplic. Apost. sub dist. Et sumit Apost. loc. cit. ly multi per comparationem ad paucos, conc. ant. per oppositionem ad omnes, neg. ant. et conseq. Sicut ergo dum Christus dicebat Matth. 26. v. 28. Hic esti enim sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur: ly multis sumitur per comparationem ad paucos, non per oppositionem ad omnes: ita in praesenti.
 
 
Thomas de Charmes (1703-1765), O.F.M.Cap., theologian.
Theologia dogmatica. Diss. IV, cap. II., conclusio IV., obj. 1 (Augustae Vindelicorum: 1780, vol. 2, p. 251; Maceratae: 1828, tom. 2, p. 218; Parisiis: 1857, vol. 2, p. 229-290)
OBJICIES 1. Christus (Matth. 20) dicit se venisse dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis. Ergo non pro omnibus.
RESP. Nego conseq. Nam, ut vidimus ex Div. Aug. ista vox multis supponit pro omnibus, quia inquit, ipsi omnes non pauci, sed multi sunt. Unde Apost., Rom. 5, voces illas multi et omnes, promiscue usurpat ad unum et idem significandum. Sicut per unius delictum, inquit, in omnes homines in condemnationem, sic et per unius justitiam in omnes homines in justificationem. Sicut enim per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, ita et per unius obedilionem justi constituuntur multi. Hic multi et omnes idem evidenter significant.
Compendium theologiae dogmaticae (Nanceii: 1759, p. 105; Augustae Vindelicorum: 1760, p. 113; 1765, p. 117; Matritii: 1806, p. 175; 1825, p. 175; 1864, p. 109; Venetiis: 1832, p. 35)
Obj. Christus (Matt. 20) dicit, se venisse dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis: ergo non pro omnibus.
Resp. Nego conseq. Nam vox multis supponit pro omnibus: unde D. August. (lib. 2. operis imperfecti) Juliano dicenti, omnes pro multis sumi, respondet, non repugnare omnibus multos, quia ipsi omnes, non pauci, sed multi sunt. Quo sensu Apost. ad Rom. 5. ait: Si unius delicto multi mortui sunt; ubi vox multi evidenter sumitur pro voce omnes.
 
 
WIDENHOFER, Franz Xaver (1708-1755), SJ., theologian.
Petri Canisii Catechismus minor, q. 74 (1762, p. 96; 1766, p. 84)
Matth. c. 26. v. 28. πίετε τοῦτο γάρ ἐστι τὸ αἷμά μου ... τὸ περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχυνόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν, which is shed for many (all, also are many) unto the remission of sins.Matth. c. 26. v. 28. πίετε τοῦτο γάρ ἐστι τὸ αἷμά μου ... τὸ περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχυνόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν, qui modo effunditur pro multis (omnes, etiam sunt multi) in remissionem peccatorum.
Sacrae Scripturae dogmatice (ed. 1753, vol. 2, p. 842-843)
Obj.: Daniel 12:2 Many of those who sleep in the dust of the ground will awake... Text says: "many" ... therefore.Dan. cap. 12, v. 2. Et multi de his, qui dormiunt in terrae pulvere, evigilabunt [...] Textus ait: Multi [...] ergo.
Resp. I concede antecedent, deny consequent, because also all are "many," as it is clear from Romans 5:19, and from Matthew 26:28.R. С.A.N.C. quia omnes etiam sunt multi, ùt patet ex Rom. 5. v. 19., ex Matth. C. 26. v. 28.
 
 
WEITENAUER, Ignatius von (1709–1783), S.J., theologian, exegete, philologist.
Lexicon Biblicum : Multi pro omnibus (ed. 1758, p. 359; ed. 1780, p. 265; ed. 1835, p. 265)
"Many" for all. So many peoples, and many nations.Multi pro omnibus. Sic populi multi, et gentes multae
  • Isa. 2:3 sq. and Micah. 4:2 sq. They are all peoples, since it is said: all nations shall flow unto it (Isa. 2:2) namely to the Messiah, and his Church.
  • Is. II 3 sq. et Mich. iv 2 sq. sunt omnes populi : quemadmodum dictum est : fluent ad eum omnes gentes. Is. II 2. ad Messiam videlicet, et ejus ecclesiam.
  • Because he hath delivered his soul unto death, and was reputed with the wicked: and he hath borne the sins of many - that is of all - and hath prayed for the transgressors. Thus, the evangelist of the prophets about Christ on the cross. Isaiah 53:12
  • Tradidit in mortem animam suam, et cum sceleratis reputatus est : et ipse peccata multorum, i. e. omnium, tulit, et pro transgressoribus rogavit. Ita prophetarum evangelista de Christo in cruce. Is. LIII ult.
  • For this is my blood of the New Testament, which shall be shed for many for the remission of sins; that is for all. Matthew 26:28. The same understand the Mark 14:24.
  • Hic est enim sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum; i. e. pro omnibus. Matth. xxvi 28. Idem intellige Marc. xiv 24.
translation Daniel 12:2 (Biblia Sacra, oder die heilige Schrift, Augsburg 1780, vol. 10, p. 343)
The multitude, ...Die Menge, ...
and commentary to the same Daniel 12:2 (Prophetae majores ac minores, 1768, p. 663)
Multi, id est, omnes. Sicut in Paulina illa sententia: Per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi : ita et per unius obeditionem justi constituentur multi. Rom. V. 19. Et Matth. XX 28 Filius hominis venisse dicitur, dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis. Atque alibi saepius eodem sensu. Itaque omnes mortui surgent.
translation of Matthew 20:28 and Mark 10:45 (Biblia Sacra, oder Die heilige Schrift, Augsburg, 1781, vol. 13, p. 134 and 275; Sancta IV Evangelia, 1769, p. 127)
... and to give his life a ransom for the whole multitude (of men).... und sein Leben für die ganze Menge (der Menschen) darzugeben.... et vitam suam pro redimenda tota hominum multitudine daret.
translation of Matthew 26:28 (Sancta IV Evangelia, 1769, p. 170) and his German translation (Biblia Sacra, oder Die heilige Schrift, Augsburg, 1781, vol. 13, p. 180) and the same "für die ganze Menge" is also in his translationand Mark 14:24 (ibid. p. 296)
... shall be shed for the whole multitude, unto the remission of sins.... für die ganze Menge zur Nachlassung der Sünden wird vergossen werden.... pro universa multitudine effundetur, ut remittantur peccata.
translation of Hebrew 9:28a ["...to bear the sins of many"] (Biblia Sacra, oder Die heilige Schrift. Augsburg 1781, vol. 14, p. 446; Epistolae Pauliniae, 1769, p. 306)
So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of all.Also ist auch Christus einmal geopferet worden, die Sünden aller abzuzahlen.Sic et Christus semel (per mortem) oblatus est, ut peccata omnium tolleret.
And interesting is also his translation (and commentary) of Romans 5:15 [... the many ... the many ... ] (Biblia Sacra, oder Die heilige Schrift. Augsburg 1781, vol. 14, p. 170-171; Epistolae Pauliniae, 1769, p. 18-19)
But not as the offence, so also the gift. For if by the offence of one, all* died; much more the grace of God, and the gift, by the grace of one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto all**.Aber die Gabe übertrist das Verbrechen: denn wenn durch das Verbrechen eines Menschen alle* sterben, so hat die Gabe sich weit mehr durch die Gnade eines Menschen IEsu des Gesalbten über alle** ergossen.Sed non sicut delictum ita et donum. Si enim unius delicto omnes* mortui sunt, multo magis gratia DEI et donum per gratiam unius hominis JESU Christi in omnes** abundavit.



* all. ** all. In Greek and Syriac it is read many, and many, what by Hebraism and Syraism signifies (what our word) all.* alle. ** über alle. Im Griechischen und Syrischen liest man, viele, über viele. Es ist aber eine hebräische und syrische Redalt, welche so viel bedeutet, als bey uns das Wort alle.* et ** utrobique tam in graeco, quam in syriaco, legitur multi et multos: quod per Hebraismum et Syrismum omnes significat.
Similarly he translated also Romans 5:19 [... the many ... the many ... ] (Biblia Sacra, oder Die heilige Schrift. Augsburg 1781, vol. 14, p. 171; Epistolae Pauliniae, 1769, p. 19)
For as through the one man's disobedience all were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the One all will be made righteous.Massen, wie der Ungehorsam eines einzigen Menschen alle zu Sündern gemacht hat, eben also der Gehorsam eines einzigen alle (die ernstlich wollen) gerecht machen wird.Sicut enim unus homo dum non obediit, omnes (ut v. 15) peccata infecit: ita et unus, qui obediit, omnes (sua gratia uti volences) justos efficiet.
 
 
PAREDES Y ZAMORA, Juan de (c.1710-c.1790), theologian.
Teatro escolástico (Madrid: 1770. p. 561-562)
Si dicant ex Matth. cap. 26. quod sanguis Christi dicitur effusus pro multis, et non pro omnibus. Resp. Quod illa multitudo generalis, et indeterminata sumitur pro universalitate, taliter, ut nullus excludatur, ut patet ex aliis locis Scripturae, ut cum dicit Apost. ad Rom. 5. Si unius delicti multi mortui sunt; multo magis gratia unius Christi in plures abundavit.
 
 
GENOVESI, Antonio (1712/1713–1769), theologian, philosopher, rhetor, economist.
Universae Christianae Theologiae, (Venetiis 1771, vol. 2, p. 62-63)
Objection:
Deinde Christus dicitur mortuus pro multis (Matt. 20. v. 28. Marci 10. v. 45., ad Hebræos 9. v. 28.); non ergo pro omnibus.
Response:
Quod vero dicitur mortuus pro multis, id Calvinianis non prodest; siquidem passim vox ilia multi in Scripturis omnes significat, quemadmodum B. Augustinus de Civit. lib. 20. cap. 23. perspecte observat.
 
 
LIÉNARD, Jacques Antoine (1713-1792) theologian, exegete
on Hebrews 9:28 ["So also Christ was offered once to exhaust the sins of many"] (Duaci, 1859, vol. III., p. 97)
Sed dictum est modo Christum mortuum esse pro expiatione peccatorum multorum: ergo infert Jansenius, non pro expiatione omnium mortuus est. R. N. consequentiam: nam vox multorum idem hic significat, ac omnium, nec hoc exemplum est singulare in Scriptura Sacra, nam ad Rom. 5, 15 dicitur: «si enim unius delicto multi mortui sunt, et v. 19 dicitur etiam: per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi.» Atqui in his versibus vox multi, fatentibus ipsismet Jansenistis, idem significat, ac omnes: ergo similiter hic vox multorum idem significat, ac omnium: ergo non est alienum a sensu Scripturae Sacrae, quod vox multi idem significat, ac omnes; quod autem illud ibi sic intelligi debet, erui potest ex aliis Scripturae locis: textus enim Scripturae Sacrae non raro elucidantur uno per alterum, sic 1 Tim. 4, 10: «Christus est Salvator omnium, maxime fidelium, sic 2 Cor. 5. 14, si unus pro omnibus mortuus est, ergo omnes mortui sunt, et v. 15, et pro omnibus mortuus est Christus, sic in hac epistola supra 2. 9, ut gratia Dei, pro omnibus gustaret mortem.» Ergo tandem vox multorum idem significat, ac omnium.
on 2 Corinthians 5:14 ["one died for all"] (Duaci, 1859, vol. III., p. 162)
Ob. 3°. Heb. 9, 28 dicitur: «Christus semel oblatus est ad multorum exhaurienda peccata, item Matt. 26. 28, hic est enim sanguis meus novi Testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.» Ergo non pro omnibus mortuus est Christus.
R. 1°. retorqueo argumentum, in simili forma Rom. 5, 19 dicitur: peccatores constiiuti sunt multi: ergo non omnes, et tamen admittunt Jansenistae omnes originaliter peccasse.
R. 2°. cum S. Augustino eosdem esse multos et omnes: sicuti enim quando dicitur quod per Adamum peccatores constituti sint multi, intelliguntur omnes: ita similiter quando dicitur Christus pro multis mortuus, intelligitur pro omnibus: ergo.
on Matthew 20:28 ["ransom for many"] (Duaci, 1859, vol. I., p. 140)
Hic dicitur Christus redemptio pro multis: ergo non pro omnibus.
R. 1°. Retorqueo argumentum. In simili forma Rom. 5, 19 dicitur: peccatores constiiuti sunt multi: ergo non omnes. Et tamen admittunt jansenistae omnes originaliter peccasse.
R. 2°. Cum S. Augustino eosdem esse multos et omnes: sicuti enim quando dicitur quod per Adamum peccatores constituti sunt multi, intelliguntur omnes: ita similiter quando dicitur Christus redemptio pro multis, intelligitur pro omnibus.
on Matthew 26:28 ["blood ... shed for many"] (Duaci, 1859, vol. I., p. 183)
Qui pro multis effundetur, id est, pro omnibus, quod probatur a simili ex Apostolo Rom. 5. 19, ubi dicitur: peccatores constituti sunt multi, id est, omnes, siquidem omnes originaliter peccaverunt. Sic autem locuta est Scriptura, quia, ut ait S. Augustinus, dantur omnia quae non sunt multa. Vide supra 20, 28.
 
 
BERGIER, Nicolas-Sylvestre (1718-1790), theologian.
Dictionnaire de Théologie dogmatique, liturgique, canonique et disciplinaire : SAUVEUR (ed. 1790, vol. 3, p. 433-434; ed. 1817, vol. 7, p. 295)
  • Joan., c. 1, v. 29, St. John the Baptist said of Jesus Christ: Behold the Lamb of God who removes the sins of the world
  • Joan., c. 1, v. 29, saint Jean-Baptiste dit de Jésus-Christ: Voilà l'Agneau de Dieu qui efface le péché du monde;
  • c. iv, v. 24: He is truly the Savior of the world
  • c. iv, v. 24: Il est véritablement le Sauveur du monde;
  • c. iii, v. 17: The son of man came not to judge the world, but to save
  • c. iii, v. 17: Le fils de l'homme n'est pas venu au monde pour le juger, mais pour le sauver;
  • c. xii, v. 47,
  • c. xii, v. 47;
  • 1 Joan., C. ii, v. 2: He is the propitiation for our sins, not for ours only, but for those around the world
  • 1 Joan., c. ii, v. 2: Il est la victime de propitiation pour nos péchés, non pas seulement pour les nôtres, mais pour ceux du monde entier;
  • c. iv, v. 14: The Father sent his Son to be saved from the world.
  • c. iv, v. 14: Le Père a envoyé son Fils comme SAUVER du monde.
[...] II Cor., c. V, v. 14: The charity of Christ urges us considering that if one died for all, therefore all have died, yet Jesus Christ died for all.[...] II Cor., c. V, v. 14 : La charité de Jésus Christ nous presse en considérant que si un seul est mort pour tous, donc tous sont morts; or, Jésus-Christ est mort pour tous.
The apostle proves the universality of death incurred by Adam, or of original sin, by the universality of those for whom Christ died, St. Augustine was repeated at least ten times this passage and the argument against the Pelagians.L'Apôtre prouve l'universalité de la mort encourue par Adam, ou du péché originel, par l'universalité de ceux pour lesquels Jésus-Christ est mort; saint Augustin a répété au moins dix fois ce passage et cet argument contre les pélagiens.
— The prophet Isaiah foretold this great truth, saying the Messiah, v. LIII, v. 6: The Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all.— Le prophète Isaïe avait annoncé d'avance cette grande vérité, en disant du Messie, c. LIII, v. 6 : Le Seigneur a mis sur lui l'iniquité de nous tous.
However, one can reply, that it is saidOn répliquera sans doute qu'il est dit
  • in this same chapter, v. 12: He bore the sins of many.
  • dans ce chapitre même, v. 12 : Il a porté les péchés de PLUSIEURS.
  • Matt., c. xx, v. 28, he said himself that he came to give his life for the redemption of many
  • Matth., c. xx, v. 28, il a dit lui-même qu'il est venu donner sa vie pour la rédemption de plusieurs;
  • c. xxvi, v. 28: My blood will be shed for many. Also Mark., c. xiv. v. 24.
  • c. xxvi, v. 28 : Mon sang sera versé pour PLUSIEURS. Idem, Marc., c. xiv. v. 24.
However those who know the power of the Hebrew text will not make that objection. We argue that in Isaiah the word rabbim is mistranslated "multi," many; it means the multitude or the multitudes. Now it's another thing to assert that Jesus Christ died for the multitude of men, another to say he died for many, the first of these expressions can mean all, the second designates only certain number. The New Testament writers have obviously taken this term in the same sense as Isaiah. Here's proof. St. Paul, Rom., c. V, v. 15, said that by the sin of one "many" dead - it is clear that "many" must be understood all, St. Augustine defended well against the Pelagians, when they wanted to abuse this passage to prove that the original sin was not common to all men, l. vi, against Julian., cap. 23, n. 80, l. ii Op. imperf., cap. 109. "All," he says, "are many, not a few." If Jesus Christ was the Savior of the small number of the predestined, it would be wrong to say that he is "the Saviour of all" (1Tim.4:10), if, on the contrary, he is the Saviour of all, it is very true that it is the multitude of men.Ceux qui connaissent l'énergie du texte hébreu ne feront pas cette objection. Nous soutenons que dans Isaïe le mot rabbim est mal traduit par multi, plusieurs; qu'il signifie la multitude ou les multitudes. Or c'est autre chose d'affirmer que Jésus-Christ est mort pour la multitude des hommes, autre chose de dire qu'il est mort pour plusieurs; la première de ces expressions peut signifier la totalité, la seconde ne désigne qu'un certain nombre. Les écrivains du Nouveau Testament ont évidemment pris ce terme dans le même sens qu'Isaïe. En voici la preuve. Saint Paul, Rom., c. V, v. 15, dit que par le péché d'un seul plusieurs sont morts; il est clair que par plusieurs on doit entendre la totalité; saint Augustin le soutint ainsi contre les pélagiens, lorsqu'ils voulurent abuser de ce passage pour prouver que le péché originel n'était pas commun à tous les hommes, l. vi, contra Jul., cap. 23, n. 80; l. ii, Op. imperf., cap. 109. La totalité, dit-il, est une multitude, et non un petit nombre. Si Jésus-Christ n'était le Sauveur que du petit nombre des prédestinés, il serait faux de dire qu'il est le Sauteur de tous; si, au contraire, il est Sauveur de tous, il est très-vrai qu'il l'est de la multitude des hommes.
ibid. to "Rédemptuer" (ed. 1790, vol. 3, p. 323-324; etc.)
We read the same in the New Testament that Jesus Christ is the Redeemer of the world that he gave his life for the redemption of many, or rather for the redemption of the multitude of men, Matt. c. 20, v. 28; he gave himself for the redemption of all, 1 Tim. c. 2, v. 6; [...]Nous lisons de même dans le Nouveau Testament que Jésus-Christ est le Rédempteur du monde, qu'il a donné sa vie pour la rédemption de plusieurs, ou plutôt pour la rédemption de la multitude des hommes, Matth. c. 20, v. 28; qu'il s'est livré pour la rédemption de tous, 1 Tim. c. 2, v. 6; [...]
Already the prophet Isaiah had said of the Messiah, v. 53, v. 5. "He was bruised for our iniquities, the punishment that should give us peace was upon him, and we were healed by his wounds ... verse 6, God has laid on him the iniquity of us all [. ..] v. 12 [...] he bore sins of the multitude"Déja le prophète Isaïe avoit dit en parlant du Messie, c. 53, v. 5. "Il a été froissé pour nos crimes, le châtiment qui doit nous donner la paix est tombé fur lui, et nous avons été guéris par ses blessures ... v. 6; Dieu a mis sur lui l'iniquité de nous tous [...] v. 12 [...] qu'il a porté les péchés de la multitude"
It is surprising that despite such clear passages, we are still obliged to seek meaning in what Jesus Christ is the Redeemer of the world [...]Il est étonnant que, malgré des passages si clairs, nous soyons encore obligés de rechercher en quel sens Jésus-Christ est le Rédempteur du monde [...]
In instituting the Eucharist, the Saviour said to his disciples: "This is my blood, the blood of a new covenant which shall be shed for the multitude for the remission of sins." En instituant l'Eucharistie, le Sauveur dit à ses disciples: "ceci est mon sang, le sang d'une nouvelle alliance qui sera répandu pour la multitude en rémission des péchés."
 
 
VULGATE of pope Sixtus and Clement, with commentaries from Sorbonian doctors.
Mark 10:45 with notes.
(Novum Jesu-Christi Testamentum, Vulgatae editionis Sixti V. Pont. Max. jussu recognitum, et Clementis VIII. authoritate editum. Notis historicis et criticis illustratum)
(Lutetiae Parisiorum. Apud Florentium de Laulne. 1739. p. 127)
45 Even as the Son of man is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister and to give his soul* a ransom for many.*45 Nam et Filius hominis non venit ut ministraretur ei, sed ut ministraret, et daret animam* suam redemptionem pro multis.*


45 i.e. life.45 i.e. vitam.
* i.e. for all, because the blood of Christ suffices for redemption of all.i.e. pro omnibus, quia Christi sanguis omnibus redimendis sufficit.
(Paris : Barbou, 1775. vol. 1, p. 119)
45 Even as the Son of man is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister and to give his soul* a ransom for many.*45 Nam et Filius hominis non venit ut ministraretur ei, sed ut ministraret, et daret animam* suam redemptionem pro multis.*


45 i.e. life.45 i.e. vitam.
* i.e. for alli.e. pro omnibus.
 
 
GERDIL, Giacinto Sigismondo (1718-1802), B., cardinal, theologian.
Idea dell'uomo per rapporto a se stesso (Genova, 1783, vol. 5, p. 197). Note: name of author is not mentioned in this book, however according catalog of "Biblioteche della Provincia di Massa-Carrara" its author is Gerdil. And although I think that it can be questionable, evident is, that it was written by very learned man from the same country and time as Gerdil was. Editor of this book was Pietro Valvasense. It has been printed at least since 1751.
This grace is given to everyone, because God wills the salvation of all men, and for all shed his blood. There is no problem, that in the gospel you read:Questa grazia si dà a tutti, poichè Iddio vuole la salute di tutti gli uomini, e per tutti ha sparso il suo sangue. Nè giova apportare, che nell'Evangelo si legga
    "which shall be shed for you and for many"
    qui pro vobis et prò multis effundetur;
because according to the phrases of the Scripture, the word "many" is taken for all, as in the words of Christ: "many sins are forgiven her," by which also all sins are understood, because there cannot be forgiven one without other, there is not given half grace.perchè secondo la frase della Scriptura, la parola multi si prende per tutti; conforme alle parole di Cristo : remittuntur ei peccata multa; e quali intender si devono di tutti i peccati, non potendosi rimetter uno senza l'altro : non datur dimidiata venia.
 
 
Fridericus a Jesu [Friedrich von Jesu] (1721-1788), O.C.D., theologian. He wrote theological and biblical lexicones and textbook of moral theology made according writings of pope Benedict XIV.
Lexiconum Scripturisticum : multi (ed. 1782, p. 286), he says the same sentence as Lapide (1567–1637) did.
"Many." In the Scripture very often expresses all. So "which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins", Mt 26:28, i.e. for all men. For these all are very many. The same Rom. 5:19. "For as by the disobedience of one man, many were made sinners," i.e. all after Adam.MULTI. In Scriptura saepissime dicit omnes, sic: Qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum, Matth. 26, 28. id est, pro omnibus hominibus; hi enim omnes sunt valde multi. Item Rom. 5, 19. Per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, id est, omnes Adae posteri.
 
 
WIDMANN, Joseph (1725-1781), SJ., theologian.
Institutiones Universae Theologiae, cap. I: art. IV / §.55 (Augustae Vindelicorum, 1776, p. 238)
Christus Matth. 20 dicitur dedisse animam suam redemptionem pro multis; ergo non pro omnibus. R. N. cons. Quia per multos intelliguntur omnes passim in Scriptura. Sic ad Rom. 5. dicuntur unius delicto mortui multi. Ubi vox multi, evidenter sumitur pro voce omnes.
 
 
François-Martin Thiébaut (1725-1795), theologian.
"pour la multitude"
 
 
KOPF, Ferdinand (1729-1810), theologian.
Tyrocinium S. Scripturae Seu Prolegomena, pars I. praelect. iii. §. vi. [sylvula hebraismorum] (ed. 1763, p. 91)
Scripture sometimes put "many" for all.Ponit aliquando Scriptura multos pro omnibus.
  • So it is said to Abraham Gen.17:
      I have made you a father of many nations.,
    that is all the nations.
      In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed Gen. 22.
  • Ita dictum est Abrahæ Gen. XVII.
      Patrem multarum gentium posui te.
    hoc est: omnium gentium.
      In semine tuo benedicetur omnes gentes. Gen. XXII.
The same is in following: Idem fit in seq.
  • Peccata multorum tulit.
  • Multi sunt vocati.
  • Pro multis effundetur.
  • Peccatores constituti sunt multi, nempe per Adamum, in quo omnes peccaverunt. Rom. V.
 
 
SARDAGNA, Carlo (1731-1775), S.J., theologian.
Theologia dogmatico-polemica qua adversus veteres novasque haereses. tract. 1 [De Deo], articulus 3, controversia 8, obj. 4.1 / num. 379 (Romae 1819. tom. 1. p. 445-446)
Obj.:
Objicitur IV. contra II. Conclusionem, Auctoritas Scripturae.
  • Matth. XXVI. dicitur: Hic est sanguis meus novi Testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur.
  • Ad Hebr. IX. Christus semel oblatus est ad multorum exhaurienda peccata.
Ergo Christus non pro omnibus est mortuus.
Resp.:
R. I. Omnes ac singuli homines vere sunt multi, et saepe Scriptura multorum nomine omnes intelligit.
  • Sic Apostolus de peccato Adami ad Rom. V. ait: Unius delicto multi mortui sunt, id est, omnes.
  • Et Christus Matth. X. Multis passeribus meliores estis vos.
R. II. D. C.
  • Ergo Christus non est mortuus pro omnibus, quantum ad efficacem meritorum suorum applicationem, et assecutionem vitae aeternae, C. C.
  • Quantum ad sufficientem mortis suae oblationem pro salute omnium, N. C.
Theologia dogmatico-polemica qua adversus veteres novasque haereses. tract. 4 [de peccatis], articulus 1, controversia 1, obj. 1 / num. 16 (Romae 1820. tom. 4. p. 31-32)
Obj.
Dices. Apostolus ad Rom. Cap. V. v. 19. scribit: Sicut per unius hominis inobedientiam peccatores constituti sunt multi etc. Ergo peccatum Adami intravit in mundum, non propagatione, sed tantum imitatione. P.C. Si ob Adami inobedientiam homines propagatione constituerentur peccatores, Apostolus non dixisset multi, sed omnes. Ergo.
Resp.
R. C. A. N. C. Ad probat. N. A. In Scripturis saepe omnes dicuntur multi, v.g.
  • Genes. Cap. XVII. Patrem multarum gentium posui te;
    cum tamen Cap. XXII. dicatur: In semine tuo benedicentur omnes gentes.
  • Matth. Cap. XXVI. Hic est enim sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
    Apostolus vero 1. ad Timoth. Cap. II. ait: Qui dedit semetipsum redemptionem pro omnibus.
Praeterea Apostolus in eodem Capite utrumque dixit, et multos, et omnes.
  • v. 12. Et ita in omnes homines mors pertransiit, in quo omnes peccaverunt.
  • v. 18. Igitur sicut per unius delictum in omnes homines in condemnationem etc.
  • Et II. ad Cor. Cap. V. Quoniam si unus pro omnibus mortuus est, ergo omnes mortui sunt: Et pro omnibus mortuus est Christus.
 
 
SCIO DE SAN MIGUEL, Felipe (1738-1796), bishop, theologian, exegete, translator.
on Isaiah 53:12b ["he has borne the sins of many"] (La Biblia, Madrid, 1796, vol. xii, p. 309)
sins of many = of all, as it is often used in the Scripture.Los pecados de muchos, de todos, como se usa freqüentemente en las Escrituras.
on Daniel 12:2 ["many will awake"] (La Biblia, Madrid, 1797, vol. xiv, p. 446)
"Many", he wanted to said "all, who died, who will be many." See Matthew 26:28, Romans 5:19Muchos quiere decir, todos los muertos, que seran muy muchos. Véase S. MATHEO XXVI. 28. Roman. V. 19.
on Matthew 20:28 ["a ransom for many"] (La Biblia : del Nuevo Testamento, Madrid, 1797, vol. 1, p. 164)
In greek "lytron anti pollón", a ransom for many, that is for all. Matthew 26:28, Romans 5:15,19.El Griego: λύτρον ἀντὶ πολλῶν, precio de rescate por muchos. Esto es, por todos. MATTH. XXVI 28. Roman. V. 15. 19.
 
 
POHL, Andrzej (1742 - 1820), C.M., theologian, missionary
Institutiones theologiæ dogmaticæ. De Deo, cap. III (Vilnae in Litvania: 1809, vol. 1, p. 279-280)
Objicies. [...] in Sacris literis Christus dicitur mortuus non pro omnibus, sed tantum pro multis. Sic Math: cap. 20. Filius hominis venit dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis, et cap: 26. Hic est sanguis meus, qui pro multis effundetur. Certé pro iis dumtaxat mortuus est Christus, pro quibus in sua passione oravit. Porro pro solis praedestinatis oravit Christus, quemadmodum legitur Joan: cap: 17. Non pro mundo rogo, sed pro his, quos dedisti mihi, quia tui sunt.
Resp: [...] etsi in aliquibus locis Sacrae Scripturae dicatur Christus mortuus pro multis, in aliis etiam dicitur mortuus pro omnibus et ubi dicitur pro multis, ibi per multos intelliguntur omnes, ita docet Augustinus Libro 2do Operis imperfecti cap. 175. Non repugnare omnibus multos, quia ipsi omnes non pauci, sed multi sunt. Et Theophilactus in Mathaeum. Pro multis dicit effundi, hoc est pro omnibus, sunt enim et omnes multi. Et certe quamquam Christus alicubi pro solis Apostoli ac electis oraverit, alibi tamen pro omnibus orasse describitur. Sic Joan. cap. 17. Non pro eis autem tantum rogo, sed et pro eis qui credituri sunt per vеrbum eorum in me, et ibidem orat: ut mundus credat, quia tu me misisti. Luc. cap. 23. orat pro suis tortoribùs, dubitari autem non potest, quin multi ex illis reprobi fuerint. Unde Augustinus Serm. 4. de Sanctis. Christus iniquit: in Cruce pendens pro omnibus oravit, et omnibus veniam postulavit.
 
 
PETITE, Anselmo (1744-1805), O.S.B., theologian, exegete, translator.
on Matthew 20:28 ["ransom for many"] (Los Santos Evangelios, Madrid 1788, p. 84):
The word many signifies the same as all, and doesn't exclude anyone. St. Paul 2 Corinth. 5:14-15; 1 Timothy 2:6La palabra muchos significa lo mismo que todos, y no excluye alguno. San Pab. 2 Corint. 5, v. 14. 15; 1 ad Timoth. 2 v. 7
on Mark 14:24 ["shall be shed for many"] (Los Santos Evangelios, Madrid, 1788, p.196):
"For many" signifies the same as "for all."Por muchos significa lo mismo que por todos.
 
 
HAYD, Stephan (1744-1802), O.S.B., theologian, philologian, exegete.
Introductio hermeneutica, sect. II, §. LXVII ["synecdoche"] (Vindobonae : Trattner, 1777, page 216).
Synecdoche speciei ... particular for universal ...Synecdoche speciei pro genere, vel particularis pro universali, quæ utraque ut præcedens.
... e.g. many for all is read: Matthew 20:16, 20:28, 26:28; Romans 5:15,19; etc.Ex signis dignoscitur, dum v.g. Multi pro omnibus leguntur. Matth. XX. 16. 28. XXVI. 28. Rom. V. 15. 19. etc.
 
 
SARTORI, Tiberius (1747-1798), O.S.B., theologian, philologian, exegete.
Hermeneutica, art. 2, cap. 1, §. 3, can. II (ed. 1783, pag. 144)
Seneodoche speciei pro genere, vel particularis pro universali, tum ex signis, tum ex vocibus particularitatem exprimentibus dignoscitur. Ex signo, dum v.g. Multi pro omnibus leguntur. Dan 12. v. 2. Multi de his, qui dormierunt in terrae pulvere, evigilabunt; alii in vitam aeternam, et alii in opprobrium etc. Confer. Joan. 5. v. 28. ... Haud absimili ratione Matthæus c. 20. v. 28. vocem πολλοι, multi, usurpare per Synecdochen speciei voluit, ita disserens: venit dare animam suam pretium redemptionis pro multis h. e. omnibus, ut explicat Apost. II Cor. 5. v. 15.
 
 
RUTTER, Henry (1755-1838), exegete.
on Matthew 20:28 / Mark 10:45 (Evangelical Harmony, cap. 104; ed. London, 1803, p. 161)
and to give his life a redemption for many*
* That is for all, in the scripture style. See St. Paul, 1 Tim. ii. 6.
on Matthew 26:28 / Mark 14:24 / Luke 22:20 (Evangelical Harmony, cap. 130; ed. London, 1803, p. 279)
FOR MANY. St. Luke and St. Paul, instead of many, say for you, and both are joined in the canon of the mass. St. Euthymius observes, that for many, has the same meaning as for all mankind; for the new alliance was made with all, the former with the Jews only.
 
 
LIEBERMANN, Bruno Franz Leopold (1759-1844), theologian
lib. IV [de generis humani redemptione], pars. III, caput. II, prop. III, obj. I (Institutiones theologicae, Paris-Lovanii, 1840, tom. 4, p. 506)
ARGUM. I. Matth. XX, 28. Christus ipse ait: Filius hominis venit, dare animam suam redemtionem pro multis. Matth. XXVI, 28.: Hic est sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effunditur. [...] Ergo etc.
RESP. AD I. ET II. Non repugnat, omnes esse multos, et multos omnes. Aliis enim Scripturae locis expresse asseritur, Christum mortuum esse pro peccatis totius mundi: eum esse Redemptorem omnium, maxime fidelium; I Timoth. IV. — Textus objecti non magis restrictionem continent, quam Apostoli verba ad Rom. V.: Per unius delictum peccatores constituti sunt multi. Haec de originali culpa dicta sunt, quam adversarii non diffitentur ad omnes et singulos homines transiisse.
lib. VI [de sacramentis], pars. III [de sanctissimo Eucharistiae Sacramento], cap. 2, art. 2, §.2. q. III, n. 2 (Institutiones theologicae, Paris-Lovanii, 1840, tom. 4, p. 396)
Verba ista: Qui pro vobis, et pro multis effundetur, nullus Evangelista habet simul; sed Matthaeus et Marcus dixerunt, pro multis; Lucas et Paulus, pro vobis. Ecclesia illa conjunxit, ut declaret haec verba pro vobis, etiamsi ad personas Apostolorum dicta videantur, non tamen individue accipienda esse, sed generaliter, ut sit sensus: Pro vobis, id est, pro hominibus. Hinc S. Lucas dixit: Pro multis. Constat autem ex aliis Scripturae locis (Rom. V.), multos etiam poni pro omnibus.
 
 
WITTMANN, Georg Michael (1760-1833), bishop, theologian.
in his exegetical lectures published by his disciple Johann Michael Sintzel (1804-1889)
Des gottseligen Bischofes Georg Michael Wittmann Erklärung der heiligen Evangelien, der Apostelgeschichte und einiger Briefe des heiligen Paulus (Regensburg: 1844, p. 540)
Der heilige Paulus schreibt: Si unius delicto multi: das sind Alle; denn Alle haben peccatum originale; – ita gratia abundavit in plures. – Das sagt Christus: Hic est calix sanguinis, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur. Diese multi sind omnes.
 
 
AMAT, Félix Torres (1772-1847), bishop, theologian, exegete. His translation of Bible "is said to have been taken from a manuscript of Father [José Miguel] Petisco [1724-1800], S.J." (CE)
Dictionary from Notes : "Many" (Notas generales puestas en forma de diccionario, Madrid, 1830, p. 48)
MANY. In Scripture sometimes is used to signify all. The voice RABBIM, which the Vulgate translates MULTI or PLURES, means MULTITUDINES, that is, the multitude : and totality (as St. Augustine says), which is rightly often called many/multitude. Lib. VI. cont. C. Jul. 23. Matt. 26:28, Mark 14:24. Rom. V. 15.MUCHOS. En la Escritura, alguna vez suele siguificar todos. La voz Rabbim, que en la Vulgata se traduce multi, ó plures siguifica multitudines, esto es, la muchedumbre : y la totalidad (como dice San Agustin) suele llamarse con razon muchedumbre. Lib. VI. cont. Jul. c. 23. Math. XXVI. 28. Marc. XIV. 24. Rom. V. 15.
transl. and note to Isaiah 53:12 (La Sagrada Biblia, Paris 1836, vol. IX, p. 210)
Therefore will I distribute to him a great multitude of nations, and he shall divide the spoils of the strong, because he hath delivered his soul unto death, and was reputed with the wicked: and he hath borne the sins of all*, and hath prayed for the transgressors.Por tanto le daré como porcion, ó en herencia suya, una gran muchedumbre de naciones; y repartirá los despojos de los fuertes : pues que ha entregado su vida á la muerte, y ha sido confundido con los facinerosos, y ha tomado sobre sí los pecados de todos*, y ha gorado por los transgresores.

* See "MANY" in Dictionary from Notes.

* Véase Muchos en el Diccionario de notas.
transl. and note to Daniel 12:2 (La Sagrada Biblia, Paris 1836, vol. XI, p. 288)
And the multitude* ... shall awake ...
* Rom 5:19. See "MANY".
Y la muchedumbre* ... despertará ...
Rom. V. v. 19. Véase Muchos.
transl. and not. to Matthew 26:28 (La Sagrada Biblia, Paris 1836, vol. XIII, p. 134)
... which shall be shed for many* ...
* Zach. XIII. v. 7. See Many.
... la cual cerá derramada pro muchos* ...
* Zach. XIII. v. 7. Véase Muchos.
transl. and not. to Romans 5:15a (La Sagrada Biblia, Paris 1836, vol. XIV, p. 149)
... many* ...
* See Many.
... muchos* ...
* Véase Muchos.
 
 
PANZUTI, Biagio [Blasius Panzuti] (1773-1846), C.SS.R., theologian, moralist.
Theologia moralis A. M. de Ligorio in institutiones redacta. lib. 5 [de peccatis], tract. 1 [de peccato originali], cap. 1 [De existentia peccati originalis.]
(Theologia moralis A. M. de Ligorio in institutiones redacta. Neapoli: 1824, vol. III, p. 36-37)
Ex ep. ad Rom. 5.
    Per unum hominem peccatum in hunc Mundum intravit, et per peccatum mors; et ita in omnes homines mors pertransiit, in quo omnes peccaverunt.
Et paulo infra:
    Per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi.
Multos autem dicit, quos ante dixerat omnes, quia omnes homines revera multi sunt, ut D. Aug. disserit:
    Etiam namque de Abraham, cui promissae fuerant omnes gentes illis verbis:
      In semine tuo benedicentur omnes gentes;
    dictum est alio loco:
      Patrem multarum gentium posui te.
    Est autem sanus intellectus, ideo sic locutam Scripturam, quia possunt esse utique omnia, quae non sunt multa, sicut omnia dicimus Evangelia, et tamen brevi numero, idest quaternario continentur. Et rursus possunt aliqua esse multa, non tamen omnia, sicut multos dicimus credere in Christum, nec tamen omnes credunt
    (l. 6. contr. Jul. c. 14).
Accedit, vocem multi accipi nonnumquam in Scripturis pro omnes;
  • Ut Lucae c. 7.: Remittuntur ei peccata multa, idest omnia.
  • Matth. 20.: Venit Filius hominis dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis, idest pro omnibus.
  • Et c. 26.: Hic est sanguis meus, qui pro multis effundetur, idest pro omnibus.
 
 
HAYDOCK, George Leo (1774-1849), exegete. "His edition of the Douay Bible with extended commentary, originally published in 1811, became the most popular English Catholic Bible of the 19th century on both sides of the Atlantic." (W).
His commentaries are from great part mere quotations of older exegetes. Here in both cases he quoted Witham (c.1667-1738).
to Matthew 26:28 (New York, 1852, p. 1308)
For many. S. Luke and S. Paul, instead of many, say for you. Both are joined in the canon of the mass. Euthymius says, for many, is the same as for all mankind. This new alliance was made with all, and the former with the Jews only. (Witham)
to Hebrews 9:28 (New York, 1852, p. 1593)
To exhaust the sins of many. That is, of all, according to the style of the Scriptures. When he came first, he took upon him the load of our sins; but at his second coming, at the end of the world, he will come in a quite different manner, not as laden with our sins, not after the similitude of a sinful man, not to redeem us, but with great power and majesty to judge all men. (Witham)
 
 
GOLDWITZER, Franz Wenceslaus (1778-1840), theologian.
Compendium dogmatum christiano-catholicorum systematicum, 1824, p. 338
Matth. 26:28 "For this is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins (ἐκχυνόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν)" cf. Mark 14:24; Luke 22:20;Matth. 26, 28 : "Hic est enim sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum (ἐκχυνόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν)" cfr. Marc. 14, 24; Luc. 22, 20;
  • shedding blood = death,
  • effusio sanguinis = mors,
  • which (for) many = (for) all (unto the) remission of sins is earned.
  • qua multis = omnibus remissio peccatorum procuratur;
ibid. page 340
ad Hebr. 9, 28: "Christus semel oblatus est (ἅπαξ προσενεχθεὶς scil. tanquam victima) ad multorum (=omnium) exhaurienda peccata"
 
 
MAI, Angelo [MAIO] (1782—1854), S.J., cardinal and celebrated philologist and learned in patrology (he published from Vatican manuscripts many texts, that have been never printed before him).
M. Tulli Ciceronis De re publica, ed. Rome 1822 [addresed to pope], p. 93, note 4.
Word MULTI sometimes signifies all, as it is learnedly showed by Augustine (against Julian vi.80 and in C.D. xx.23), whose authority is now very taken from Cicero incrementing.Vocabulo multi interdum significari omnes perdocte demonstrat Augustinus contra Iulianum lib. Vl. 80, et C.D. xx. 23; cuius auctoritas magnum nunc accipit a Cicerone incrementum.
So also theologians understand in the Sacred ScripturesSic etiam in sacris litteris theologi intelligunt
  • Matthew 26:28 "which shall be shed for MULTI", that is "for all".
  • Matth. xxvi. 28: qui pro multis effundetur, id est pro omnibus.
  • And Daniel 12:2: MULTI shall awake, i.e. all.
  • Et Dan. xii. 2: multi evigilabunt, id est omnes.
Note: This possible connection between Cicero's "De republica" and Augustine's "De civitate dei" is very intereting observation, because Augustine read this book, and it is even this very Augustine's book in which he most frequently referred to that Ciceron's one (cf. De Civitate Dei: lib.2,cap 9,11,12; lib.3,cap.15; lib.5,cap.13; lib.14,cap.23; lib.19,cap.21; lib.22,cap.4,6,28).
 
 
Doctrina de fé, comprobada por las dos fuentes, la Escritura y la Tradición : obra util a toda clase de personas, arreglada al efecto por D.L.B.
Sobre un
Manual de Teología Dogmatica, que escribió en latin un Padre de la Compañía de Jesús, en 1716.
Barcelona : Impr. de Bergnes y Cª., 1832. p. 132
Moreover, the words that Luke says in Ch. 22, v. 19 and 20: is given for you; shall be shed for you, or those of Matthew, chapter 26, v. 28: which shall be shed for many for the remission of sins [...] not only for the Apostles, but for all; since the word "many," in the Scripture, often signifies all, as the Saint Fathers expose in BellarmineA mas, las palabras que dice san Lúcas en el cap. 22, v. 19 y 20: se da por vosotros; se derramará por vosotros, ó las de san Mateo, capítulo 26, v. 28: la cual será derramada por muchos para remision de los pecados [...] no solamente por los Apóstoles, sino por todos; pues la palabra muchos, en la Escritura, suele significar todos, como lo esponen los Santos Padres en este lugar de Belarmino
 
 
GENOUD, Antoine Eugène (1792-1849), catholic translator. Although his translation is ofter rather only paraphrasy.
Mark 10:45 (Sainte Bible. Tomus XVIII. Lyon : Chez prérisse frères, 1822. [415 pp], p. 385)
Car le Fils de l'homme même n'est pas venu pour être servi, mais pour servir et donner sa vie pour la rédemption de la multitude.
Mark 14:24 (Sainte Bible. Tomus XVIII. Lyon : Chez prérisse frères, 1822. [415 pp], p. 392)
Et il leur dit: Ceci est mon sang, le sang de la nouvelle alliance qui sera répandu pour la multitude.
 
 
GOUSSET, Thomas Marie Joseph (1792-1866), bishop, cardinal, theologian.
He was editor of Bergier's dictionary (Besancon, 1838), and also following passage of his textbook of theology is very similar to passage of Beriger. Morever, it was shortly after first publication of following text-book, when dignity of cardinal was conferred him, for "his wide knowledge and the soundness of his doctrine and numerous works" (CE).
Théologie dogmatique, De l'incarnation, cap. 5 / num. 408 (Paris 1850, vol. 2, p. 280; Paris 1861, vol. 2, p. 279-280)
Satisfaire à la justice divine, c'est réparer l'injure que nous avons faite à Dieu par le péché, et rentrer en grâce avec lui. Or c'est un dogme catholique que Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ a satisfait pour nos péchés et qu'il nous a rachetés, en payant luimême le prix de notre rançon. Suivant le prophète Isaie, le Sauveur du monde s'est véritablement chargé de nos langueurs, et il a porté nos douleurs; c'est pour nos iniquités qu'il a été couvert de plaies; il a été brisé pour nos crimes; le châtiment qui devait nous procurer la paix est tombé sur lui, et nous avons été guéris par ses blessures. Le Seigneur a mis sur lui l'iniquité de nous tous: Doininus posuit in eo iniquitatem omnium nostrum (Voyez le texte d'Isaie, ci-dessus, n° 390).
Jésus-Christ lui-même dit que «le Fils de l'homme n'est pas venu pour être servi, mais pour servir, et donner sa vie pour la rédemption de plusieurs
(Filius hominis non venit ministrari, sed ministrare, et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis. Saint Matthieu, c. xx, v. 28);
»
pro multis, c'est-à-dire pour la multitude des hommes, pour l'universalité du genre humain.
«Ceci est mon sang de la nouvelle alliance, qui sera répandu pour plusieurs en rémission des péchés
(Hic est enim sanguis meus Novi Testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum. Ibidem, c. xxvi, v. 28).
»
 
 
PATRIZI, Francis Xavier [Francesco Saverio] (1797-1881), S.J., exegete, theologian
to Mark 10:45 (In Marcum commentarium. Romae : Spithoever, 1862. pag. 143-144)
Pro multis. Frustra sunt qui his verbis abutuntur ut vincere conentur non pro omnibus hominibus Christum mortuum esse. Mitto quod id necessario consequatur e quamplurimis locis Novi Testamenti (Io. I, 9. 16; XVII, 2; Act. XVII, 30; Rom. V, 18; XI, 32; I Tim. II, 4; IV, 10; Tit. II, 11; Hebr. XII, 8; II Pet. III, 9.), mitto quod Paulus id apertissimis verbis affirmaverit (Rom. VIII, 32; II Cor. V, 14. 15; I Tim. II, 6.). Illud satis sit animadvertere, nomina multos et omnes contraria non esse, neque inter se pugnare, neque alterum altero excludi; quasi vero quum multos dicimus, hoc ipso negemus esse omnes. Dic ita: Multi conflagrante Pentapoli perierunt; num sequitur ut non omnes illius regionis incolae? Multi, qui Israelitas insequebantur, in mari sunt demersi; num, qui ita loquitur, aliquos evasisse dicit? Scilicet, et omnes et multi quum fuerint qui interierunt, utrumvis nomen usurpari posse. Res contrario exemplo evidentior fiet. Omnes homines ex arca Noae post universale diluvium exierunt; sed quidem certe numero paucissimi. Apprime e re nostra est locus, in quo Paulus homines, quibus tum Adae culpa obfuit tum Christi iustitia profuit, primo omnes deinde multos fuisse ait (Rom. V, 18. 19.). ltaque Christus mortem oppetiturus pro omnibus hominibus, qui numero multi utique sunt, omnino ad veritatem loquutus est quum praedixit daturum se animam suam redemptionem pro multis.
to Mark 14:24 (In Marcum commentarium. Romae : Spithoever, 1862. pag. 195)
Pro multis. Lege quae diximus de voce multis in Marc. X, 45.
De interpretatione scripturarum sacrarum, lib. 1, cap. VI, regula III, §1 / n. 148 (Romae 1844, p. 90-91)
Sic omnes quandoque non esse nisi plures (Ps. LII, 4; CXV, 11) statim percipimus, minas quoque ac promissiones interdum haberi sub certis quibusdam conditionibus, quae verbis non exprimuntur (Is. xxxviii, 1; Ion. iii, 4), multum, magnum et similia de Deo dicta tantumdem valere ac infinitum (Num. xiv,18; Ps. XLVII,2). ... atque exponamus; ut si negares Christum de omnibus hominibus a se redimendis loquutum esse, ubi narravit, se venisse dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis (Matth. xx,28)
 
 
LECHNER, Petrus (1805-1874), OSB, exegete, theologian.
on Matthew 26:28 ["shed for many"] (Die Heilige Schrift des Neuen Testamentes, München-Freising : Abtei St. Vincent, 1881, p. 250)
Johannes I. 2, 2 sagt von Christus: "Dieser ist die Versöhnung für unsre Sünden, nicht aber nur für die unsrigen, sondern auch fur die der ganzen Welt."
Christus bedient sich aber hier des Ausdruckes "Wiele", weil in der hl. Schriftsprache öfter Viele fur Alle gelten. So sagt er auch 20, 28: "Der Menschensohn ist nicht gekommen sich bedienen zu lassen, sondern zu dienen und sein Leben zur Erlösung für Viele hinzugeben."
 
 
RANOLDER, János VI (1806–1875), theologian, bishop, exegete, one of fathers of The first Vatican Council.
Hermeneuticae biblicae generalis principia rationalia Christiana et catholica (Quinque-Ecclesiis: 1838, p. 191-192; Budae: 1859, p. 191-192)
Matth. 20:28 it is said: "son of the man came - to give his life a ransom for many," so 26:28 Christ at the Last Supper said: "This is my blood, of the NT shall be shed for many for the remission of sins," on the other hand 1 John 2:2 teaches: "He (Christ) is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for that of the whole world" and Paul 1 Tim. 2:6 says, "who (Christ) gave himself a ransom for all." Matth. XX, 28. dicitur: „filius hominis venit — dare animam suam, redemtionem pro multis," ita XXVI, 28. Christus in ultima coena dicit: „hic est sanguis meus N. T. qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum;" ex adverso 1 Joan. II, 2. docetur: „ipse (Christus) est propitiatio pro peccatis nostris: non pro nostris autem tantum, sed etiam pro totius mundi;" et Paulus 1 Tim. II, 6. ait: „qui (Christus) dedit redemtionem semetipsum pro omnibus."
The battle is taken away by the use of biblical speaking by the reason of the word "πολλοι many," which sometimes (as Hebrews רבים Dan. 12:2. Ps. 96:1. comp. 6) is put for "all," e.g. Rom. 5:15. says: "by one man's offense many died," where, however, v. 12. now has gone before: "death passed upon all men," so also 1 Cor. 10, 17. 33. πολλοι [many] and παντας [all] is being changed, and finally that Heb. 9:28 it is said: "Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many," that 1 Tim. 2:6. is asserted about "all." And so 11. c. the word "many" can not be taken in the common notion, but in conformity with use of speaking, (and elsewhere, distinctly set forth the doctrine of analogy) is to be taken more widely, namely, for "all."Pugnam tollit usus loquendi biblicus ratione vocabuli „πολλοι multi" quod nonnunquam (uti hebr. רבים Dan. XII, 2. Ps. XCVI, 1. coll. 6.) ponitur pro „omnibus;" uti eg. Rom. V, 15. dicitur: „unius delicto multi mortui sunt," ubi tamen v. 12. jam praecessit: „in omnes homines mors pertransiit;" ita etiam 1 Cor. X, 17. 33. πολλοι et παντας permutantur; denique quod Hebr. IX, 28. dicitur: „Christum semel oblatum esse ad multorum exhaurienda peccata," id 1 Tim. II, 6. asseritur de „omnibus." Itaque 11. c. vox „multi" sumi non potest in vulgari notione, sed conformiter usui loquendi, (et analogiae doctrinae alibi distincte expositae) sumenda est latius, nempe pro „omnibus."
 
 
PÉRONNE, Joseph Maxence (1813-1892), theologian, exegete.
Memoriale Praedicatorum sive Synopsis biblica, theologica, moralis, historica et oratoria Commentariorum R.P. Cornelii à Lapide in Scripturam Sacram. Complectens analysim omnium rerum quae in hisce commentariis enucleantur.. Parisiis : apud Ludovicum Vivès, 1891, t. II, p. 73
Multi saepe capitur pro omnes, XV, 453, 1, 2; XX, 355, 2.
Note: these are referrences to Lapide's commentary to Matthew 20:28 and 1Peter 4:8, where in both cases Lapide affirmed, that word "many" in Matthew 26:28 signifies all - as we quoted above.
 
 
DRAXLER/DREXLER, János Zádori (1831-1887), theologian.
Szent Péter Apostol két levele (Pest: 1861, p. 93)
Christ died once to abolished the sins of all times. Sins: to abolish all our sins, because he himself said: „This is my blood, which for many – i.e. for all – shall be shed for the remission of sins" (Matthew 26). Jézus egyszeri halála, minden idők bűneit eltörölte. Bűnökért: hogy eltörölje mindnyájunk bünét, mert maga mondá: „ez az én vérem, mely sokakért – azaz mindenikért – fog kiontatni a bűnök bocsánatára." (Máté 26.)
 
 
LÉMANN, Joseph (1836-1915) and Augustin (1836-1909), jewish convertits to catholicism, friends of pope Pius IX., their writings were influent also to following popes - especially Pius X.
La cause des restes d'Israël (Lyon-Paris, 1912. p. 235)
With what a thrill as we pronounced, crossing his hands over the chalice, these words are part of the consecration of the Precious Blood: "qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum": O good Jesus, O gracious Saviour, shedding Your precious blood has been applied both for the forgiveness of our sins, but now the Precious Blood spread on many children of Israel, over all, as is hoped the powerful prayer of consecration "pro multis effundetur".Avec quel frémissement aussi avons-nous prononcé, en croisant les mains sur le calice, ces paroles qui font partie de la consécration du Précieux Sang, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum ; ô bon Jésus, ô bon Sauveur, l'effusion de votre Précieux Sang nous a été appliquée à tous deux pour la rémission de nos péchés; mais que maintenant ce Précieux Sang se répande sur beaucoup d'enfants d'Israël, sur tous, comme le fait espérer la toute puissante prière de la consécration, pro multis effundetur.
This passage is quoted (with interesting note under line) also in their biography, written by theologian and historian
Joannès Rodéry [Théotime de Saint-Just] (c.1880-c.1950), OFMCap
Les frères Lémann, juifs convertis. Paris: Librairie St. François, 1937. (514 pages), page 236

With what a thrill as we pronounced, crossing his hands over the chalice, these words are part of the consecration of the Precious Blood: "qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum": O good Jesus, O gracious Saviour, shedding Your precious blood has been applied both for the forgiveness of our sins, but now the Precious Blood spread on many children of Israel, over all, as is hoped the powerful prayer of consecration (1).

Avec quel frémissement aussi nous avons prononcé, en croisant les mains sur le calice, ces paroles qui font partie de la consécration du Précieux Sang : qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum : ô bon Jésus, ô bon Sauveur, l'effusion de votre précieux Sang nous a été appliquée à tous deux pour la rémission de nos péchés, mais que maintenant ce Précieux Sang se répande sur beaucoup d'enfants d'Israël, sur tous, comme le fait espérer la toute puissante prière de la Consécration (1).



(1) The words of consecration "pro multis" means "for the multitude", "for all."

(1) La parole de la consécration « pro multis » signifie pour la multitude, pour tous.

 
 
GIHR, Nikolaus (1839-1924), theologian, liturgist.
Das heilige Messopfer: dogmatisch, liturgisch und aszetisch erklärt. (Freiburg in Breisgau: 1922., p. 566)
English translation: The holy sacrifice of the mass; dogmatically, liturgically and ascetically explained. (Freiburg in Breisgau: 1902., p. 640-641)
The concluding words: "which shall be shed for you and for many unto the remission of sins," characterize the sacrificial Blood of Christ as the very source of atonement, pouring forth its floods of grace for the cleanssing and remission of sin for all mankind.Die Schlussmorte: „Das für euch und für viele vergossen wird zur Vergebung der Sünden", charakterisieren Christi Opferblut als Sühnequell, aus welchem Reinigung und Entsündigung über die ganze Menschheit sich ergiesst.
(nowadays this book is used as textbook of liturgy even in sedesvacantists seminaries, see our note to Cekada)
 
 
TANQUEREY, Adolphe (1854-1932), P.S.S., theologian
Synopsis theologiae dogmaticae specialis, ad mentem S. Thomae Aquinatis, vol. I.: cap. III, art. IV [De operationibus divinis] / num. 139-140 (Parisiis-Baltimore: 1899, vol. 1, p. 164)
There are objected also the words of Christ (John 17:9): "I pray for them, not for the world," but undeservedly, since from that what the Lord this time prayed not for the world, by no means follows He was never prayed for that, especially when afterwards added: "however I pray not only for them, but also for them who through their word shall believe in me ... so that the [ii]world may believe that You sent Me." (20-21), from which is gathered him for the world He prayed, not in so far as is evil, but to receive the faith, which leads to salvation.Objiciuntur etiam verba Christi (Joa. XVII,9) : "Ego pro eis rogo, non pro mundo rogo"; sed immerito, nam ex eo quod Dominus hac vice non oraverit pro mundo, minime sequitur eum nunquam pro illo orasse, praesertim quum postea addiderit: "non pro eis autem rogo tantum, sed et pro eis qui credituri sunt per verbum eorum in me... ut credat mundus quia tu me misisti" (20); ex quo colligitur eum pro mundo orasse, non quatenus malus est, sed ut fidem acciperet, quae ad salutem ducit.
Similarly there are opposed these words of the Lord: "This is my blood of the new testament, which for many shall be shed for the remission of sins " (Matt. 26:28), therefore not for all.Opponuntur pariter haec verba Domini: "Hic est sanguis meus novi Testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum" (Matt. XXVI, 28); ergo non pro omnibus.
Answer. the voice many sometimes signifies a great number, and sometimes signifies all, as it is gathered from Ep. to the Romans. (Rom. 5, 18-9) where Saint Paul - discussing about the original sin and the redemption - says: "As the result of one justice in the all men to condemnation ... as by the disobedience of one man's the many were made sinners": from which it is clear that "many and all" are taken in the same sense; the reason is because in this case all certainly were many. Therefore, the sense of the word must be determined from the context or parallel passages; however in many other places it is said that Christ Christ shed his blood for all, as it is evident from the thesis.Resp. vox multi aliquando significat magnam multitudinem, et quandoque significat omnes, ut colligitur ex Ep. ad Rom. (Rom. V, 18-9) ubi S. Paulus de peccato originali et redemptione disserens, dicit: "Sicut per unius justitiam in omnes homines in condemnationem... sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi": ex quo liquet "multi et omnes" eodem sensu sumi; ratio est quia in hoc casu omnes certo multi erant. Igitur sensus hujus vocabuli ex contextu vel parallelis locis determinari debet; jamvero in multis aliis locis dicitur Christum pro omnibus sanguinem suum fudisse, ut constat ex thesi.
Synopsis theologiae dogmaticae specialis, ad mentem S. Thomae Aquinatis, vol. II.: cap. II, art. II / num. 99 (Parisiis-Baltimore: 1899, vol. II, p. 386)
"Which shall be shed for you and for many" ... by these words it is signified that the blood of Christ is poured out not only for the apostles, or the priests, but also for all others who certainly are many. (St. Th. 3. P. q. 78, a. 3.)"Qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur"... quibus verbis significatur sanguinem Christi effundi non solum pro Apostolis aut sacerdotibus, sed etiam pro omnibus aliis, qui certo multi sunt. (S. Th. 3. p. q. 78, a. 3.)
 
 
LAGRANGE, Marie-Joseph (1855-1938), O.P., founder of famous École biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem.
translation of Mark 10:45b (Évangile selon saint Marc. Paris: J. Gabalda, 1929. [480 pp], p. 283)
and to give his life a ransom for others.et pour donner sa vie comme rançon pour les autres.
translation of Mark 14:24b (Évangile selon saint Marc. Paris: J. Gabalda, 1929. [480 pp], p. 381)
blood of Testament, which is shed for others.sang, de l'alliance, qui est répandu pour les autres.
 
 
DURAND, Alfred (1858-1928), S.J., exegete and expert in semitic languages.
on Matthew 26:28 ["blood...shed for many"]
(Verbum salutis vol I., Evangile selon Saint Matthieu. Paris : Beauchesne, 1923. [558 pp.], p. 481; Paris : Beauchesne, 1948, p. 481). quoted also below by Édouard Massaux
The blood of Christ is "shed for many unto the remission of sins": the sacrifice of a single Redeemer suffices for the salvation of many/great number. "Many" is not opposed to "all" and therefore does not exclude "totality"; but here as in Saint Paul (Rom. 5:19), this term (Greek πολλοί) highlights the value of the redeeming blood and invites one to measure the extent of its happy effects.Le sang du Christ est « répandu pour beaucoup en rémission des péchés » : le sacrifice d'un seul rédempteur suffit pour le salut d'un grand nombre. « Beaucoup » ne s'oppose pas à « tous », et donc n'exclut pas la totalité ; mais ici, comme dans saint Paul (Rom., v, 19), ce terme (grec πολλοί) met en relief la valeur du sang rédempteur et invite à mesurer l'étendue de ses heureux effets.
 
 
ZORELL, Franz [Francisco/Franciscus Zorrel] (1863–1947), S.J., exegete, philologist, author of famous greek, hebrew and aramaic Biblical lexicon. (see letter from pope to him).
Lexicon Graecum, Paris, 1931, col. 1101. (Spanish translation by Carlos Miguel Buela)
ἀντὶ πολλῶν Mt 2028, περὶ πολλῶν Mt 2628 positively highlights the great number of them for whom Christ offers himself as an atonement, does not deny the number of whole, that is, Christ endured death for all (cf. comm. in 20:28).ἀντὶ πολλῶν Mt 2028, περὶ πολλῶν Mt 2628 positivamente manifiesta el gran numero de aquellos por los cuales Cristo se ofrece piadosamente, sin negar el número íntegro, es decir, que por todos Cristo soporto la muerte (cf. comm. in 20:28). ἀντὶ πολλῶν Mt 2028, περὶ πολλῶν Mt 2628 positive effert magnum numerum eorum pro quibus Christus se offert piaculum, non negat integrum numerum seu pro omnibus Christum mortem obiisse (cf. comm. in 20:28)
 
 
JOÜON, Paul (1871-1940), S.J., a specialist in semitic languages, a member of Pontifical Biblical Institute
L'Évangile de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ, traduction et commentaire du texte grec tenant compte du substrat sémitique
(Verbum salutis, vol V.)
, Paris: Éditeur G. Beauchesne, 1930.
on Matthew 20:28 (p. 125)
Πολλοὶ many, here and elsewhere 26:28, Mark 1:34, as well as Hebrew rabbim, is not opposed to all as in French. A whole/totality can be large or small numbre, to adequately express the notion of large all, should express the totality and the many. Here only the great number is expressed as we would express rather the totality. — For the idea comp. Is 53, 11-12 which returned three times rabbim "many", that is to say, "all, which are many."Πολλοὶ beaucoup, ici et ailleurs 26, 28; Mc 1, 34, de même que l'hébreu rabbīm, ne s'oppose pas à tous, comme en français. Une totalité pouvant être nombreuse ou peu nombreuse, pour exprimer adéquatement la notion de totalité nombreuse, il faudrait exprimer et la totalité et le grand nombre. Ici seul le grand nombre est exprimé tandis que nous exprimerions plutôt la totalité. — Pour l'idée comp. Is. 53, 11-12 où revient trois fois rabbīm « beaucoup », c'est-à-dire « tous, lesquels sont beaucoup ».
on Matthew 26:28 (p. 163)
On πολλοὶ ["many"] see on 20:28.Sur πολλοὶ voir in 20, 28.
on Mark 1:34 (p. 189)
The πολλοὺς [many] can be πάντας [all] of v. 32; πολλοὺς ["many"], does not necessary imply that some were not healed (cf. on Mt 20, 28).Les πολλοὺς peuvent être les πάντας du v. 32; πολλοὺς, n'implique pas nécessairement que quelques-uns ne furent pas guéris (cf. in Mt 20, 28).
 
 
HUBY, Joseph (1878-1948), S.J., exegete.
on Matthew 26:28 (written before year 1924 and consequently many times republished without changes)
Verbum Salutis, II. : Évangile selon Saint Marc. Traduction et commentaire par Joseph Huby, S.J.
(Paris : Beauchesne, 1924; Paris : Beauchesne, 1948, p. 366 [translation] and 372 [commentary]).
This is my blood, (the blood of) the new testament, which shall be shed for a great number.C'est mon sang, [le sang de] l'alliance, qui va être répandu pour un grand nombre.

The intention of this sacrifice is the good of great number. The Greek term πολλοὺς insists on the idea of multitude, without pronouncing exclusion. ...

L'intention de ce sacrifice est le bien d'un grand nombre. Le terme grec πολλοὺς insiste sur l'idée de multitude, sans prononcer d'exclusion. S'il ya opposition, elle n'est pas entre plusieurs privilégiés et le reste des déshérités, mais entre un seul qui s'offre à l'immolation et la multitude qui recueille les fruits de ce sacrifice. Le sang versé par le Christ est la source de toutes les grâces et bénédictions qui acheminent les pécheurs vers l'amitié divine, les justes vers la vision du ciel. L'institution de l'Eucharistie se clôt dans saint Marc par une parole de Jésus qui affirme à nouveau l'imminence de la Passion et la certitude de la victoire finale.
 
 
SIMON, Hadriano (c.1880-c.1950), C.SS.R. exegete. (1.ed. in 1921/1922)
Praelectiones biblicae ad usum scholarum: novum Testamentum. (Taurini: 1947. p. 896)
Qui pro multis effundetur: pro multis et in gratiam (Mt. περί, Mc. ὑπέρ) multorum, seu (per meiosim) omnium, effundetur
[...]
effundetur pro multis (ὑπὲρ πολλῶν, Mc.; περὶ πολλῶν, Mt.), i. e. pro multis et in eorum gratiam; ubi pro multis sibi vult pro omnibus, ut ap. Is. 53, 12.
 
 
PIROT, Louis (1881-1939), exegete, theologian.
Mark 14:24 translation and commentary (La Sainte Bible. Paris: 1935. [Mark] p. 574)
[...] le sang de l'alliance qui est répandu pour la multitude.
Et ce sang est répandu ὑπὲρ πολλῶν. Comme nous l'avons vu p. 530, il ne faut pas traduire l'expression par « plusieurs », « beaucoup » ou « un grand nombre », tous termes ayant un sens restrictif, alors que Jésus est mort pour tous les hommes sans aucune exception; il faut traduire par « multitude »; c'est toute l'humanité issue d'Adam qui est envisagée; c'est pour elle que Jésus, le nouvel Adam, a versé tout son sang; l'opposition est entre ce seul qui meurt et la multitude qui en profite comme autrefois elle pâtit de la faute de notre premier père (cf. Rom., v, 12-20 où sans cesse πολλοί est l'équivalent de πάντες).
 
 
BUZY, Denis (1883-1965), S.C.J., exegete, theologian.
Matthew 20:28 translation and commentary (La Sainte Bible. Paris: 1935. [Matthew] p. 267)
à la ressemblance du Fils de l'homme qui n'est pas venu pour se faire servir, mais pour servir et donner sa vie comme rançon d'un grand nombre.
il est venu pour servir. Servir qui? Tous, puisque, pour tous, il donne sa vie en rançon. La rançon (λύτρον) était la somme d'argent que l'on versait à la divinité, c.-à-d. à son temple, pour le rachat d'un eselave. Par ce seul mot, le Christ nous fait savoir ce que nous étions, des esclaves, Il ne s'expliquera pas davantage pour le moment, mais un jour l'apôtre des gentils, qui s'y connaissait, nous dira que nous étions les esclaves du démon et du péché (Rom., vi). Nous, c.-à-d. tous. Si le texte parle de la rançon d'un grand nombre, c'est que la totalité ne se compose pas de quelques unités, comme il arrive parfois, mais qu'elle comprend un grand nombre d'humains. L'expression signifie que la totalité est nombreuse; elle ne signifie pas que quelqu'un soit exclu de la totalité.
Matthew 26:28 translation and commentary (La Sainte Bible. Paris: 1935. [Matthew] p. 348)
ceci est mon sang, [le sang] de la nouvelle alliance, qui va être versé pour un grand nombre en rémission des péchés.

Shed for a great number (περὶ πολλῶν), by opposition not to all, but to a small number; the text specifies only that the shedding of the blood will benefit a multitude. We also know that the multitude is here all.

Versé pour un grand nombre (περὶ πολλῶν), par opposition non pas à la totalité, mais à un petit nombre; le texte spécifie seulement que le sang versé profitera à une multitude. Nous savons par ailleurs que la multitude est ici la totalité.
 
 
BISKUPEK, Aloysius (1884-1955), S.V.D., theologian, author of various books for seminarians, e.g. "Ordinations translation and explanation of the rite of ordination", "Our sacrifice", "Holy Mass and life", and also another pious books, e.g. "The Litany of the Sacred Heart", "Our Lady's litany: readings and reflections", "The Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary explained", "Thoughts on the fifteen mysteries of the Rosary", "The message of the rosary", "Conference on the Religious Life", etc.
Ordinations - early editions (first in 1928.; second ed. 1929, p. 105)
... FOR YOU AND FOR ALL FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS.
Ordinations - revided version since 1942. (ed. 1954, p. 128)
... FOR YOU AND FOR ALL UNTO THE REMISSION OF SINS.
 
 
NOWY TESTAMENT. Kraków: 1936. Republished without changes also in 1938. Prepared by:
PROKULSKI, Walenty Wojciech (1888-1968), S.J.
MORAWSKI, Marian Józef Wojciech (1881-1940), S.J.
ANDRASZ, Józef (1891-1963), SJ.
SEMKOWSKI, Ludwik (1891-1977), S.J., who was in that time (1931-1949) professor of Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome.
and using translation from: WUJEK, Jakub (1541-1597), S.J.
Matthew 26:28 (p. 95)
28 For this is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins. 28 Albowiem to jest krew moja Nowego Testamentu, która za wielu będzie wylana na odpuszczenie grzechów.

28. »For many« = for all.

28. »Za wielu« = za wszystkich.
Moreover, this edition was prepared according older editions. So before it very famous was Bible published by
KOZŁOWSKI, Szymon Marcin (1819-1899), bishop and exegete.
Biblia łacińsko - polska, czyli Pismo Święte Starego i Nowego Testamentu,
podług textu łacińskiego wulgaty i przekładu polskiego x. Jakóba Wujka T. J.
Z komentarzem Menochiusza T.J. przełożonym na język polski.

Wydanie X. S. Kozłowskiego - Prałąta Katedry Wileńskiej. We czterech tomach.
Wilno : Józef Zawadzki, 1864. [844 pp]
It consists from Wujek's polish translation of Bible with polish translation of commentary from Menochio (1575-1655), S.J.
And therefore it says:
Matthew 26:28 translation and commentary (Wilno : 1907, vol. IV, p. 107)
For this is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins.Albowiem ta iest krew moia nowego testamentu, która za wielu będzie wylana, na odpuszczenie grzechów.

For many. For all, who are many.

Za wielu. Za wszystkich, których jest wiele.
 
 
Jan Ladislav Sýkora (1852–1923), theologian, exegete. His translation and commentary of New Testament was firstly published in 1909 and 1914. Consequently re-published also in 1922-1923 as Podlaha's Bible: Bible česká. part II. [Knihy Nového zákona]. Vol. II [Listy apoštolské a zjevení sv. Jana]. Praha : V. Kotrba, 1923.
Hebrews 9:28 (page 336)
"for sins of many", i.e. of all men, who were and are many.za hříchy mnohých, t.j. všech lidí, jichž bylo a jest mnoho.
 
 
COL, Rudolf (1902-1964), theologian, exegete. He'd taught New Testament since 1936. He translated New Testament from Greek and wrote short commentary to it in 1945 (gospels) and 1946 (other books).
(Nový Zákon: Sýkorův překlad v revisi Hejčlově k tisku upravil, rozčlenil, úvody a poznámkami opatřil dr. Rudolf Col. Velehrad, 1947).
Matthew 20:28
"for many" (hebraism), i.e. for all, and those will be many (cf. below 26, 28).„za mnohé" (hebraismus), t.j. za všechny a těch bude mnoho (srv. níže 26, 28).
Matthew 26:28
"is shed", some latin manuscript have "shall be shed" in synoptics.
- "for many", i.e. for all, and those will be many (cf. above 20, 28).
„vylévá se", některé latinské rukopisy mají u synoptiků „bude vylita". - „za mnohé", t.j. za všechny, a těch bude mnoho (srv. výše 20, 28).
Hebrews 9:28
"sins of many (men)", i.e. of all men, who were and are many.„hříchy mnohých (lidí)", t.j. všech lidí, jichž bylo a je mnoho.
 
 
BENOÎT, Pierre Maurice (1906–1987), O.P., translator of gospel according Matthew in famous "Jerusalem Bible." (1956)
on Matthew 20:28
L'Évangile selon saint Matthieu (Éditions du Cerf, 1961, p. 127-128), probably identical with "Première édition" (1956)
La Bible de Jérusalem (Éditions du Cerf, 1998, p. 1713), probably identical with "Deuxième édition révisée" (1973)
As indeed the Son of man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life a ransom for a multitude.*C'est ainsi que le Fils de l'homme n'est pas venu pour être servi, mais pour servir et donner sa vie en rançon pour une multitude*.C'est ainsi que le Fils de l'homme n'est pas venu pour être servi, mais pour servir et donner sa vie en rançon pour une multitude*.

* The Semitic term translated "a multitude" (Is 53:11-12), the large number that opposes to the sole Redeemer without suggesting to the extent that this number will be limited and will not include "all" men. See also 26:28 (and Romans 5:6-21).

* Le terme sémitique que traduit « une multitude » (Is 53 11-12), oppose le grand nombre des rachetés à l'unique Rédempteur, sans suggérer pour autant que ce nombre aura une limite et n'englobera pas « tous » les hommes. Voir encore 26 28.

* Le terme sémitique que traduit « une multitude », Is 53 11s, oppose le grand nombre des rachetés à l'unique Rédempteur, sans impliquer que ce nombre soit limité, Rm 5 6-21. Cf. 26 28+.
on words of consecration of Eucharist
“The Accounts of the Institution and What They Imply” in The Eucharist in the New Testament [translated by E. M. Stewart]: A Symposium, Helicon Press, Baltimore and Dublin, 1964, page 80.
(quoted in LIKOUDIS, James, WHITEHEAD, Kenneth D. The Pope, the Council, and the Mass. Hanover : Christopher Publishing House, 1981. 281 pages. page 101; Emmaus Road Publishing, 2006, p. 109)
The word which we translate as ‘many’ stresses the sense of a great number and does not exclude anyone [...] Jesus certainly makes this fullness of salvation his own and it is the whole of mankind of the end of space and time that he includes in this ‘many’ for whom he was going to give his life as a ‘ransom’ (Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45).
 
 
Edward J. KILMARTIN (1923-1994), S.J., liturgist.
“The Sacrificial Meal of the New Covenant,” in Paulist Press Doctrinal Pamphlet series (1965, page 4)
(quoted in LIKOUDIS, James, WHITEHEAD, Kenneth D. The Pope, the Council, and the Mass. Hanover : Christopher Publishing House, 1981. 281 pages. page 101; Emmaus Road Publishing, 2006, p. 109)
the Semitic phrase ‘for many’ stands for a totality and not for a multitude in contrast to the whole. Hence it indicates the universality of Christ’s redemptive work.
 
 


todo ICEL. Another English translation of phrase "PRO MULTIS" was "for all men". This we can find from 19th century in English translation of Lapide's commentary of words of consecration, where he said: "PRO MULTIS, i.e. FOR ALL MEN [pro omnibus hominibus]".

As translation of "PRO MULTIS" it was used e.g. in Our Parish prays and sings, which has been printing since 1959.



>>SHOW<<

It later become to be: "Approved text for the ordinary parts of the Mass pertaining to the people, approved by the bishops of the United States on April 2, 1964; by the Holy See on May 1, 1964."


Translation "for all men" was official translation up to 1973, when it was changed to "for all" (as has Biskupek, in 1928), because "all men" could seem, that it was not for women.



 
 
Gaspar Lefebvre (1880-1966), OSB. He edited bilingual missals: Latin-English, Latin-French, Latin-Dutch, Latin-Italian, etc.
Some editions says "for all," e.g. Latin-Portuguese edition in 1960.
Ordinário extraído do Missal Quotidiano e Vesperal, por Dom Gaspar Lefebvre, 1960
(avialable in web of Brasilian Lefebvrists: http://www.santotomas.com.br/?p=240 jul 19th, 2009)
« ESTE É O CÁLIX DO MEU SANGUE,DO SANGUE DA NOVA E ETERNA ALIANÇA:(MISTÉRIO DA FÉ!) O QUAL SERÁ DERRAMADO POR AMOR DE VÓS E DE TODOS OS HOMENS PARA A REMISSÃO DOS PECADOS. TODAS AS VEZES QUE ISTO FIZERDES, FAZEI-O EM MEMÓRIA DE MIM »« HIC EST ENIM CALIX SANGUINIS MEI, NOVI ET ÆTERNI TESTAMENTI: (MYSTERIUM FIDEI) QUI PRO VOBIS ET PRO MULTIS EFFUNDETUR IN REMISSIONEM PECCATORUM. HÆC QUOTIESCUMQUE FECÉRIT, IN MEI MEMÓRIAM FACIÉTIS. »
 
 
TUYA SOLAR, Manuel de (20th century), O.P.
Biblia Comentada por los Profesores de Salamanca. Tomus 5 (Evangelios). Nácar-Colunga. 1964 (firstly edited in 1960).
on Mark 14:24 ["shed for many"]

The benefit of this blood is for "many." It is semitism for "all," as is seen in diverse contexts of New Testament and in the rabbinical literature. There is besides a literary allusion to the "Servant of Yahve," that suffers for "many", multitude (Is 53:12).

El provecho de esta sangre es por “muchos.” Es semitismo por “todos,” como se ve en diversos contextos neotestamentarios y en la literatura rabínica. Hay además una alusión literaria al “Siervo de Yahvé,” que sufre por “muchos”5, multitudes (Is 53:12).

___________________

5 Schürmann, Die Semitismen im Einsetzungsbericht bei Markus (14:22ss) und bei Lukas (22:19ss): Zeit. Kath. Theol. (1951) 72-77.

___________________

5 Schürmann, Die Semitismen im Einsetzungsbericht bei Markus (14:22ss) und bei Lukas (22:19ss): Zeit. Kath. Theol. (1951) 72-77.

on Matthew 26:28 ["shed for many"]

Those, that are going to receive this benefit, in Mt-Mc are "many." But this expression is not restrictive to some, but equivalent in diverse Biblical passages to the totality or universality (Mt 20, 28, par.). Thus, in the poem of the "Servant of Yahve," of Isaiah, that probably influences in this editing, the suffering of Messiah obtains the merit for "multitude" (rabbím), that is the whole work of redemption (Is 53:12). Also in the post-biblical Hebrew, rabbím does not signify "many", but the multitude in general, people, that is to say "all the human beings without distinction".

Los que van a recibir este provecho en Mt-Mc son “muchos”. Pero esta expresión no es restrictiva a algunos, sino equivalente en varios pasajes bíblicos a la totalidad o universalidad (Mt 20,28; par.). Así, en el poema del "Siervo de Yahvé", de Isaías, que probablemente influye en esta redacción, el Mesías sufriente obtiene el merito para multitudes (rabbím), que son toda la obra redentiva (Is 53,12). Y en el hebreo postbíblico, rabbím no significa muchos, sino la multitud en general, el pueblo, es decir, todos los hombres sin distinción31.

___________________

31 D. G. Maeso, Ilustraciones eucarísticas (1957) p.206 nt.3; Schürmann, en Zeit. Kath. Theol. (1951) 72-77.

___________________

31 D. G. Maeso, Ilustraciones eucarísticas (1957) p.206 nt.3; Schürmann, en Zeit. Kath. Theol. (1951) 72-77.

on mentioned Matthew 20:28 ["redemption for many"]

For many. This benefit for the death of Christ is going to take advantage for (ἀντὶ) “many” (πολλῶν). The literary phrase may mislead, as if Christ's redemption was not for all men, but only for some, although these were "many."

Por muchos. Este beneficio de la muerte de Cristo va a aprovechar (ἀντὶ) a “muchos” (πολλῶν). La frase literaria podría desorientar, como si la redención de Cristo no fuese por todos los hombres, sino sólo por algunos, aunque éstos fuesen “muchos.”

First, this "many" is clearly equivalent to "all men" in St. Paul. In the same passage, to talk about the redemption of all men, the term "many" is exchange with "all" (Rom 5:15.18.19).

En primer lugar, esta forma “muchos” es evidentemente equivalente a “todos” los hombres en San Pablo. En un mismo pasaje permuta, para hablar de la redención de todos los hombres, el término “muchos” con “todos” (Rom 5:15.18.19).

Added to this is that this is a Semitism. This corresponds to the Hebrew word rabbim. And rabbim post-biblical Hebrew does not mean many pure and simple, but the multitude in general, the people, i.e. all human beings without distinction16. But, above all, the influence of the passage in Isaiah (53:11-12) of "Servant of Yahweh," which says borne the sins "of many," which is the redemptive work.

A esto se añade que se trata de un semitismo. Esta palabra corresponde al hebreo rabbím. Y rabbím en hebreo postbíblico no significa muchos pura y simplemente, sino la multitud en general, el pueblo, es decir, todos los seres humanos sin distinción16. Pero es, sobre todo, el influjo del pasaje de Isaías (53:11-12) del “Siervo de Yahvé,” en el que se dice que El expiará el pecado “por muchos,” que es la obra redentiva.

___________________

16 D. Gonzalo Maeso, Ilustraciones eucarísticas (1957) p.206 nota 3; Barrett, The Background of Mark 10:45: New Testament Essays (Studies in Memory of T. W. Manson, 1959) 1-18; J. A. Emerton, The Aramaic Background of Mark 10:45: The Journal of Theolog. Studies (1960) p.334ss.

___________________

16 D. Gonzalo Maeso, Ilustraciones eucarísticas (1957) p.206 nota 3; Barrett, The Background of Mark 10:45: New Testament Essays (Studies in Memory of T. W. Manson, 1959) 1-18; J. A. Emerton, The Aramaic Background of Mark 10:45: The Journal of Theolog. Studies (1960) p.334ss.

Note: we can see, that in notes under line he refers also to various older works of various scholars, namely:
SCHÜRMANN, Heinz (1913-1999): Die Semitismen im Einsetzungsbericht bei Markus (14:22ss) und bei Lukas (22:19ss): Zeit. Kath. Theol. (1951) 72-77.
MASEO, David Gonzalo. Ilustraciones eucarísticas (1957) p.206 nota 3;
BARRETT, Charles Kingsley (1917-?), The Background of Mark 10:45: New Testament Essays (Studies in Memory of T. W. Manson, 1959) 1-18;
EMERTON, John A. The Aramaic Background of Mark 10:45: The Journal of Theolog. Studies (1960) p.334ss.
 
 
Édouard Massaux (1920-2008), theologian
Influence de Saint Matthieu sur la littérature chrétienne avant Saint Irénée. (Universitas Catholica Lovaniensis, vol. 42), Publications Universitaires, 1950. 730 pp.
English translation:
    The influence of the Gospel of Saint Matthew on Christian literature before Saint Irenaeus by Edouard Massaux: translated by Norman J. Belval and Suzanne Hecht; edited and with an introduction and addenda by Arthur J. Bellinzoni. (NGS 5/1, p. 17)
1. 1 Clem. 7:4
    Let us fix our gaze on the blood of Christ and realize how precious it is to His Father, seeing that it was poured out for our salvation and brought the grace of conversion to the whole world.
    Ἀτενίσωμεν εἰς τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ γνῶμεν, ὡς ἔστιν τίμιον τῷ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν σωτηρίαν ἐκχυθὲν παντὶ τῷ κόσμῳ μετανοίας χάριν ἐπήνεγκεν.
This "shed blood," αἷμα ἐκχυθέν, calls to mind the texts of the institution of the Eucharist which the synoptics record:
    Mt. 26:28. For this is my blood (αἷμα) of the [new] covenant, which is poured out (ἐκχυννόμενον) for many for the forgiveness of sins (εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν).
    Mk. 14:24. This is my blood (αἷμα) of the (new] covenant, which is poured out (ἐκχυννόμενον) for many.
    Lk. 22:20. This cup which is poured out (ἐκχυννόμενον) for you is the new covenant in my blood (ἐν τῷ αἵματί μου).
With Clement as in the synoptics, the object is the "blood of Christ," τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ: Clement; αἷμά μου: synoptics. The object is the blood of Christ "poured out," ἐκχυθέν (Clement) or "which will be poured out," ἐκχυννόμενον (synoptics).
According to Clement, the purpose of the pouring out of the blood of Christ is our salvation (διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν σωτηρίαν). With Mt., as in a reading of Mk., it is the remission of sins (εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν); while Mk., in the usual interpretation of the reading, and Lk. are more indefinite: ὑπὲρ πολλῶν or ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν: on behalf of many or on your behalf.
With Clement, the beneficiary of this shed blood is the whole world (παντὶ τῷ κόσμῳ) to which he has brought the gift of repentence (μετανοίας χάριν ἐπήνεγκεν); with Mt., this blood has been poured out on behalf of many (περὶ πολλῶν) as it is with Lk. (ὑπὲρ πολλῶν); this word πολλοί signifies the totality.35 For Clement, as for the synoptics, all mankind is the beneficiary of the shedding of the blood of Christ.

35 Cf. on this subject P. Jouon, L'Évangile de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ, translation and commentary from the original text, taking into account the Semitic substration. Verbum Salutis 5 (Paris, 1930) 125 and 163; A. Durand. Évangile selon saint Matthieu, VS 1 (Paris, 1923) 481, where one reads: "Many" is not opposed to "all" and therefore does not exclude "totality"; but here as in Saint Paul (Rom. 5:19), this Greek term πολλοί highlights the value of the redeeming blood and invites one to measure the extent of its happy effects.
As we can see, this book from 1950 only referred to previous authors, namely eminent jesuits fathers and hebraists, whose commentaries were published in collection "Verbum salutis":
  • Alfred Durand (c.1857-1928), S.J., Evangile selon Saint Matthieu (Verbum salutis, vol I.). Paris : Beauchesne, 1923. 558 pp.
  • Paul Joüon (1871-1940), S.J. (member of Pontifical Biblical Institute): L'Évangile de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ, traduction et commentaire du texte grec tenant compte du substrat sémitique (Verbum salutis, vol V.), Éditeur G. Beauchesne, 1930, Paris.
Both are quoted above.
 
 
ZERWICK, Max (1901-1975), S.J.
Analysis Philologica Novi Testamenti Graeci, Romae : Sumptibus pontificii instituti biblici, 1953
on Matthew 20:28 ["a ransom for many"] (p. 51-52)
polloi many; from semitic mind can signify "all, who are many." In number of totality, semit rather expresses multitude, where we express totality, because in "many" we hear "not all"; cf. Is. 53:11-12 three times rabbim many = all, who are many.πολλοί multi; ex mente semitica pt significare "omnes, qui sunt multi". In numerosa totalitate, semita potius multitudinem exprimit ubi nos totalitatem exprimeremus, quia in "multi" subaudimus "non omnes"; cf Is. 53, 11-12 ter rabbim multi = omnes qui sunt multi.
on Matthew 26:28 ["this is my blood ... shed for many"] (p. 68)
polloi semitic, can signify multitude simultaneously with totality = all, who are many, cf. 20:28.πολλοί sem. potest significare multitudinem simul cum totalitate = omnes qui multi sunt cf 20, 28
on Mark 1:34 ["he healed many"] (p. 80)
polloi many (doesn't exclude totality: all who were many, cf. Mt 20, 28).πολλοί multi (non excludit totalitatem: omnes qui multi erant cf Mt 20,28)
on Mark 10:45 ["a ransom for many"] (p. 108)
polloi "many" semitic, not in opposition to "all", but also for all, who are many, cf. Mt 20:28.πολλοί "multi", semitice non in oppositione ad "omnes", sed etiam de omnibus, qui multi sunt cf ad Mt 20, 28.
on Mark 14:24 ["blood shed for many"] (p. 118)
polloi semitic, not necessary opposes "all", but can signify "all, who are many".πολλοί sem. non necessario opponitur "omnibus", sed pt significare "omnes, qui multi sunt".
on Romans 5:19 (p. 344)
οἱ πολλοί here = all (cf 18); semitic, in οἱ πολλοί are not heared opposition to « all », therefore « many » can be understand "all, who are many" cf. Mt 20:28.οἱ πολλοί hîc = omnes (cf 18); semitice in οἱ πολλοί non subauditur oppos. ad « omnes », ideo « multi » intellegi possunt omnes, qui multi sunt cf Mt 20,28.
on Galatians 1:14 (p. 417)
polloi semitic, also: all who were many, cf. Mt 20:28.πολλοί semit. etiam: omnes qui multi sunt cf Mt 20, 28
on Hebrews 9:28 ["Christ ... offered to bear the sins of many"] (p. 509)
polloi semitic, is not opposed to "all", but can signify "all" in quantity are many.πολλοί semitice non opponitur "omnibus", sed pt significare "omnes" in quantum multi sunt.
And almost 20 years later - namely in 1970 - he wrote response to question, why some translations says "for all":
Notitiae 1970 May, pages 138-140. (originally written in Latin. English translation is from Zenit)

In the Hebrew (Aramaic) language, to be exact, there is one word for “all” (Latin “omnes”) and another word for “many” (Latin “multi”). The word 'multi' then, strictly speaking, does not mean 'omnes.' But because the word 'multi' — in different ways in our Western languages — does not exclude the whole, it can and does in fact connote it, where the context or subject matter suggests or requires it. It is not easy to offer clear examples of this phenomenon. Here are some:

  • In 4 Ezra 8:3, we read: “Multi quidem creati sunt, pauci autem salvabuntur.” (“Many indeed have been created, but few shall be saved.”) It is clear that “all” have been created. But here the interest is not in the whole but in the opposite of “few.” Hence, “many” is used, when that word really means “all.”
  • In Qumram text Hodayot IV, 28, 29, both words (“many” and “all”) are found in synonymous parallel, two parallel verses in which the same thing is said twice: “You have worked wonders among the many on account of your glory that you might make known to all your great works.”
  • Moreover, in Qumram “many” (with or without the article) came to be a technical term, almost a name, for the community of all the full-fledged members. So, just in the “rule” of the sect, the word occurs in about thirty instances.
  • We come, now to the texts of the New Testament with which we are especially concerned: Romans 5:12, 15. Here, the comparative argumentation from the minor premise to the major is set up, between the universality of Adam’s sin and the universality of the grace of Christ:

    “Therefore, just as through one person sin entered the world and through sin, death, and thus death thus came to all in-as-much as all sinned...(After the insertion of vss. 13 and 14, the comparison continues.) But the gift is not like the transgression. For if by that transgression the many died, much more did the grace of God and the gracious gift of the one person, Jesus Christ, overflow for the many.”

    Let us take note that “all” those of the first part of this citation becomes “the many” (with the article) in the second part. Just as sin affects all, (or rather much more), so also grace is destined for all.

  • In Mark 10:45 (Matthew 20:28), Jesus says, “the Son of Man came to give his life as a ransom for many.” Ambiguous in itself, that “for many” is in fact to be understood as “for all.” This is clear from 1 Timothy 2:6: “Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all.”

    However, even if we didn’t have that authoritative interpretation in 1 Timothy, the expression “for many” nonetheless should certainly be understood as “for all.” This is so because the coming of Jesus (“He came in order to give . . . “) is explicitly carried out for the purpose which can abundantly be shown to have as its object the whole world, that is, the human race as a whole.

  • John 1:29: “Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin (singular!) of the world!”
  • John 3:16,17: “For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him . . . might have eternal life. Indeed, God sent his Son into the world in order that the world might be saved through him.”
  • 1 John 2:2: “He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins and not for ours only but also for (the sins) of the whole world.”
  • 1 John 4:14: “We have seen and testify because the Father has sent his Son as the Savior o.f the world.”
  • 1 Timothy 4:10: “. . .We have our hope set on the living God, who is the Savior of all men, especially of the faithful.” The following texts, ihowet, have the Eucharist in mind:
  • John 6:33: “The bread of God is that which comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.”
  • John 6:51: “The bread that I will give for the life of. the world is my flesh.”
Given all this data, one can rightly ask, not so much what the words pro multis in the consecration mean, but rather-given all this evidence-why pro omnibus is not explicitly said. Here is the answer to that question:
  1. In the primitive Palestinian Church, considering both their soteriology and their Semitic mind-set, there was no misunderstanding what-so-ever that had to be avoided by using pro omnibus. People could readily keep the traditional pro multis because those Christians understood the beauty of that original wording; they cherished the beauty of that phrase, “for the many.”
  2. Pro multis seems to have been used by Jesus himself. This is so because calling to mind the Suffering Servant who sacrifices himself, as in Isaiah, it is suggested that Jesus himself would fulfill what was foretold about that Servant of the Lord.

    The principal text in question here is Isaiah 53:11b-12:

    Through his suffering, my servant shall justify many, and their guilt he shall bear. Therefore, I will give him his portion among the great; and he shall divide the spoil with the mighty, because he surrendered himself to death...And he shall take away the sins of many, and win pardon for their offenses.

    Therefore the formula pro multis instead of pro omnibus in our texts (Mark 10:45=Matthew 20:28; Mark 14:24 Matthew 26:28) seems to be due to the intended allusion to the Suffering Servant whose work Jesus carried out by his death.

Now, this brings us to another question. As a result of these facts, why in our liturgical translations is the venerable "for many" replaced by "for all"? Here is my answer:

This is appropriate because of an inconvenient fact, accidental but true. The phrase “for many” (it is said) in our minds today is understood without reflection to exclude the universality of Christ’s redemptive work. The Semitic mind of the Bible could see that universality connoted in the phrase “for many.” In fact that connotation was certainly there, because of the theological context. However eloquent it was for ancient peoples, today that allusion to the Suffering Servant of Isaiah is clear only to experts.

One could also object to the phrase "for all" by saying that for some people the phrase might suggest that all actually will be saved. But that misunderstanding hardly exists amoung Catholics, it seems.

 
 
Few examples of varios translations, which were used during followed more then cca. 30 years:
  • NL: Want dit is de beker van het nieuwe altijddurende Verbond, dit is mijn Bloed dat voor u en alle mensen wordt vergoten tot vergeving van de zonden.
  • HR: Ovo je kalež moje Krvi, novoga i vječnoga saveza, koja će se proliti za vas i za sve ljude na odpuštenje grijeha.
  • ES: Porque éste es el cáliz de mi Sangre, Sangre de la alianza nueva y eterna, que será derramada por vosotros y por todos los hombres para el perdón de los pecados.
  • SI: To je kelih moje krvi, Nove in večne zaveze, ki se za vas in za vse preliva v odpuščanje grehov.
  • EN: This is the cup of my blood, the blood of the new and everlasting covenant. It will be shed for you and for all so that sins may be forgiven.
  • GE: Das ist der Kelch des neuen und ewigen Bundes, mein Blut, das für euch und für alle vergossen wird zur Vergebung der Sünden.
  • SK: Toto je kalich mojej Krvi, ktorá sa vylieva za vás i za všetkých na odpustenie hriechov. Je to krv novej a večnej zmluvy.
  • CZ: Toto je kalich mé Krve, která se prolevá za vás a za všechny na odpuštění hříchů. Toto je smlouva nová a věčná.
  • HU: Mert ez az én vérem kelyhe, az új és örök szövetségé. Ez a vér értetek és mindenkiért kiontatik a bűnök bocsánatára.
  • IT: Questo è il calice del mio Sangue per la nuova ed eterna alleanza, versato per voi e per tutti in remissione dei peccati.
  • PT: Este é o cálice do meu sangue, o sangue da nova e eterna aliança, que será derramado por vós e por todos para a remissão dos pecados.
  • FR: Car ceci est la coupe de mon sang, le sang de l'alliance nouvelle et éternelle, qui sera versé pour vous et pour la multitude en rémission des péchés.
  • FI: Tämä on minun vereni malja, uuden ja ikuisen liiton veri, joka teidän ja monien edestä vuodatetaan syntien anteeksi antamiseksi.
  • SE: Detta är mitt blods kalk, det nya och eviga förbundets blod, som blir utgjutet för er och för de många till syndernas förlåtelse.
  • PL: To jest bowiem kielich Krwi Mojej nowego i wiecznego przymierza która za was i za wielu będzie wylana na odpuszczenie grzechów.
  • BG: това е чашата на Моята кръв, на новия и вечен завет, която за вас и за мнозина ще се пролее за опрощение на греховете.
  • RU: Ибо это есть чаша крови моей, нового и вечного завета, которая за вас и за многих прольется во отпущение грехов.
  • LA: Hic est enim calix Sanguinis mei novi et aeterni testamenti, qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.

BG=Bulgarian, CZ=Czech, ES=Spanish, EN=English, FI=Finnish, FR=French, GE=German, HR=Croatian, HU=Hungarian, IT=Italian, LA=Latin, NL=Dutch, PL=Polish, PT=Portuguese, RU=Russian, SE=Swedish, SI=Slovenian, SK=Slovak

Now, while LA, FI, SE, PL, BG and RU say "for many", FR used "for the multitude" (similarly it was used in first German translation in that time, namely "für die vielen" [for the many]), which very easily evokes "all", and translation "for all" was using in CZ, EN, GE, HU, IT PT, SI and SK, while ES, HR and NL say "for all men" (wich was also officially in EN since time when English language was allowed - i.e. 1966 - and before revision in 1973, when word "man" was put away, since it can be consufed with "(only) male." Similarly it was also in early translations in PT, but since 1982 it is omitted too: Recentemente, em 1982, a Congregação Romana para os Sacramentos eo Culto Divino atendeu ao pedido dos Bispos de Nova Zelândia de suprimir a palavra "homens" na oração eucarística que diz: "O sangue que será derramado por vós e por todos os homens." [Maria Luiza Marcílio: A Mulher pobre na história da Igreja latino-americana. 1984. p. 30]).

Although standard translation of greek "anti/hyper/peri pollón" without article is of course only "for many," which was used in LA, FI, SE, PL, BG, RU etc. (similarly it would be "für viele" in German, "per molti" in Italian, "por muchos" in Spanish, "por muitos" in Portuguese, "sokakért" in Hungary, "za mnohé" in Czech, "za mnoge" in Croatian and Slovenian, "za mnohých" in Slovak, "pour plusieurs / grand nombre / beaucoup" in French, etc.).

 
 
Joachim Jeremias (1900–1979), philologist.
>>SHOW<<
 
 

Commentary of Benedict XIV [Lambertini] (†1758)

O'BRIEN, John (1841-1879), liturgist, theologian.
A History of the Mass, New York (ed. 1881, p. 331).
"Which for you and for many shall be shed."

According to the best authorities, and Pope Benedict XIV. among others (Enchirid., p. 72), the word "many" is here to be taken as meaning all, a mode of expression by no means uncommon in the Holy Scripture. St. Thomas Aquinas also interprets it in this way. If taken in any other sense it would hardly be possible to keep free of the Calvinistic error that our Lord died only for a certain class of persons.
About pope's tractate let's see firstly four famous summarizations of it published during his life - and finally his tractate itself.
 
 
BASSANUS, Andreas [Andreae/Andrea Bassani di Pordenone] (c. 1700 - c. 1770), theologian.
Enchiridium ex opere Benedicti XIV, Padua 1747, p. 84
What does the word “MULTI” signify in the consecration?Vox multi in consecratione quid significat?
Resp. According to a way of speaking of Scripture it signifies all, by the interpretation of the same Angelic doctor.R. Juxta modum loquendi S. Scripturarum significat omnes, eodem Angelico Doctore interprete.

Is the Christ’s blood shed also for damned?

Sanguis Christi etiamne pro improbis fusus est?
Resp. Also for them as for a sufficiency, and only for chosen as for an efficiency, as it is taught by the same doctor in 4 sent., dist. 8, q. 2. a. 2. q. 3. ad 7.R. Utique quoad sufficientiam, at pro solic electis quoad efficaciam, ut docet idem Doctor in 4. Sent. dist. 8. q. 2. a. 2. q. 3. ad 7.
 
 
DENISE, Claude (1701-1761), theologian.
Thesaurus sacerdotum et clericorum, part 4 [composed according tractate "About sacred sacrifice of the mass" of pope Benedict XIV.]
(ed. Aureliae: Couret de Villeneuv, 1754, p. 257; Parisiis: Apud Méquignon Juniorem, 1828, p. 223.)
That word "PRO MULTIS" signifies the same as also "for all", according to the manner of speaking of Sacred Scripture, which is indeed clear from v. 18 and 19, cap. 5 Epist. to Rom, compared between themselves.vox illa pro multis idem significat аc pro omnibus, juxta modum loquendi scripturae sacrae, qui quidem patet ex vers. 18. et 19. cap. 5. Epist. ad Rom. inter se collatis.
 
 
AZEVEDO, Emmanuel Lusitanus de (1713-1796), "one of the most distinguished Scholars and Theologians in Society of Jesus" (The Biography of the Society of Jesus). He had much the favour of pope Benedict XIV, and he committed the complete edition of pope's works (1747-51). He wrote also summarization of pope's tractate about the Sacrifice of the Mass. It has been printed since 1747 with pope's work.
Benedicti XIV pont. opt. max. SYNOPSIS De Sacrosancto Missae Sacrificio (ed. Venetiis, 1765, p. 55)
Word "MULTI" according to the manner of speaking of Sacred Scriptures signifies "all" : so as blood of Christ is shed for all; for all indeed according a sufficiency, and only for elect according effect.vocem vero multi juxta modum loquendi sacrarum Scripturarum significare omnes : ita ut sanguis Christi pro omnibus effusus sit; pro omnibus quidem quoad sufficientiam, et pro solis electis quoad efficaciam.
Moreover, since that time editions of this Benedict's work contain also appendix with short summarization of Benedict's teaching alphabetically ordered according topics, where about "consecration of chalice" it is said:
Benedicti XIV. De Ss Missae Sacrificio. Editio secunda latina post plurimas italas auctior et castigatior ad usum academiae liturgicae conimbricensis accedunt appendices ex operibus SS. Domini Nostri petitae, una cum indice multiplici ad majorem auditorum profectum, qui Novae Sacrorum Rituum Scholae in Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu intererunt.
Index alphabeticum Rerum notabilium/memorabilium [printed on the end of Rome's (and many others) editions of pope's tractate] (Rome, 1748, p. 528 and p. 553).
Consecratio Panis, et Vini.
It is said PRO MULTIS, that is for all.Dicitur pro multis, id est pro omnibus.
Multi.
Multi in sacris Scripturis saepe idem est ac omnes; Et hoc modo in consecratione Calicis vox pro multis accipitur. l. 2. c. 15. n. 11.
 
 
BENEDICT XIV. [cardinal LAMBERTINI, Prospero Lorenzo] (1675-1740-1758), pope, theologian.
Annotazioni sopra il Santo Sagrifizio della Messa (Annotazioni. Bologna: 1740, vol. ii, p. 331; Roveredo: 1740, vol. II, p. 185-186).
Latin transl. by Michel-Angelo Giacomelli (1695–1774) in Commentarii (Padua: 1745, p. 97; Padua, 1753, p. 97).
And without depart from Angelic Master [latin: "And following the same Angelic Doctor"], in explaining those words "for many", we say, that that word "many" according to the manner of speaking of the Holy Scriptures signifies all.Ac eundem Angelicum Doctorem sequuiti ita explicamus verba illa pro multis, ut vox multi juxta modum loquendi sacrarum Scripturarum significet omnes.E senza dipartirci dall' Angelico Maestro per ispiegare le parole pro multis diremo, che la parola multi secondo la frase delle Divine Scritture significa omnes.
    "For as through the disobedience of the one man many were constituted sinners; and so through the obedience of one man many were constituted just"
Sicut enim per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi; ita et per unius obeditionem justi constituantur multi
are the words of St Paul to the Romans 5. where without doubt the word "many" signifies all, as is most clearly received from previous words of Apostle:sunt verba D. Pauli ad Roman.5. ubi sine dubitatione vox multi omnes significant, ut luculentissime apparet ex superioribus verbis:sono parole di S. Paolo ad Romanos 5. nelle quali senza dubbio il multi significa omnes, come dalle antecedenti parole dell' Apostolo evidentemente si ricava :
    "Therefore, as by the offence of one, unto all men to condemnation: so also by the justice of one, unto all men to justification of life."
Igitur sicut per unius delictum in omnes homines in condemnationem, sic per unius justitium in omnes homines in justificationem vitae.
Therefore we say that the Blood of Christ has been shed for all:Itaque dicimus Sanguinem Christi fusum esse pro omnibus;Diremo, essere stato sparso il Sangue di Cristo per tutti:
    And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for those of the whole world.
Ipse est propitiatio pro peccatis nostris; non pro nostris autem tantum, sed etiam pro totius mundi;
are the words of St. John: shed however for all according to sufficiency, and for the elect only according to efficacy, as Thomas well explains in 4 Sentences: dist. 8. quaest. 2. art. 2. quaest. 3. ad septimum that it has efficacy not only in the Jewish elect, to whom the Blood of the old Testament was exhibited, but also in the Gentiles, not only in the Priests who confect this Sacrament and also in those who receive it, but also in those for whom the Sacrifice is offered. Here are the words of the Holy Doctor in the Summa part III, Question 78, art.3 to the 8th objection.:
    The blood of Christ's Passion has its efficacy not merely in the elect among the Jews, to whom the blood of the Old Testament was exhibited, but also in the Gentiles; nor only in priests who consecrate this sacrament, and in those others who partake of it; but likewise in those for whom it is offered. And therefore He says expressly, "for you," the Jews, "and for many," namely the Gentiles; or, "for you" who eat of it, and "for many," for whom it is offered.
sunt verba D. Joannis: fusum autem pro omnibus quoad sufficientiam, et pro solis electis quoad efficaciam, ut bene explicat D.Thomas in 4 sentent. dist. 8. quaest. 2. art. 2. quaest. 3. ad septimum: habere porro efficaciam non solum (ait idem D. Thomas 3. par. Quaest. 78. art.3. ad octavum) in Judacis electis, quibus exhibitus est Sanguis veteris Testamenti, sed etiam in Gentilibus, nec solum in Sacerdotibus, qui hoc conficiunt Sacramentum, vel aliis, qui sumunt, sed etiam in illis, pro quibus offeretur. Et ideo signanter dicit: pro vobis Judaeis, et pro multis, scilicet Gentilibus; vel pro vobis manducantibus, et pro multis, pro quibus offeretur.sono parole di S. Giovanni; essere stato sparso per tutti quoad sufficientiam, e solamente per gli eletti quoad efficaciam, come bene spiega San Tommaso nel 4. delle Sentenze alla dist. 8. quest. 2. art. 2. quest. 3. Ad septimum; ed avere la sua efficacia non solo nei Giudei eletti, ai quali fu esibito il Sangue dell' antico Testamento, ma ancora nei Gentili, e non solo nei Sacerdoti, che fanno questo Sagramento, o in quelli, che lo prendono, ma ancora negli altri, pe'quali si offre il Sacrifizio. Ecco le parole del Santo Dottore nella 3. part. alla quest. 78. art. 3. Ad octavum.
    Sanguis Passionis Christi non solum habet efficaciam in Judaeis electis, quibus exhibitus est Sanguis veteris Testamenti, sed etiam in Gentilibus, nec solum in Sacerdotibus, qui hoc conficiunt Sacramentum, vel aliis qui sumunt, sed etiam in illis, pro quibus offertur. Et ideo signanter dicit: pro vobis Judaeis, et pro multis, scilicet Gentilibus; vel pro vobis manducantibus, et pro multis, pro quibus offertur.

Moreover, let's see our passage of institution of Eucharist (Matthew 26:26-29)
And whilst they were at supper, Jesus took bread and blessed and broke and gave to his disciples and said:Cœnantibus autem eis, accepit Jesus panem, et benedixit, ac fregit, deditque discipulis suis, et ait :Ἐσθιόντων δὲ αὐτῶν λαβὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἄρτον καὶ εὐλογήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ δοὺς τοῖς μαθηταῖς εἶπεν:
    Take and eat. This is my body.
    Accipite, et comedite : hoc est corpus meum.
    λάβετε φάγετε: τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου.
And taking the chalice, he gave thanks and gave to them, saying:Et accipiens calicem, gratias egit : et dedit illis, dicens : καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον [καὶ] εὐχαριστήσας ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς λέγων:
    Drink all of this. For this is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins. And I say to you, I will not drink from henceforth of this fruit of the vine until that day when I shall drink it with you new in the kingdom of my Father.
    Bibite ex hoc omnes. Hic est enim sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum. Dico autem vobis : non bibam amodo de hoc genimine vitis usque in diem illum, cum illud bibam vobiscum novum in regno Patris mei.
    πίετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες: 28 τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης τὸ περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχυννόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν. 29 λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν, οὐ μὴ πίω ἀπ' ἄρτι ἐκ τούτου τοῦ γενήματος τῆς ἀμπέλου ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείνης ὅταν αὐτὸ πίνω μεθ' ὑμῶν καινὸν ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ πατρός μου.
Now the same Lambertini (Benedict XIV) in his Annotazioni, vol. 1 (Roveredo: 1740) on pages 75-77. On these 3 pages, he 3 times referred to Lapide's commentary of this passage. Latin translation by Michel-Angelo Giacomelli (1695–1774).
[transl., vol. 1]
[vol. 1]

... as it is optimally showed by Father Cornelius a Lapide in cap. 26 Matt. vers 26
[p. 66]
... quod optime probat a Lapide in cap. 26. Matth. vers. 26
[p. 76]
come bene va comprovando il Padre Cornelio a Lapide sopra il cap. 26. di San Matteo al vers. 26

... and Cornelius a Lapide in Matt. cap. 26, vers. 29
[p. 67]
... et a Lapide in Matth. cap. 26. vers. 29.
[p. 77]
... e Cornelio a Lapide sopra il cap. 26 di San Matteo al vers. 29
... Take and eat. This is my body. And taking the chalice, he gave thanks and gave to them, saying: Drink all of this. For this is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins. ...... Accipite, et comedite : hoc est corpus meum. Et accipiens calicem, gratias egit : et dedit illis, dicens : Bibite ex hoc omnes. Hic est enim sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum. ...

... consecration of bread and wine as it is optimally disputed by Cornelius a Lapide in cap. 26 Matt. vers. 27.
[p. 68]
... consecratio panis et vini, ut optime disputat a Lapide in Cap. 26. Matth. vers. 27.
[p. 78]
... la Consragrazione tanto del pane, quanto del vino, conforme va ben discorrendo Cornelio a Lapide sopra il cap. 26 di S. Matteo al vers. 27
So evidently Benedict XIV read Lapide's commentary of our passage (Matthew 26:26-29), but he did not prohibited this commentary - which he would be obligated if it contained heresy - but even contrary: he even popularized it by repeated references to it as the optimal commentary (but in the same passage Lapide teached also, that "for many=for all men"). Similarly in that same work he often referred to Chrysostom, Theophylact and Euthymius. And beside mentioned example of referrence to Lapide he similarly referred in his writings also to innumerable many other books of various theologians, where it is also said, that word "many" in words of consecration can be understood as all.
And finally, he himself (in vol. 2 quoted above) popularized and defended interpretation "many" as all and so it was consequently teached also by his commentators - as we quoted above.
 
 

ALL as MANY (restrictive interpretations)

ARISTOTLE (384 BC – 322 BC)
Poetics, XXV about some passages from Iliad
For 'all' is here used metaphorically for many, all being a species of many.τὸ γὰρ ‘πάντες’ ἀντὶ τοῦ πολλοί κατὰ μεταφορὰν εἴρηται, τὸ γὰρ πᾶν πολύ τι.
If fact, not only word "many" - about which we disputed in previous part of our work - but even word "all" (or "all men") is ambiguous. And similarly like word "many" sometimes signifies all, also word all sometimes signifies just many and not necessary absolutely all. We will show various examples in which word "all" sometimes means Church or those, who are elect, sometimes contrary, etc. There are many possibilities. Fact however is, that mere such phrase can be understood also restricitvely.
Moreover, it is even so frequent, that we can hardly find or say something, which can be said about absolutely everything. For almost always we can found some exceptions. E.g. God is so different from everything another, that he is exception almost always. And Christ is simultaneously God and man. So even when we talked, that Christ died for absolutely all men, we don't mean, that he died also for himself, although also he is man.
Similarly: "God created everything." or "All things were made by him" (John 1:3a)
One can say: "if everything, then also goled island."
Or better: "if everything, then he created also himself".
But evidently such sentences are not intended so, but rather just as:
    "apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being." (John 1:3b)
There are many kinds of using word "all" but understand it not absolutely.
 
 

Drink from it ALL

Even immediately before our sentence ("this is my blood...") it is said
Matthew 26:27
Drink from it ALL!Bibite ex eo omnes.πίετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες
However, this "all" is understood by theologians not univerally for all men, but only for the apostles, as we see also from parallel passage
Mark 14:23
All drank from itbiberunt ex illo omnesἔπιον ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες
So Bellarmine and others [see also e.g. Alexander Natalis (1639-1724), O.P. in Theologia dogmatico-moralis secundum ordinem catechismi Concilii Tridentini (1769, t. 3, p. 347)].
BELLARMINE, Robert (1542-1621), S.J., cardinal, theologian, the most eminent cardinal in history (CE, W)
De Verbi Dei interpret. lib. III, cap. II. (Disputationum. Lugduni : Pillehotte, 1596. col. 122b)
illa verba Matth. 26. Hoc est corpus meum videntur nobis tam clara, ut non potuerit clarius loqui Euangelista: at Zwinglianis videntur obscura et figurata. Et illa ibidem: Bibite ex hoc omnes, videntur clarissima, et nobis, et Lutheranis: tamen diversissimè explicantur. Nos enim cùm legamus Marci 14. Et biberunt ex eo omnes, quod de duodecim discipulis intelligitur, Scripturam per Scripturam interpretantes, dicimus Dominum duodecim discipulis dixisse: Bibite ex hoc omnes. Brentius vero in suis illis prolegom. dicit clarissimè, hic praecipi non solùm Apostolis, sed etiam aliis omnibus, ut ex calice Domini bibant. Et cum petimus, an etiam Turcae, et Judaei, et infantes bibere debeant? tum vero adjiciunt glossam, Omnes, id est, omnes fidèles adulti.
De Romano Pont. lib. III. cap. XXIII. num. VIII. (Disputationes. Ingolstadii : Sartori, 1588. col. 937C)
Evangelion docet, utramque partem Sacramenti coenae Domini omnibus Christianis ministrandam esse et quidem de calice expresse inquit: Bibite ex hoc omnes. Pontificii e contra decernunt, et definiunt, etc.
Adhuc non vidimus locum illum Euangelii, ubi doceamur, utramque partem Sacramenti coenae Domini omnibus Christianis ministrandam esse. Nec enim de calice Dominus ait: Bibite ex hoc omnes Christiani, sed: Bibite ex hoc omnes: qui verò essent illi omnes, Marcus explicuit, cum addidit: Et biberunt ex illo omnes. Non autem biberunt omnes Christiani, sed omnes Apostoli, soli tunc cum Domino vescebantur.
Disputationum, De Sacramento Eucharistiae, lib. IIII., cap. XXV, (ed. 1591, vol. II, col. 907-909; Lugduni : Pillehotte, 1599. tom. II, col. 657-659.)

SECUNDUS locus, qui est planè Achilles, Lutheri, Buceri, Philippi, Calvini, Kemnitii, Hamelmanni, & omnium aliorum, sunt illa verba Matth. 26. Bibite ex hoc omnes; id enim edictum esse dicit Calvinus, aeterni Dei, quo omnes coguntur ad utramque speciem Sacramenti percipiendam.

RESPONDEO; Haec verba dicuntur solis Apostolis, qui tum ad mensam cum Christo sedebant. Id probo hac ratione: Particula, omnes, non semper in Scriptura accipitur universalissimè pro omnibus hominibus, sed saepe pro omnibus certi alicuius generis. Alioqui illud Pauli: Omnes quaerunt quae sua sunt, includeret etiam sanctissimos quosque; & illud: Omnes peccaverunt, Christum quoque comprehenderet; & illud: Clamaverunt omnes, Crucifige eum; & similia, in Apostolos Domini convenirent.

Videndum igitur est, an illud: Bibite ex eo omnes, universalissimè capiatur, an pro aliquo certo genere. Et quidem universalissimè, id est, pro omnibus hominibus capi non potest: nam sequeretur debere Sacramentum dari Turcis, Iudaeis, Ethnicis; & illi enim homines sunt. Oportet igitur pro certo genere hominum illud accipere: quaero igitur quod sit illud hominum genus. Si dixerint omnes viros, excludentur feminae: si omnes fideles, includentur infantes, quos tamen etiam adversarii excludunt. DICENT, esse omnes fideles adultos. SED INPRIMIS gratis hoc dicent; nec enim id facilè probare poterunt. DEINDE includentur abstemii, quos tamen etiam ipsi plerumque excipere solent. DENIQUE repugnat Marcus apertissimè, qui sic ait cap. 14. Et biberunt ex eo omnes; ista enim verba respondent illis: Bibite ex eo omnes. Quare eodem modo accipitur, omnes, apud Matthaeum, & apud Marcum. Apud Marcum autem non intelliguntur per, omnes, omnes fideles adulti: nec enim verum esset: Biberunt ex eo omnes; ergo nec apud Matthaeum intelligi possunt omnes fideles adulti. Quod si fortè dicant apud Marcum per, omnes, intelligi omnes fideles adultos, quia in Apostolis biberunt omnes: colligemus iam non obligari fideles ad calicem Domini bibendum, quia mandatum iam impleverunt; iam enim biberunt, ut eis fuerat imperatum.

Restat igitur, ut mandatum solis Apostolis datum fuerit. Id quod potest etiam confirmari ex circumstantiis totius illius loci Evangelistae Matthaei. Omnes enim clamant, haec verba solis Apostolis dicta esse: Cenantibus, inquit, eis. Quid est, eis, nisi Apostolis? Sequitur: Accepit IESUS panem, & benedixit, ac fregit, deditque discipulis suis. Quibus discipulis dedit, nónne illis qui cum illo cenabant? Sequitur: Et ait; Accipite, & comedite, hoc est corpus meum. Certè illis dixit: Accipite, & comedite, quibus dedit comedendum; dedit autem Apostolis solis, ut iam ostendimus. Sequitur: Et accipiens calicem, gratias egit, & dedit illis. Quibus illis? iisdem, quibus dederat panem, id est, solis Apostolis. Sequitur: Dicens; Bibite ex hoc omnes. Quibus hoc dixit, nisi illis, quibus dedit calicem? nam dedit dicens. Dedit autem solis Apostolis; ergo solis Apostolis dixit. Sequitur: Et hymno dicto exierunt in montem Oliveti, tunc dicit illis; Omnes vos scandalum patiemini in me, &c. Qui dixerunt hymnu cum Christo? qui exierunt in montem Oliveti? qui erant omnes illi scandalum passuri in illa nocte? nónne soli Apostoli? Clarissimè igitur patet, verba illa ad solos Apostolos pertinere.

[OBJ.:]

Sed videamus nunc quid adferant adversarii, ut probent illa dici ad omnes fideles. Lutherus in lib.de captiu. Babyl. cap. de Eucharistia tribus argumentis probat, illud: Bibite ex hoc omnes, non ad solos Apostos dictum esse. ... Christus dixit: Hic est sanguis meus, qui pro vobis, & pro multis effundetur. Hîc clarissimè vides, sanguinem dari omnibus, pro quorum peccatis fusus est. Quis autem audeat dicere pro laicis non esse fusum? ergo omnibus datur, & omnibus dicitur: Bibite. De hoc argumento sic Lutherus triumphat: Hoc, inquit, maximè omnium urget, penitusque me concludit.

RESPONDEO; Argumentum hoc verè concludit, non pro Luthero, sed contrà ipsum. Nam si sanguis Domini dandus esset omnibus, pro quibus fusus est; dandus esset omnibus omnino hominibus, etiam Turcis, Iudaeis, Ethnicis, & quibuscunque impiis. Sanguis enim ille pro omnibus fusus est, ut Scripturae passim tradunt, Coloss. 1. 1. Cor. 15. 1. Ioan. 2. & alibi.

Note: this last response of Bellarmine is also interesting, for Luther argued, that Christ said there about his blood, that it is shed not only "for you" - i.e. apostles who were there - but also "for many" - id est others (and from that he wanted to deduce, that also others should drink from it). And of course by this "all for who it is shed" - namely as it is said here ("shed for you and for many") - Luthers means all faithful or all predestinated.
Now however, if Bellarmine's response was correct and serious, then it would means, that he just interpreted here these words "you and many" as absolutely all men. While Luther didn't understand it so - as he himself explained in another place of that same tractate, and which was also used against him by Bellarmine in another tractate - but now Bellarmine says his own interpretation, namely that Christ shed his blood for all men.
 
 

"hated by ALL" (Mt 10,22)

Matthew 24:9
Then they will deliver you to tribulation, and will kill you, and you will be hated by all nations because of My name.tunc tradent vos in tribulationem et occident vos et eritis odio omnibus gentibus propter nomen meumτότε παραδώσουσιν ὑμᾶς εἰς θλῖψιν καὶ ἀποκτενοῦσιν ὑμᾶς, καὶ ἔσεσθε μισούμενοι ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν ἐθνῶν διὰ τὸ ὄνομά μου.
Although, "all nation" also in absolute sense may be true in such sense, that during whole history, there will be some from every nation, who will hated them. Nevertheless it is still interesting for us, that Origen (c. 185–254) in commentary to this passage in fact mentioned general principle, that word "all" can be sometimes taken for "many." He says here:
to Matthew 24:9 [in Matth., tract. 28 in fine] (PG 13, 1653 D), ancient latin translation (quoted also by Thomas Aquinas in Catena), cf. also simlar commentary by Paschasius in PL 120:803 D.
However, one would discuss, that what it is said "all nations," he shall find not certain, that all nations - even in the most distant part of the earth - will hate Christ's people, unless also here some one would say, that because of exaggeration "all" is put for "many."Si autem discutere quis velit, quod ait omnibus gentibus, non satis inveniet certum, quoniam omnibus etiam in ultimis partibus terrae commorantibus gentibus odio habetur populus Christi; nisi forte et hic aliquis dicat, propter exaggerationem positum omnibus pro multis.
More certainly we can deduce such interpretation in another place of this same Gospel:
Matthew 10,22a (=Mark 13:13=Luke 21:17; very similar is also Matthew 24:9)
And you shall be hated by all because of my nameet eritis odio omnibus propter nomen meumκαὶ ἔσεσθε μισούμενοι ὑπὸ πάντων διὰ τὸ ὄνομά μου
It is word-by-word identical sentence except the word "nations." So it is said here not "all nations," but mere "all" and so here we cannot used previous speculation, but we should legitimately noted, that surely they was not hated by "all" in abolute sense as everyone. And so this passage was more famous in Greek school for demonstration of this principle.
 
 
EUSTAThIOS of Thessalonica
Opera Minora, ΛΟΓΟΣ Β (CFHB 32, 35-36) shortly before his passage about words of consecration, which we've quoted above
(Sometimes) the same is equivalently called "all" and "many." More detaily: we used different words, but understand one in other. Often even word "all" is taken for "many," as also Savior said, that disciples will be hated by all because of his name (Mt 10:22). For evidently apostles was not hated by all - as it would indicate in distributive (understanding) - but (only) by many. καὶ ἔστι ποτὲ ἰσοδύναμον παντί τε εἰπεῖν καὶ πολλῷ· καὶ ἵνα διεξοδικώτερον τῷ λόγῳ καὶ κομψότερον ἐμφιλοχωρήσωμεν, ἐπαλλάττουσι τὰ ῥήματα ταῦτα καὶ ἀντιμεταχωροῦσιν εἰς ἄλληλα καὶ ἐν πολλοῖς τὸ πᾶν μὲν εἴληπται ἀντὶ πολλοῦ, ὡς καὶ ὅτε τοὺς μαθητὰς ὁ σωτὴρ εἴποι ἔσεσθαι μισουμένους ὑπὸ πάντων διὰ τὸ αὐτοῦ ὄνομα· οὐ γὰρ δήπουθεν ὑπὸ πάντων ἐμεμίσηντο οἱ ἀπόστολοι ὡς ἐν περιλήψει κοινῇ, ἀλλ᾽ ὑπό γε πολλῶν τινων.
 
 
Apollinaris of Laodicea (c.310-c.390)
to Mat. 10:22a (Codex Parisinus Graecus 194, fol. 52a/r; TU 61, 16).
"Hated" however "they will be" - he says - by many, which is (meaning of) "by all." For many also received them in their houses and loved them.μισούμενοι δὲ ἔσεσθε, φησίν, ὑπὸ πολλῶν· τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν τὸ ὑπὸ πάντων· καὶ γὰρ πολλοὶ ὑπῆρχον οἱ παραδεχόμενοι αὐτοὺς ἐν ταῖς οἰκίαις αὐτῶν καὶ φιλοῦντες.
Latin (paraphrased) translation of this greek text made by: Pierre Poussines (1609–1686) S.J. in Symbolae In Matthaeum (Tolosae : Boude, 1646, p. 143)
Praedicit quoque odio ipsos habendos a multis. Multos enim tantum significare voluit cum omnes dixit. Nam certe, si praefracte accipiatur, verum non sit ab omnibus hominibus odio habitos Evangelii praecones: cum plane constet exceptos eos a permultis in domos et omni amore atque officio cultos.
 
 
CYRIL of Alexandria (c.376-444)
to Mat. 10:22a (TU 61, 192)
However they will not be hated by all, but by many, especially in that time, but by exaggeration he says "all," while those, who received the Word, loved them.οὐ παρὰ πάντων δὲ ἔμελλον μισεῖσθαι, ἀλλὰ παρὰ πολλῶν μάλιστα κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνο καιροῦ, διὸ ἀπὸ τοῦ πλείονος εἶπεν τὸ παρὰ πάντων, ἐπεὶ οἱ δεξάμενοι τὸν λόγον ἠγάπων αὐτούς.
 
 
PETROS of Laodicea
to Mat. 10:22a (Codex Bodmer 25, fol. 18b; etc.; Heinrici, p. 110-111)
"You will be hated by all" for "by many" he says, for many also had received word of faith. Those also loved them.τὸ δὲ ἔσεσθε μισούμενοι ὑπὸ πάντων ἀντὶ τοῦ ὑπὸ πολλῶν φησι· πολλοὶ γὰρ οἱ παραδεξάμενοι τὸν λόγον τῆς πίστεως, οἳ καὶ ἠγάπων αὐτούς.
 
 
ThEOPHYLACTOS
to Mat. 10:22a (PG 123, 240 D) [Latin transl. by: Ioannes Œcolampadius (1482–1531) in 1524]
"By all," that is "by many," for not all hated them, for there were also some, who had received faith.Ab omnibus, hoc est, a multis. Non enim omnes illos odio persequebantur: nam nonnulli et fidem acceperant.Τὸ ὑπὸ πάντων, ἀντὶ τοῦ, ὑπο πολλῶν. Οὐ γὰρ πάντες ἐμίσουν αὺτούς· ἦσαν γὰρ καὶ οἱ παραδεξάμενοι τὴν πίστιν.
 
 
EUThYMIOS
to Mat. 10:22a [Commentaria, cap. XIX] (PG 129, 336 C). Latin transl. by: John HENTEN (1499-1566), O.S.H. (later O.P.) in 1543
"By all" that is "by many/more." For many also loved them. However this is also idiom of Scripture, that it is said "all" also for "many/more."Ab omnibus, id est, a pluribus : nam multi ipsos dilexerunt. Est autem et hoc Scripturae idioma ut omnibus dicat pro pluribus.Ὑπὸ πάντων, ἀντὶ τοῦ, ὑπὸ τῶν πλείονων. Πολλοὶ γὰρ αὐτοὺς ἠγάπησαν. Ἰδίωμα δὲ καὶ τοῦτο γραφικὸν, πάντας λέγειν, καὶ τοὺς πλείονας.
 
 
Also modern exegetes, e.g.:
LAPIDE, Cornelius a (1567–1637), S.J., theologian, exegete.
to Matthew 10:22a (Parisiis : apud Ludovicum Vivès, 1891, t. XV, p. 269)
"All" that is many. ... So often in Scripture the "all" signifies many. For so we commonly speaking - when we see that many/more (people) do certain thing - we say that "all do it," that is: very many."OMNIBUS," id est multis ... Sic saepe τὸ omnis in Scriptura significat multos. Sic enim vulgo loquimur, ut cum plurimos cernimus qui facere, dicamus omnes id facere, id est plerosque.
TODO to Numeri 32:21
 
 

John 6:45 (cf. Isaiah 54:13)

It is written in the prophets: And they shall all be taught of God.est scriptum in prophetis et erunt omnes docibiles Deiἔστι γεγραμμένον ἐν τοῖς προφήταις· καὶ ἔσονται πάντες διδακτοὶ Θεοῦ.
Chrysostom [Χρυσόστομος] (c.349–407)
to John 6:45 (in Joann., hom. 46, n. 1; PG 59, 258) Bold text is mentioned here by Thomas Aquinas in his Catena, etc.
"They shall all be taught of God." Do you see the dignity of faith, and that not of men nor by man, but by God Himself they shall learn this? And to make this assertion credible, He referred them to their prophets. If then "all shall be taught of God," how is it that some shall not believe? Because the words are spoken of the greater number. Besides, the prophecy means not absolutely all, but all that have the will. For the teacher sits ready to impart what he has to all, and pouring forth his instruction unto all.Erunt omnes docibiles Dei. Vidistin fidei dignitatem, et quomodo non ab hominibus, nec per hominem, sed per Deum ipsum illud edocendi sint? Ideoque ut sermoni suo faceret fidem, ad prophetas ipsos remisit. Et si dictum est, inquit, ipsos fore docibiles Dei, cur aliqui non credunt? Quia illud de pluribus dictum est. Alioquin autem non omnes prorsus, sed omnes qui voluerint, per prophetam significantur. Magister enim omnibus proponitur, paratus ad sua tradenda, qui doctrinam sunrn omnibus effundit.Ἔσονται πάντες διδακτοὶ Θεοῦ. Εἶδες τῆς πίστεως τὸ ἀξίωμα; Καὶ πῶς οὐ παρὰ ἀνθρώπων οὐδὲ δι' ἀνθρώπου, ἀλλὰ δι' αὐτοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ προεῖπεν ὅτι μέλλουσι μανθάνειν; ∆ιὰ δὴ τοῦτο καὶ τὸν λόγον ποιῶν ἀξιόπιστον, ἐπὶ τοὺς προφήτας αὐτοὺς παρέπεμψεν. Καὶ εἰ εἴρηται, φησὶν, ὅτι Ἔσονται πάντες διδακτοὶ Θεοῦ, πῶς τινες οὐ πιστεύουσιν; Ὅτι τὸ εἰρημένον περὶ τῶν πλειόνων εἰρημένον ἐστίν. Ἄλλως δὲ καὶ χωρὶς τούτου, οὐχ ἁπλῶς πάντας τὸ προφητικὸν, ἀλλὰ πάντας δηλοῖ τοὺς βουλομένους. ∆ιδάσκαλος γὰρ προκάθηται πᾶσιν ἕτοιμος ὢν τὰ αὐτοῦ παρασχεῖν, εἰς πάντας ἐκχέων τὴν διδασκαλίαν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ.
Augustine
to John 6:45 [in Jo., tract. 26, cap. 7]
Scriptum est enim in Prophetis: Et erunt omnes docibiles Dei  (Io 6, 45). Quare hoc dixi, o Iudaei? Pater vos non docuit; quomodo potestis me agnoscere? Omnes regni illius homines docibiles Dei erunt, non ab hominibus audient. Et si ab hominibus audiunt, tamen quod intellegunt, intus datur, intus coruscat, intus revelatur. Quid faciunt homines forinsecus annuntiantes? quid facio ego modo cum loquor? Strepitum verborum ingero auribus vestris. Nisi ergo revelet ille qui intus est, quid dico, aut quid loquor? Exterior cultor arboris, interior est Creator. Qui plantat et qui rigat, extrinsecus operatur: hoc facimus nos. Sed neque qui plantat est aliquid, neque qui rigat; sed qui incrementum dat Deus  (1 Cor 3, 7): hoc est: Erunt omnes docibiles Dei. Qui, omnes? Omnis qui audivit a Patre et didicit, venit ad me  (Io 6, 45). Videte quomodo trahit Pater: docendo delectat, non necessitatem imponendo. Ecce quomodo trahit. Erunt omnes docibiles Dei: trahere Dei est. Omnis qui audivit a Patre et didicit, venit ad me: trahere Dei est.
De praedestinatione sanctorum, lib. I, cap. 8 / num. 13-14 (PL 44, 970-971) quoted also by Ratramnus (PL 121,37 D)
Nolite, inquit, murmurare invicem: nemo potest venire ad me, nisi Pater qui misit me, traxerit eum: et ego eum resuscitabo in novissimo die. Est scriptum in Prophetis: Et erunt omnes docibiles Dei. Omnis qui audivit a Patre et didicit, venit ad me (Io 6, 43-46). Quid est: Omnis qui audivit a Patre et didicit, venit ad me, nisi: Nullus est qui audiat a Patre et discat, et non veniat ad me? Si enim omnis qui audivit a Patre et didicit, venit, profecto omnis qui non venit, non audivit a Patre, nec didicit: nam si audisset et didicisset, veniret. Neque enim ullus audivit et didicit, et non venit: sed omnis, ut ait Veritas, qui audivit a Patre et didicit, venit. Valde remota est a sensibus carnis haec schola, in qua Pater auditur et docet, ut veniatur ad Filium. Ibi est et ipse Filius, quia ipse est Verbum eius, per quod sic docet; nec agit hoc cum carnis aure, sed cordis. Simul ibi est et Spiritus Patris et Filii; neque enim ipse non docet, aut separatim docet: inseparabilia quippe didicimus esse opera Trinitatis. Et ipse est utique Spiritus Sanctus, de quo Apostolus dicit: Habentes autem eumdem Spiritum fidei (2 Cor 4, 13). Sed ideo Patri hoc potissimum est attributum, quia de ipso est genitus Unigenitus, et de ipso procedit Spiritus Sanctus: unde longum est enucleatius disputare; et de Trinitate, quae Deus est, laborem nostrum in quindecim libris ad vos iam existimo pervenisse. Valde, inquam, remota est a sensibus carnis haec schola, in qua Deus auditur et docet. Multos venire videmus ad Filium, quia multos credere videmus in Christum: sed ubi et quomodo a Patre audierint hoc et didicerint, non videmus. Nimium gratia ista secreta est: gratiam vero esse quis ambigat? Haec itaque gratia, quae occulte humanis cordibus divina largitate tribuitur, a nullo duro corde respuitur. Ideo quippe tribuitur, ut cordis duritia primitus auferatur. Quando ergo Pater intus auditur et docet, ut veniatur ad Filium, aufert cor lapideum, et dat cor carneum, sicut propheta praedicante promisit (Cf. Ez 11, 19). Sic quippe facit filios promissionis, et vasa misericordiae quae praeparavit in gloriam (Cf. Rom 9, 23).
[num. 14:]
Cur ergo non omnes docet, ut veniant ad Christum, nisi quia omnes quos docet, misericordia docet, quos autem non docet, iudicio non docet? Quoniam cuius vult miseretur, et quem vult obdurat (Rom 9, 18) : sed miseretur, bona tribuens; obdurat, digna retribuens. Aut si et ista, ut quidam distinguere maluerunt, verba sunt eius cui Apostolus ait: Dicis itaque mihi; ut ipse dixisse accipiatur: Ergo cuius vult miseretur, et quem vult obdurat, et quae sequuntur, id est: Quid adhuc conqueritur? nam voluntati eius quis resistit? (Rom 9, 19), numquid responsum est ab Apostolo: O homo, falsum est quod dixisti? Non : sed responsum est: O homo, tu quis es qui respondeas Deo? Numquid dicit figmentum ei qui se finxit: Quare sic me fecisti? Annon habet potestatem figulus luti ex eadem massa (Rom 9, 20-21), et sequentia, quae optime nostis. Et tamen secundum quemdam modum, omnes Pater docet venire ad suum Filium. Non enim frustra scriptum est in Prophetis: Et erunt omnes docibiles Dei (Is 54, 13). Quod testimonium cum praemisisset, tunc subdidit: Omnis qui audivit a Patre et didicit, venit ad me (Io 6, 45). Sicut ergo integre loquimur, cum de aliquo litterarum magistro, qui in civitate solus est, dicimus: Omnes iste hic litteras docet, non quia omnes discunt, sed quia nemo nisi ab illo discit, quicumque ibi litteras discit, ita recte dicimus: Omnes Deus docet venire ad Christum, non quia omnes veniunt, sed quia nemo aliter venit. Cur autem non omnes doceat, aperuit Apostolus, quantum aperiendum iudicavit: quia volens ostendere iram, et demonstrare potentiam suam, attulit in multa patientia vasa irae quae perfecta sunt in perditionem, et ut notas faciat divitias gloriae suae in vasa misericordiae, quae praeparavit in gloriam (Rom 9, 18-23). Hinc est quod verbum crucis pereuntibus stultitia est; his autem qui salvi fiunt, virtus Dei est (1 Cor 1, 18). Hos omnes docet venire ad Christum Deus; hos enim omnes vult salvos fieri, et in agnitionem veritatis venire (1 Tim 2, 4). Nam si et illos quibus stultitia est verbum crucis, ut ad Christum venirent, docere voluisset, procul dubio venirent et ipsi. Non enim fallit aut fallitur qui ait: Omnis qui audivit a Patre et didicit, venit ad me. Absit ergo ut quisquam non veniat, qui a Patre audivit et didicit.
Thomas
Catena to John 6:45 (Catena in Io., cap. 6 l. 6)
Chrysostomus in Ioannem. ... Si autem erunt omnes docibiles Dei, qualiter quidam non credunt? quia hoc de pluribus dictum est, sive quoniam omnes qui volunt.
Augustinus de praedest. Sanct.. Vel aliter. Sicut integre loquimur cum de aliquo litterarum magistro qui in civitate solus est, dicimus: omnes iste hic litteras docet: non quia omnes discunt, sed quia nemo nisi ab illo discit quicumque ibi litteras discit; ita recte dicimus: omnes deus docet venire ad Christum, non quia omnes veniunt, sed quia nemo aliter venit.
Augustinus in Ioannem. Vel aliter. Omnes regni illius homines docibiles erunt Dei, non ab hominibus audient: et si hic ab hominibus audiunt, tamen quod intelligunt, intus datur. Strepitum verborum ingero auribus vestris, nisi revelet ille qui intus est. Quomodo ergo, o iudaei, me potestis agnoscere, quos pater non docuit?
Chrysostomus. quod quidem praecipuum est, quia ante per homines discebant quae Dei sunt, nunc autem per unicum filium Dei et spiritum sanctum.
Augustinus de praedest. Sanct.. omnes autem docibiles Dei veniunt ad filium, quoniam audierunt et didicerunt a patre per filium; unde subditur omnis qui audivit a patre, et didicit, venit ad me. Si autem omnis qui audivit a patre et didicit, venit, profecto omnis qui non venit, non audit a patre, nec didicit. Valde remota est a sensibus carnis haec schola, in qua pater auditur et docet, ut veniatur ad filium; nec agit hoc cum carnis aure, sed cordis, ubi est et ipse filius; quia ipse est verbum eius per quod pater sic docet: simul est et spiritus sanctus: inseparabilia enim didicimus esse opera trinitatis. Sed patri hoc potissimum est attributum, quia de ipso procedit et filius et spiritus sanctus. Itaque gratia quae occulte et humanis cordibus divina largitate tribuitur, a nullo corde duro respuitur: ideo quippe tribuitur, ut cordis duritia primitus auferatur. Cur ergo non omnes docet ut veniant ad Christum, nisi quia eos quos docet, misericordia docet; quos autem non docet, iudicio non docet? si autem dixerimus, quod volunt discere, quos non docet, respondebitur nobis: et ubi est quod ei dicitur: deus, tu convertens vivificabis nos? aut si non faciat volentes ex nolentibus deus, ut quid orat ecclesia secundum praeceptum domini pro persecutoribus suis? non enim quisquam dicere potest: credidi, ut sic vocarer; praevenit quippe eum misericordia Dei, quia sic est vocatus ut crederet.
Thomas on John 6:45 (Super Io., cap. 6 l. 5)
Hoc autem quod dicit erunt omnes, potest tripliciter intelligi.
  • Uno modo ut ly omnes supponat pro omnibus hominibus mundi;
  • alio modo ut supponat pro omnibus qui sunt in Ecclesia Christi;
  • tertio modo pro omnibus qui erunt in regno caelorum.

Si autem dicatur primo modo, videtur non esse verum; nam statim subdit omnis qui audivit a patre et didicit, venit ad me. Si ergo omnes de mundo erunt docibiles, ergo omnes venient ad Christum. Sed hoc est falsum, quia non omnium est fides. Sed ad hoc tripliciter respondetur.
  • Nam, secundum Chrysostomum, primo modo dicendum, hoc dictum esse de pluribus erunt, inquit, omnes, idest plurimi; secundum quem modum dicitur Matth. VIII, 11: multi venient ab oriente et occidente, et cetera.
  • Secundo, quod omnes, quantum est ex Deo, erunt docibiles; sed quod aliqui non doceantur, est ex parte eorum. Sol enim quantum est de se, omnes illuminat; potest autem ab aliquibus non videri, si claudant oculos, vel si sint caeci. Et hoc modo dicit apostolus, I Tim. II, 4: vult omnes homines salvos fieri, et ad agnitionem veritatis venire.
  • Tertio modo, secundum Augustinum, quod haec est accommoda distributio, ut dicatur omnes erunt docibiles Dei; idest omnes qui docentur, a Deo docentur, sicut loquimur de aliquo litterarum magistro. Dicimus enim, si est in civitate: solus iste docet omnes pueros de civitate, quia nullus docetur in ea nisi ab illo. Et hoc modo dicitur supra I, 9: erat lux vera, quae illuminat omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum.

Si autem exponatur de illis qui sunt in Ecclesia congregati, dicitur erunt omnes, scilicet qui sunt in Ecclesia, docibiles Deo;
  • nam Is. LIV, 13, dicitur: ponam universos filios doctos a domino in quo quidem ostenditur sublimitas fidei Christianae, quae non inhaeret doctrinae humanae, sed doctrinae Dei. Doctrina enim veteris testamenti data fuit per prophetas; sed doctrina novi testamenti est per ipsum filium Dei;
  • Hebr. I, 1: multifarie multisque modis, idest in veteri testamento, Deus loquens patribus in prophetis, novissime diebus istis locutus est nobis in filio;
  • et ibid. II, 3: quae cum initium accepisset enarrari per dominum, ab eis qui audierunt, in nos confirmata est.
Sic ergo omnes qui sunt in Ecclesia, sunt docti non ab apostolis, non a prophetis, sed ab ipso Deo. Et, secundum Augustinum, hoc ipsum quod ab homine docemur, est ex Deo, qui docet interius; Matth. c. XXIII, 10: unus est magister vester Christus. Nam intelligentia, quae necessaria est praecipue ad doctrinam, est nobis a Deo.

Si autem exponatur de his qui sunt in regno caelorum etc., tunc omnes erunt docibiles Deo, quia eius essentiam immediate videbunt; I Io. III, 2: videbimus eum sicuti est. Attractio autem patris efficacissima est: quia omnis qui audivit a patre, et didicit, venit ad me. Ubi duo ponit: unum scilicet quod pertinet ad donum Dei, cum dicit audivit, scilicet Deo revelante; aliud quod pertinet ad liberum arbitrium, cum dicit et didicit, scilicet per assensum; et ista duo necessaria sunt in omni doctrina fidei. Omnis qui audivit a patre, docente et manifestante, et didicit, praebendo assensum, venit ad me; venit, inquam, tripliciter: per cognitionem veritatis, per amoris affectum et per operis imitationem. Et in quolibet oportet quod audiat et discat. Nam qui venit per cognitionem veritatis, oportet eum audire, Deo inspirante, secundum illud Ps. LXXXIV, 9: audiam quid loquatur in me dominus Deus, et addiscere per affectum, ut dictum est. Qui vero venit per amorem et desiderium, ut dicitur infra VII, 37: si quis sitit, veniat ad me, et bibat, et hunc oportet audire verbum patris, et capere illud, ad hoc ut addiscat, et afficiatur. Ille enim discit verbum qui capit illud secundum rationem dicentis; verbum autem Dei patris est spirans amorem: qui ergo capit illud cum fervore amoris, discit; Sap. VII, 27: in animas sanctas se transfert, prophetas et amicos Dei constituit. Per operis autem imitationem itur ad Christum, secundum illud Matth. XI, 28: venite ad me, omnes qui laboratis et onerati estis, et ego reficiam vos. Et hoc etiam modo quicumque discit, venit ad Christum: nam sicut conclusio se habet in scibilibus, ita et operatio in operabilibus. In scientiis autem quicumque perfecte discit, venit ad conclusionem: ergo in operabilibus qui perfecte verba discit, venit ad rectam operationem; Is. l, 5: dominus aperuit mihi aurem; ego autem non contradico. Sed quia aliqui possent opinari quod omnes homines visibiliter a patre audirent et addiscerent, ideo ut hoc dominus excludat, subdit non quia patrem vidit quisquam, idest, aliquis homo vivens in hac vita non vidit patrem in sua essentia, secundum illud Ex. XXXIII, 20: non videbit me homo, et vivet, nisi is, scilicet filius, qui est a Deo, hic vidit patrem, suum per essentiam. Vel quisquam non vidit patrem, visione comprehensionis, qua visione nec homo nec Angelus eum vidit unquam, nec videre potest, nisi is qui est ex Deo, idest filius; Matth. XI, v. 27: nemo novit patrem nisi filius. Cuius quidem ratio est, quia cum omnis visio sive cognitio fiat per aliquam similitudinem, secundum modum similitudinis, quem habent creaturae ad Deum, secundum hoc habent cognitionem ipsius. Unde et philosophi dicunt, quod intelligentiae cognoscunt primam causam, secundum hanc quam habent similitudinem eius. Omnis autem creatura participat quidem aliquam similitudinem Dei, sed in infinitum distantem a similitudine suae naturae et ideo nulla creatura potest ipsum cognoscere perfecte et totaliter, prout est in sua natura. Filius autem, quia perfecte totam naturam patris accepit per aeternam generationem, ideo totaliter videt et comprehendit. Sed attendendum ad congruum ordinem loquendi. Nam supra cum loqueretur de cognitione aliorum, usus est verbo auditus; hic vero cum loquitur de cognitione filii, utitur verbo visionis: nam cognitio quae est per visum, est immediata et aperta; ea vero quae est per auditum, fit mediante eo qui vidit. Sic et nos cognitionem quam habemus de patre, accepimus a filio, qui vidit: ut sic nullus patrem cognoscat nisi per Christum, qui eum manifestat, et nullus ad filium veniat, nisi a patre manifestante audierit.
 
 

God, who made all things

John 1:3 (Note: "πάντα" is "all" in accusative either in singular masculine or in plural neuter. But only latter corresponds to Latin "omnia" - which is unambiguously plural neuter - therefore it is "all things").
All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.Omnia per ipsum facta sunt et sine ipso factum est nihil quod factum est.πάντα δι’ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ χωρὶς αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν ὃ γέγονεν.
1 Timothy 6:13 (Note: "πάντα" is "all" in accusative either in singular masculine or in plural neuter. But here is also article "τὰ" before it, and therefore it is unambiguously latter. Also Latin etc., therefore etc.)
I command you before God, who gives life to all things, and before Christ Jesus, who before Pontius Pilate testified the good confession,Praecipio tibi coram Deo qui vivificat omnia et Christo Iesu qui testimonium reddidit sub Pontio Pilato bonam confessionem.παραγγέλλω σοι ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ζωογονοῦντος τὰ πάντα καὶ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ μαρτυρήσαντος ἐπὶ Ποντίου Πιλάτου τὴν καλὴν ὁμολογίαν
Theodoret of Cyrus (c.393–c.457)
on 1 Timothy 6:13 (PG 82, 828 A). English trans.: Robert C. Hill in Theodoret of Cyrus, Commentary on the Letters of St. Paul, Volume 2, p. 229 (2001)
Now, since those holding the view of Arius give a wrong meaning to the phrase, "All things were made through him," (John 1:3) and stubbornly insist that the Spirit [of Christ] is included in the "all things," let them listen to the apostle saying, who gives life to all things, and tell us how they take all things here. Will the species of brute beasts attain resurrection, and in addition to brute beasts inanimate things - I mean seeds, rocks, wood, and things like them? Obviously they would not say so. So the divine apostle left us to take all things in a religious sense; and the Gospel verse is also to be taken in similar fashion.Quoniam autem Ariani, male intelligentes illud: «Omnia per ipsum facta sunt,» etiam Spiritum in omnibus comprehendi contendunt, audiant Apostolum dicentem, qui vivificat omnia, et dicant nobis quomodo hic intelligent, omnia. An etiam brutorum genera resurgent, et cum brutis etiam inanima, plantae, inquam, et semina, et lapides, et ligna, et quae sunt his similia? Sed clarum est eos id non esse dicturos. Divinus itaque Apostolus pie intelligendum nobis reliquit illud, omnia. Ita ergo intelligendum est etiam dictum Evangelii.Ἐπειδὴ δὲ οἱ τὰ Ἀρείου φρονοῦντες, τὸ, «Πάντα δι' αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο,» κακῶς νοοῦντες, καὶ τὸ Πνεῦμα τοῖς πᾶσι συμπεριλαμβάνειν φιλονεικοῦσιν, ἀκουέτωσαν τοῦ Ἀποστόλου λέγοντος, τοῦ ζωοποιοῦντος τὰ πὰπα, καὶ εἰπάτωσαν ἡμῖν πῶς νοοῦσιν ἐνταῦθα, τὰ πὰντα. Ἆρα καὶ τῶν ἀλόγων τὰ γένη τῆς ἀναστάσεως τεύξεται, καὶ πρὸς τοῖς ἀλόγοις τὰ ἄψυχα, φυτὰ λέγω καὶ σπέρματα, καὶ λίθοι, καὶ ξύλα, καὶ τὰ τούτοις προσόμοια; Ἀλλα δῆλον ὡς οὐκ ἃν εἴποιεν. Οὐκοῦν ἡμῖν ὁ θεῖος Ἀπόστολος καταλέλοιπε τὸ εὐσεβῶς νοῆσαι τὰ πάντα. Οὕτω τοίνυν καὶ τὸ εὐαγγελικὸν νοητέον ῥητόν.
 
 
Photios.
ad Amphilochium, q. 1, n. 36 (PG 101, 91-96)
Of course it frequently happens that the universal terms of the Sacred Scriptures, don't want to give universal sense, but within the borders of some, who were already presumes, his prayer coarctated, extol share affirmation.Nimirum universalem saepenumero formam sacrae Litterae figurantes, haud universalem sententiam sibi tribui postulant; sed intra terminos quosdam, qui jam praesumpti fuerunt, orationem suam coarctantes, partiariam efferunt affirmationem.([...] καθολικὸν γὰρ τύπον πολλάκις ἡ ἱερὰ φωνὴ σχηματίζουσα, οὐ καθολικὴν ἀπαιτεῖ τὴν ἔννοιαν ἐκλαμβάνεσθαι, εἰς ὡρισμένα δέ τινα καὶ προειλημμένα συνάγουσα τὴν διήγησιν, μεριχὴν ἐνδείκνυται τὴν ἀπόφασιν),
  • Is of this kind: "All who came before Me are thieves and robbers" (John 10:8).
Hujusmodi est: «Omnes quotquot ante me venerunt, fures latronesque fuere (Joan. x, 8).»τοιοῦτον ἐστι τὸ, «Πάντες ὅσοι πρὸ ἑμοῦ ἦλθον, κλέπται εἰσὶ καὶ λῃσταί.»
In this general character of discourse Marcionites conclude, and the adjacent sect, Moses, the prophets of God itself and other: and so the Old Testament to be a bad work oppress the evil genii . But it is evident to be issued against these not the words, but against those who a little before the Lord's coming and deceivers of the plane have emerged. For if any man thinks this casting of demons to be against the Lord's speech, even if it is sacrilegious to the drives no sense, and if as well as assumptions do not always know the universal of discourse drafts of the general opinion to avenge himself; nevertheless exquisite subtlety, the sense of not sufficiently in harmony with the Gospel, according to this statement after the above-mentioned make room for it. Meanwhile, however, insane and sacrilegious daring the enemy of God, while the universal form of discourse adheres to the crime of self defense in the Lord's spoken, that He has, he thinks. In hoc generali dictionis charactere concludunt Marcionitae, et proxima secta, Mosen ipsum aliosque Dei prophetas : atque ita Vetus Testamentum mali genii malum opus esse calumniantur. Atqui ea verba non adversus hos constat esse prolata, sed contra illos qui paulo ante Domini adventum deceptores et plani exstiterunt. Nam si quis opinetur contra daemonas hanc jactam esse Dominicam locutionem, etiamsi id ad sacrilegum nullum impellit sensum; et si aeque praesumit, haud semper universale dictionis schema generalem sibi sententiam vindicare; nihilominus exquisitior subtilitas, neque satis evangelico sensui congruens, secundum huic opinioni post praedictam illam locum dat. Interim tamen vesana et sacrilega hostium Dei audacia, dum formae universalis dictionis adhaeret, sceleris sui tutamen in Dominicis effatis habere se putat. Ὑποβάλλουσι γὰρ τῷ καθολικῷ χαρακτῆρι τῆς φωνῆς οἱ ἀπὸ Μαρκίωνος καὶ τῆς γείτονος φρατρίας, Μωσέα τε καὶ τοὺς ἅλλους τοῦ θεοῦ προφήτας, τὴν Παλαιὰν Διαθήκην συσκευὴν εἷναι δυσφημοῦντες τοῦ Πονηροῦ· καίτοι γε οὐ κατ' ἐκείνων, ὡς δῆλον, ἐρρήθη, ἀλλ' οὕς ὁ μικρῷ πρόσθεν χρόνος τῆς Δεσποτικῆς παρουσίας, ἀπατεῶνας καὶ πλάνους ἀπέδειξε. Τὸ γὰρ εἰς τοὺς δαίμονας ὑπειλῆφθαι τὴν Δεσποτικὴν ταύτην ἀπερρίφθαι φωνὴν, κἂν εὶς ἀσεβημάτων οὐκ ἂν ἥκῃ λογισμὸν, κἂν ὁμοίως φρονῇ μὴ πάντοτε τὸ καθολικὸν σχῆμα τῆς φωνῆς καὶ καθολικὴν ἔννοιαν ἀπαιτεῖν, αλλ' οὗν τὸ περιεργότερον καὶ μὴ τῆς εὐαγγελικῆς βουλήσεως περὶ πόδα εἷναι, δευτέραν αὐτῷ δίδωσι τοῦ προειρημένου τάξιν λαβεῖν· πλήν γε τὸ ἀσύνετον καὶ δυσσεβὲς τῶν θεομαχούντων θράσος τῷ τύπῳ τῆς καθολικῆς προσανέχοντες φωνῆς, τῆς οἰκείας δυσσεβείας ἀναχώρησιν τὰ Κυριακὰ νομίζουσι λόγια.
  • Similar is also that: "All things were made by Him" (John 1:3) proof of what is equally an assailant of the Holy Spirit is making an error. For who - because of the universal kind of discourse - don't separate the most holy Spirit from the universe of creatures, they very blaspheme.
Illud quoque simile est «Omnia per ipsum facta sunt:» quod aeque sancti Spiritus oppugnatoribus argumentum errandi est. Dum enim ob universale dictionis genus, sanctissimum Spiritum a creaturarum universitate non separant, ipsum blasphemant.Ὅμοιόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ, « Πάντα δι' αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο· » καὶ ὁμοίως τοῖς Πνευματομάχοις ὄργανον τῆς πλάνης ὑποβάλλεται. Τῶν πάντων γὰρ τὸ πανάγιον Πνεῦμα διὰ τὸ καθόλου τῆς φωνῆς οὐκ ἐξαιρούμενοι τῶν γεγονότων, καὶ αὐτὸ δεδυσφημήκασι.
And numberless other sacred letters extol the universal figure, which, however, attribute only partial signification.Sexcenta alia sacra Litterae universali schemate efferunt, quibus tamen nonnisi partiarium significatum tribuunt.Καὶ μυρία δ' ἄλλα οἱ ἱεροὶ Λόγοι εὶς τὸ καθ' ὅλου μὲν σχηματίζουσι, μερικωτέραν δὲ ποιοῦνται τὴν δήλωσιν·
  • As that: "Vanity of vanities, all is vanity (Eccle. 1:2)" neither therefore wisdom or virtue, nor religion are counted among vanities.
Veluti: «Vanitas vanitatum, et omnia vanitas (Eccle. i, 2):» neque idcirco aut virtus aut sapientia aut religio in vanarum numero rerum sunt.ὡς τό· « Ματαιότης ματαιοτήτων, τὰ πάντα ματαιότης· » οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδ' ἡ ἀρετὴ τῶν ματαίων, οὐδ' ἡ σοφία, οὐδ' ἡ εὐσέβεια.
  • And: "They are all gone aside, they are become unprofitable together" (Ps. 14:3) not, however, were such those, whom God - in every age of the vices, tyrants and demons - made victors.
Tum illud: «Omnes declinaverunt, simul inutiles facti sunt (Psal. xiii, 3);» neque tamen ejusmodi erant ii quos Deus in singulis aetatibus vitiorum et daemonum et tyrannorum fecit esse victores.Καὶ, « Πάντες ἐξέκλιναν, ἅμα ἠχρειώθησαν· » οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδ' οἱ παρὰ θεοῦ καθ' ἑκάστην γενεὰν καὶ γενεὰν κατὰ παθῶν καὶ δαιμόνων καὶ τυράννων στεφανῖται δεικνύμενοι·
Many of this kind can be observed during leisure time, though it seems to me sufficient, what was said.Multa hujusmodi licet cuique per otium observare : quanquam mini hactenus dicta videntur sufficere.καὶ πολλὰ ἄλλα τοιαῦτα ἐπὶ σχολῆς ἄν τις θεωρήσειεν· ἀρκεῖν δ' οἶμαι καὶ τὰ παρατεθειμένα.
 
 
TODO quaere catena crameri de Jo. 10:7-8
EUThYMIOS
on John 10:7-8 (PG 129, 1324 C-D)
["All who came (before Me) are thieves and robbers."]
Whoever came from himself, who came not by mentioned door - as Judas and Theodas and similars (Acts 5:36-37). Prophets however have not come from themselves, but are send from God - and they entered through door and not from elsewhere.Quotquot a seipsis venerunt, quotquot venerunt, non per praedictum ostium, ut Iudas et Theudas, et si quis alius huiusmodi: prophetae namque non a seipsis venerunt, sed a Deo missi sunt : nec aliunde, sed per ostium intraverunt.Ὅσοι ἦλθον, ἀφ᾽ ἑαυτῶν, ὅσοι ἦλθον, μὴ διὰ τῆς προειρημένης θύρας, ὡς ἰούδας καὶ θευδᾶς, καὶ εἴ τις τοιοῦτος. οἱ προφῆται γὰρ οὐκ ἦλθον ἀφ᾽ ἑαυτῶν, ἀλλ᾽ ἀπεστάλησαν ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ οὐκ εἰσῆλθον ἀλλα χόθεν, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς θύρας.
However it should be known, that Scriputre often uses universal form, but understands it partially.Scire enim oportet, quod frequenter scriptura universalem repraesentans formam, particularem insinuat intelligentiam.Χρὴ δὲ γινώσκειν, ὅτι πολλάκις ἡ γραφὴ καθολικὸν τύπον σχηματὶζουσα, μερικὴν ἔννοιαν ἐνδείκνυται.
For what is now said "all," it doesn't simply signifies all who have preceded him.Nam quod nunc dicit Omnes, non simpliciter significat omnes, qui ipsum praecesserunt. τὸ γὰρ πάντες νῦν, οὐ πάντας ἀπλῶς δηλοῖ τοὺς πρὸ αὐτοῦ.
Similar is also, what David tells - "They are all gone aside, they are become unprofitable together" (Psalm 14:3), but such were not also those, who loved God.Simile etiam est, quod ait Dauid, Omnes declinaverunt, simul inutiles facti sunt (Ps. 13, 3) : tales siquidem non erant, qui etiam tunc Deum colebant.τοιοῦτόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ δαυϊτικόν· πάντες ἐξέκλιναν, ἅμα ἠκρειώθησαν. οὐ γὰρ καὶ οἱ τηνικαῦτα θεοφιλεῖς.
And that of Salomon - All is vanity. (Ecclesiastes 1:2), but virtute is not so.Et illud Salomonis, Omnia sunt vanitas (Eccles. 1, 2) : neque enim talis est virtus.καὶ τὸ σολομώντειον· πάντα ματαιότης. οὐ γάρ καὶ ἡ ἀρετή.
There are however (places), where "all" signifies the same what "no one"* as in saying of Savior (Matthew 24:22) "And if those days had been shortened, there would not be saved all flash," that is: no flesh (would be saved).* And in that passage of David (Psalms 119:133) And do not let all iniquity have dominion over me., that is: (do let) no (inquity).* And there are many similar.Est autem ubi Omnis, idem significat, quod nullus, ut in dicto illo Salvatoris (Matt. 24, 22), et nisi breviati fuissent dies illi, non fieret salva omnis caro, id est, nulla caro. In illo quoque Davidico versu (Ps. 118, 133), Et non dominetur mihi omnis injustitia, hoc est, nulla. Multa quoque sunt similia.Ἔστι δὲ, ὅτε τὸ πᾶς τὸ οὐδεὶς σημαίνει, ὡς τὸ τοῦ σωτῆρος· καὶ εἰ μὴ ἐκολοβώθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι ἐκεῖναι, οὐκ ἄν ἐσώθη πᾶσα σὰρξ, ἤγουν, οὐδεμία σάρξ· καὶ τὸ δαυϊτικόν· καὶ μὴ κατακυριευσάτω μου πᾶσα ἀνομία, τουτέστι, μηδεμία. καὶ πολλὰ τοιαῦτα.
* phenomenon of double-negative, which in some dialects is understood as one negative. But also that "not all" normally doesn't mean "no one." About this part of Euthymius' passage Jean de La Haye (1593-1661), O.F.M. noted [in Prolegomena in Pentateuchum Moysis, art. XXI (Commentarii literales et conceptuales in Genesim, Lugduni, 1638)]
Quarta regula ex Euthymio in Ioann. 20. particula negativa non ut cum praecedit aut sequitur signum universale distributivum omnis aequipollet particulari ut non omnis vel omnis non aut sumitur pro nullus sic Exodi 22. omnem viduam et pupillum non affligetis id est nullum.
And about first part of Euthymius' commentary it is interesting to noted that also
JEROME (c.347–420) used it in such sense
Prologus in Commentariorum in Evangelium Matthaei (PL 26)
Quibus jure potest illud propheticum coaptari: Vae qui prophetant de corde suo: qui ambulant post spiritum suum, qui dicunt: haec dicit Dominus; et Dominus non misit eos (Ezech. XIII, 3). De quibus et Salvator in Evangelio Joannis loquitur: Omnes qui ante me venerunt fures fuerunt et latrones (Joan. X, 8). Qui venerunt: non, qui missi sunt. Ipse enim ait: Veniebant, et ego non mittebam eos (Jer. XIV, 14; et XXIII, 21). In venientibus, praesumptio temeritatis; in missis, obsequium servitutis est.
But also the same Jerome in his Epistle about prodigal son (PL 22, 392-393) explained that word "all" restrictively here and in another passages jused by Greeks, i.e. in passages:
John 10:7-8
So Jesus said to them again, "Truly, truly, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep. All who came (before Me) are thieves and robbers."Dixit ergo eis iterum Iesus: "amen amen dico vobis quia ego sum ostium ovium: Omnes quotquot (ante me) venerunt fures sunt et latrones."Εἶπεν οὖν πάλιν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα τῶν προβάτων. πάντες ὅσοι ἦλθον (πρὸ ἐμοῦ) κλέπται εἰσιν καὶ λῃσταί.
Psalms [XIII] 14:3 = Romans 3:12
They are all gone aside; they are together become unprofitable; There is none that doeth good, no, not one.Omnes declinaverunt, simul inutiles facti sunt. Non est qui faciat bonum, non est usque ad unum.πάντες ἐξέκλιναν ἅμα ἠχρεώθησαν οὐκ ἔστιν ποιῶν χρηστότητα οὐκ ἔστιν ἕως ἑνόςהכל סר יחדו נאלחו אין עשה טוב אין גם אחד׃
etc.
 
 
JEROME (c.347–420)
382/385 AD. Epistle to pope Damasus about prodigal son [Epistle XXI, 37] (PL 22, 392-393)
«Ipse autem dixit illi: Fili, tu semper mecum es, et mea omnia tua sunt» (Luc. 15, 31). Filium vocat, licet intrare nolentem. Quomodo autem Dei omnia Judaerum sunt? Nunquid Angeli, Throni, Dominationes, caeterque Virtutes? Omnia ergo intelligamus, Legem, Prophetas, eloquia divina. Haec ei dedit, ut in lege ejus meditarentur die ac nocte, secundum illum canonem quem saepe exposuimus Scripturarum, Omnia non ad totum referenda esse, sed ad partem maximam, ut ibi: «Omnes declinaverunt, simul inutiles facti sunt» (Psal. 13). Et alibi: «Omnes qui venerunt ante me, fures fuerunt et latrones" (Joan. 10. 8). Et Paulus ad Corinthios: «Omnibus, inquit, omnia factus sum, ut omnes lucrifacerem» (1. Cor. 9. 22). Et ad Philippenses: «Omnes enim quae sua sunt, quaerunt; non ea quae sunt Jesu Christi» (Philipp. 2. 21). Quanquam nihil umquam illi negasse credendurn sit, quem ad vituli hortatur esum.
387 AD. Commentary to Ephesians 1,22-23 [ad Ephesios, lib. 1, cap. 2] (PL 26, 462-464)
  • (The word) "all" doesn't refer to totality, but only to those about which it is talking/disputed.
  • omnia, non ad universitatem, sed ad ea tantum refert, de quibus disputatum est
  • Or this mode, as "all citizens shout," not that nobody being silent in the city, but from maximal part also those, who are minority are called.
  • vel hoc modo, omnis civitas conclamavit, non quo aliquis tacens in urbe non fuerit, sed ex parte maxima etiam ea quae minora sunt appellantur.
    • Also apostle Paul himself: "All," says he, "seek their own (things), not those, that are God's. (Philippians 2:21).
    • Et ipse Paulus apostolus: Omnes, inquit, sua quaerunt, non ea quae sunt Dei (Philipp. ii, 21)
    • And "all forsook me" (2 Timothy 4, 16), not that (also) Timothy and other disciples - who were with him in that time, when he wrote (that) Epistle - forsook him; but therefore, because by more he was deserted, "by all" - laments he - that is, from maximal part was deserted.
    • et : Omnes me dereliquerunt. Non quod Timothaeus et cateri discipuli, qui illo tempore quo Epistolae scribebantur, cum eo erant, illum reliquerint; sed idcirco, quia a pluribus sit desertus, "ab omnibus," id est a maxima parte desertum se esse conqueritur.
    • Similar to this is also what in Psalm sounds:
    • Simile huic quid et in psalmo sonat:
        "They are all gone aside, they have become unprofitable together: there is none that does good: not even one." (Ps. 14 [13], 3). If all have gone aside, then also he himself, who says this.
        Omnes declinaverunt, simul inutiles facti sunt: Non est qui faciat bonum, non est usque ad unum (Ps. 14 [13], 3). Si enim omnes declinaverunt: ergo declinavit et ipse qui loquitur.
    • And elsewhere: I said in my excess: All men are liars. (Ps 116 [115], 11). For either it is true what he said or false. If all men lie, then also he, who says this. However, if liar is he, who says it, then surely, it is not true, what he says, that all men lie. Thus if this claim is true, then (the word) "all" is so taken, as we've said above, that great part of men lie.
    • Et alibi: Ego dixi in excessu mentis meae, omnis homo mendax (Ps. cxv, 2). Aut enim verum est hoc quod dixit, aut falsum. Si omnis homo mendax est, ergo mendax est et ipse qui loquitur. Si autem mendax est et ipse qui loquitur, ne hoc quidem quod ait verum est, omnem hominem mendacem. Porro si vera sententia est, "omnis" sic accipiendi sunt, ut supra diximus, quod magna pars hominum mentiatur.
    • Apostle wrote also another: "teaching all men" (Colossians 1:28, cf. 3:16) and further: "admonishing all men". Not that he teached all men, for many were - (even) up to nowadays - who did not hear doctrine of Apostle nor his name; but that they teached and admonish those, who are in the Church and wish to know, what of God's things.
    • Scribit, et alibi Apostolus: Docentes omnem hominem (Coloss. i, 28; cf. iii, 16). Et rursum, commonentes omnem hominem : non quod omnes homines docuerit: quanti enim sunt qui usque hodie nec doctrinam Apostoli audiere, nec nomen; sed quod eos omnes doceat et admoneat, qui in Ecclesia sunt, et cupiunt scire quae Dei sunt.
c. 395/400 AD, to Isaiah 13:5 ["LORD ... coming ... to destroy all the land."] (PL 24, 156 B) [quoted also by Lapide to this passage]
"... ut disperdant omnem terram" : non quod totum orbem vastaverint, sed omnem terram Babylonis et Chaldaeorum. Idioma est enim Sanctae Scripturae, ut omnem terram illius significet provinciae, de qua sermo est: quod quidam non intelligentes, ad omnium terrarum subversionem trahunt.
 
 
AUGUSTINE (354–430), bishop of Hippo
about 1Cor example (used below by Bellarmine)
c. 407/408 AD, Ep. 93, cap. IX / num. 32 Engl. transl. by: J.G. Cunningham
For the canonical Scriptures contain examples of the same manner of rebuke in which what is intended for some is spoken as if it applied to all. Thus the apostle, when he says to the Corinthians, "How say some among you, that there is no resurrection of the dead?" (1 Corinthians 15:12) proves clearly that all of them were not such; but he bears witness that those who were such were not outside of their communion, but among them. And shortly after, lest those who were of a different opinion should be led astray by them, he gave this warning: "Be not deceived: evil communications corrupt good manners. Awake to righteousness, and sin not; for some have not the knowledge of God: I speak this to your shame." (1 Corinthians 15:33-34) But when he says, "Whereas there is among you envying, and strife, and divisions, are you not carnal, and walk as men?" (1 Corinthians 3:3) he speaks as if it applied to all, and you see how grave a charge he makes. Wherefore, if it were not that we read in the same epistle, "I thank my God always on your behalf, for the grace of God which is given you by Jesus Christ; that in everything you are enriched by Him, in all utterance, and in all knowledge; even as the testimony of Christ was confirmed in you: so that you come behind in no gift," (1 Corinthians 1:4-7) we would think that all the Corinthians had been carnal and natural, not perceiving the things of the spirit of God, (1 Corinthians 2:14) fond of strife, and full of envy, and "walking as men."Habent enim etiam Scripturae canonicae hunc arguendi morem, ut tamquam omnibus dicatur, et ad quosdam verbum perveniat. Quod enim Apostolus dicit ad Corinthios: Quomodo dicunt quidam in vobis, quia resurrectio mortuorum non est? (1 Cor 15, 12) manifestat utique non omnes esse tales, verumtamen et tales non extra, sed in eis fuisse testatur: a quibus ne illi seducerentur, qui non ita sentiebant, paulo post monuit dicens: Nolite seduci: corrumpunt mores bonos colloquia mala. Sobrii estote, iusti, et nolite peccare: ignorantiam enim Dei quidam habent; ad reverentiam vobis loquor (1 Cor 33, 34). Quod autem dicit: Cum enim sint inter vos aemulatio et contentio, nonne estis carnales, et secundum hominem ambulatis? (1 Cor 3, 3) tamquam omnibus dicit; et vides quam sit grave quod dicit. Proinde nisi in ipsa Epistola legeremus: Gratias ago Deo meo semper pro vobis, in gratia Dei quae data est vobis in Christo Iesu, quia in omnibus ditati estis in illo, in omni verbo et in omni scientia, sicut testimonium Christi confirmatum est in vobis, ita ut nihil desit vobis in ulla gratia (1 Cor 1, 4-7), putaremus omnes Corinthios carnales et animales, non percipientes quae sunt spiritus Dei (1 Cor 2, 14; 3, 3), contentiosos, aemulos, secundum hominem ambulantes.
c. 415 AD, Epist. 149, cap. II / num. 20 (PL 33,638)
Secundum Evangelium quidem inimici propter vos. Pretium quippe redemptionis nostrae sanguis est Christi, qui utique nonnisi ab inimicis potuit occidi. Hic est ille usus malorum in provectum bonorum. Quod vero adiungit, secundum electionem autem dilecti propter patres, hinc ostendit non illos inimicos, sed electos esse dilectos. Sed Scripturae mos est ita loqui de parte tamquam de toto: sicut Corinthios in primis Epistolae suae partibus, ita laudat tamquam omnes tales sint, cum essent laudabiles quidam eorum; et postea in nonnullis Epistolae ipsius locis, ita reprehendit tamquam omnes culpabiles essent, propter quosdam qui tales erant. Istam divinarum Scripturarum consuetudinem per omne corpus Litterarum eius creberrime sparsam, quisquis diligenter adverterit, multa dissolvit quae inter se videntur esse contraria. Inimicos ergo alios dicit, alios dilectos: sed quia in uno populo erant, velut eosdem ipsos dicere videtur.
 
 

Logicians

Words like "all", "whole", etc. in their relation to parts were formally inquired in mereology by greatest medieval scholastic philosophers.

John XXI [Petrus Hispanus] (c.1215–1277), pope, logician.
to word "totus" [total] (The Summulae logicales of Peter of Spain, Notre Dame, 1945, p. 88-90; Summulae logicales, ed. I.M.Bochenski, Torino 1947, p. 125; Tractatus, 1973, p. 225-226); quoted from him also by Gerard from Harderwijck (1455 - 1503) in his commentary)
  • Again, it is customary to posit a certain "distribution of aptitude", as "Every man fears the sea", that is, man is born apt to fear the sea.
  • Or again, it is customary to posit "befitting distribution",
  • Item solet poni (quedam/communiter) distributio aptitudinis, ut «omnis homo timet in mari», id est aptus natus est timere in mari.
  • Item, solet poni distributio accomodata,
  • Item solet poni distributio aptitudinis, ut «omnis homo timet in mari», id est aptus natus est timere in mari.
  • Item, solet poni distributio accomodata,
    • as "Heaven touches all things" (i.e. all) apart from itself
    • ut «coelum tegit omnia» praeter seipsum,
    • ut «coelum tegit omnia», id est omnia alia a se,
    • and "God created all things" (i.e. all) apart from Himself.
    • et «Deus creavit omnia», (id est omnia) alia a se.
    • et «Deus creavit omnia», id est omnia alia a se.
But these two kinds of distribution are not as proper as the other. We now discuss the sign "whole" which is distributive of integral parts, as in the proposition : "Sortes as a whole is white". The sense is : "Sortes according to any one whatsoever of his parts, is white". From this it follows : "Any part whatever of Sortes is white."Sed ista duo genera distributionis non sunt ita propria sicut alia. Sequitur de hoc signo «totus», quod est distributivum partium integralium, ut hic: «Totus Sortes est albus». Est enim sensus: Sortes, secundum quamlibet sui partem, est albus.Sed ista duo genera distributionis non sunt ita propria sicut alia. Sequitur de hoc signo «totus», quod est distributivum partium integralium, ut patet hic: «Totus Sortes est albus», et est sensus: Sortes secundum quamlibet sui partem est albus.
Note: if first two points he talked about restrictive understanding, while in last he mentioned "absolute" understanding that is more proper in logic. Nevertheless, when he interpreted word "whole" as "every part" it produces famous sophisma - namely that since every part of Socrates is less than Socrates (e.g. Socrates's foot is less than Socrates, Socrates's head is less than Socrates, etc.), than we can say, that: "The whole Socrates is less than Socrates" ["Totus Sortes est minor Sorte"]. However, "whole Socrates" is Socrates, therefore "Socrates is less than Socrates" - which is absurd. So this sophisma is mentioned by Richard the Sophister:
TOTUS SORTES EST MINOR SORTE.
Probatio: Quaelibet pars Sortis est minor Sorte, ergo totus etc.
Contra: Totus Sortes est minor Sorte, sed totus Sortes est Sortes, ergo Sortes est minor Sorte.
But also mentioned Peter of Spain (John XXI) mentioned this sophisma shortly after quoted passage. He says: (ed. Mullally, 1945, p. 92)
Circa praedicta, quaeritur de hoc sophismate: "Totus Sortes est minor Sorte."
Probatio : Quaelibet pars Sortis est minor Sorte, et Sortes, secundum quamlibet sui partem, est minor Sorte ; ergo, totus Sortes est minor Sorte.
Contra: Totus Sortes est minor Sorte; ergo, Sortes est minor Sorte.
Classical solution of this sophisma is, that since we understood "whole Socrates" as "each part of Socrates", then sentence "Whole Socrates is less than Socrates" meaning "Each part of Socrates is less than Socrates" is simply true, while conclusion "therefore Socrates is less than Socrates" is wrong. This was also his solution.
(ed. Mullally, 1945, p. 92)
Solutio: Prima est vera, scilicet, haec: "Totus Sortes est minor Sorte", et probatio peccat secundum fallaciam accidentis, quia in ista: "Totus Sortes est minor Sorte", praedicatum attribuitur partibus quibus vere convenit; Sorti autem non convenit; et ideo haec est simpliciter falsa: "Sortes est minor Sorte". Et ideo, si partes inferant esse minorem Sorte de toto sive de Sorte, erit fallacia accidentis per primam regulam supradictam. Unde "Totus Sortes" est res subiecta, et "Sortes" accidit ei, et "esse minor Sorte" assignatur utrique inesse. Etiam improbatio peccat secundum quid ad simpliciter, quia ista: "Totus Sortes est minor Sorte", non ponit Sortem secundum se sed secundum suas partes. Et ideo ponit Sortem secundum quid esse minorem Sorte. Ita cum simpliciter inferatur [infert sic]: "Ergo, Sortes est minor Sorte", peccat secundum quid et simpliciter. Sicut his: "Sortes est minor Sorte secundum pedem; ergo Sortes est minor Sorte".
However, there exists also another distinction, namely between distributve and collective interpretation.
So Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) said it about word "all."
Politikon II, 3 [al. 2]
For (the word) ‘all’ is ambiguous:
  • If the meaning be as ‘each’ ...
  • ...[or they would say] ‘all’ but not ‘each.’ In like manner their property would be described as belonging to them, not severally but collectively.
There is an obvious fallacy in the term ‘all’: like some other words, ‘both,’ ‘odd,’ ‘even,’ it is ambiguous, and even in abstract argument becomes a source of logical puzzles.
τὸ γὰρ πάντες διττόν.
  • εἰ μὲν οὖν ὡς ἕκαστος, ...
  • ... πάντες μέν, οὐχ ὡς ἕκαστος δ᾽ αὐτῶν, ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τὴν οὐσίαν πάντες μέν, οὐχ ὡς ἕκαστος δ᾽ αὐτῶν.
ὅτι μὲν τοίνυν παραλογισμός τίς ἐστι τὸ λέγειν πάντας, φανερόν τὸ γὰρ πάντες καὶ ἀμφότεροι, καὶ περιττὰ καὶ ἄρτια, διὰ τὸ διττὸν καὶ ἐν τοῖς λόγοις ἐριστικοὺς ποιεῖ συλλογισμούς: διό ἐστι τὸ πάντας τὸ αὐτὸ λέγειν ὡδὶ μὲν καλὸν ἀλλ᾽ οὐ δυνατόν, ὡδὶ δ᾽ οὐδὲν ὁμονοητικόν:
And in time of John XXI many other logicians observed, that also word "whole" even in absolute understanding still admits two possibilities, either distributive (i.e. syncategorematic or material) or collective (i.e. categorematic or formal) interpretation. They teached:
(ed. Braakhuis, vol. I, p. 121-122)
"totus" aut est categoreuma aut syncategoreuma.
  • Si categoreuma, tunc significat totalitatem rei, et sic solet dicit totum formale, vel totum collectivum sive integrum, et hoc modo idem est "totum" et "perfectum", et sic describitur: totum est cui nihil est extra.
  • Si sincategoreuma: tunc significat totalitatem subiecti inquantum subiectum; et sic est distributivum et sic solet dici totum materiale.
And so they apply it to mentioned sophisma, e.g.:
Richard the Sophister [Ricarde Sophista] (13th century), perhaps identical with Richard Rufus of Cornwall (c.1200-1260).
(MS Digby 24, f. 68vb; transcribed Tachau et al.; quoted in Kretzmann, p. 235; middle column is from Bibliotheca Augustana)
Solutio: ‹Totum› est aequiuocum sicut dixi. Sumpto uero illo sensu quo idem est quod ‹quaelibet pars› est maior uera et minor falsa. Si dicatur ‹totum› ‹ex partibus perfectum›, accidit econtrario.Solutio. "Totus Socrates" est aequivocum sicut dixi; et illo sumpto pro eo quod est "quaelibet pars", maior vera et minor falsa. Si dicatur "totus" "perfectum ex partibus", accidit econverso.
Henry of Ghent (c. 1217 – 1293), a notable scholastic philosopher and theologian, "Doctor Solemnis" [the Solemn Doctor].
(ed. Braakhius 1978, 9.23-10.6; quoted in Kretzmann, p. 235)
Solutio: dicendum quod prima est duplex ex eo quod hoc signum "totus" teneri potest collective vel distributive. Si teneatur collective: sic est falsa, ut inprobatur; et est sensus: "totus Sortes est minor Sorte", idest: "Sortes ex omnibus suis partibus conpositus simul sumptis est minor Sorte." Si teneatur distributive: sic est vera, ut probatur; et est sensus: "totus Sortes etc.", idest: quelibet pars Sortis per se sumpta est minor Sorte
Walter Burley (c. 1275–1344/5)
(ed. Boehner 1955, 256.23-7; quoted in Kretzmann, p. 234)
Solutio. Prima est multiplex secundum aequivocationem, eo quod li "totus" potest teneri categorematice, et sic est falsa, quia denotatur, quod perfectus Sortes ex suis partibus est minor Sorte. Si autem intelligatur syncategorematice, sic est verum, quia denotatur, quod quaelibet pars Sortis est minor Sorte.
etc.
 
 

Scholastics and modern exegetes

There are innumerable places in Bible, where they noted that word "all" is put for many. E.g. first such place of Gospel according Mark is Mark 1:5
And there went out to him all the country of Judea, and all they of Jerusalem.Et egrediebatur ad illum omnis Iudaeae regio et Hierosolymitae universi.καὶ ἐξεπορεύετο πρὸς αὐτὸν πᾶσα ἡ Ἰουδαία χώρα καὶ οἱ Ἱεροσολυμῖται πάντες
So Nicholas of Lyra (c.1270-1349), OFM. noted here:
to Mark 1:5 (Postillae perpetuae in universam S. Scripturam; ed. Bibliorum sacrorum cum glossa ordinaria, Venetiis, 1603, vol. V., p. 484)
Idest, multi de illa regione et de Ierosolymis. Et est hyperbolica loquutio, sicut in communi modo loquendi dicitur de aliquo spectaculo. Tota civitas vadit ad tale spectaculum, licet aliquando maior pars populi non vadat.
And shortly later again: Mark 1:33 (Postillae perpetuae in universam S. Scripturam; ed. Bibliorum sacrorum cum glossa ordinaria, Venetiis, 1603, vol. V., p. 496)
Et erat omnis civitas. Idest, multi de civitate. Et est modus, loquendi hyperbolicus, sicut supra dictum est.
Note: this last passage is immediately before his note to Mark 1:34 where he says, that word "many" can be understood for all.
etc.
 
Similarly to the classical example Philippians 2:21 [all seek their own, not the things of Jesus Christ] (vol. 6, col. 858)
Omnes enim quaerunt, etc. id est multi praedicando quaerunt temporale lucrum. Et est hyperbole, sicut cum dicitur: Omnes de civitate vadunt ad tale festum: cum tamen plures frequenter remaneant.
 
 
THOMAS Aquinas (1225–1274), O.P.
to Philippians 2:21 (Super Philip., cap. 2 lectio 4).
["All look after their own (things/interests), not those of Jesus Christ"]
["omnes enim sua quaerunt non quae sunt Christi Iesu"]
But did Luke and Epaphroditus and the others, who were with the Apostle seek the things that were their own? I answer that in the company of the Apostle were many who sought this and who deserted him:
    “For Demas, in love with this present world, has deserted me and gone to Thessalonica; Crescens has gone to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia. Luke alone is with me” (2 Tim. 4:9).
But it is a custom that sometimes the Scripture speaks about some as about all:
    “For from the least of them even to the greatest, all are given to covetousness: and from the prophet even to the priest, all are guilty of deceit.” (Jer. 6:13).
Therefore it is an accommodated distribution.
Sed numquid Lucas et Epaphroditus et alii, qui erant cum apostolo, quaerebant quae sua sunt? Respondeo. Dicendum est, quod in societate apostoli plures erant, qui hoc quaerebant, qui et deseruerunt eum.
    II Tim. IV, 10: demas enim me dereliquit, diligens saeculum, et abiit Thessalonicam: Crescens in Galatiam: Titus in Dalmatiam: Lucas et mecum solus.
Sed consuetudo est quod aliquando Scriptura loquitur de nonnullis, sicut de omnibus.
    Ier. c. VI, 13: a minori quippe usque ad maiorem omnes avaritiae student, et a propheta usque ad sacerdotem cuncti faciunt dolum, et cetera.
Et ideo est distributio accommoda.
to Psalm 22:7 (Super Psalmo 21 n. 5)
That it is universal he shows when he says, because of the people and the rulers: and this distribution, "All," is understood for all - namely evil - the people.Quod sit universalis, ostendit cum dicit,
  • Omnes videntes me deriserunt me:
  • Hier. 20. Tota die omnes subsannabant mihi
quia populi et principes: et haec distributio, Omnes, pro toto populo intelligitur, scilicet malo.
to 1 Corinthians 6:12 (Super I Cor., cap. 6 lectio 2.; it is written probably by Thomas or at least in his style)
what Apostle says here: "All (things) are lawful for me", it cannot be understood absolutely, but as to be accommodated distribution under this sense: "All (things)" - namely that are not prohibited by divine law - "are lawful for me."quod hic apostolus dicit omnia mihi licent, non potest absolute intelligi, sed ut sit accomoda distributio sub hoc sensu: omnia mihi licent, quae scilicet divina lege non prohibentur.
Super Sent., lib. 1 d. 43 q. 1 a. 2
Obj.: faith is possible to make anything, because nothing is impossible to the believer (Matt. 17:20). But faith pours upon creatures. Therefore omnipotence is communicated.[arg. 3] fides facit omnia possibilia: quia nihil impossibile est credenti, sicut habetur Matth. 17. Sed fides creaturae infunditur. Ergo et omnipotentia communicatur.
Resp.: it should be said, that there is an accommodated distribution. ...[ad 3] dicendum, quod ibi est accommoda distributio. Non enim virtus fidei absolute ad omnia se extendit, sicut ad creationem caeli, et hujusmodi; sed tantum ad ea quae faciunt ad confirmationem fidei, ut suscitare mortuos, sanare infirmos, et hujusmodi. Nec ista etiam efficiuntur aliqua virtute creata quae sit in credente, sed virtute increata ad preces fidelis: et ideo dictum est supra, in corp. art., quod homo nec per se nec a se ista facit. Hoc autem attribuitur potius fidei quam alii virtuti, inquantum ea quae creduntur, quodammodo miraculis probantur, ut habetur Marc. ult., 20: domino cooperante, et sermonem confirmante, sequentibus signis.
 
In the same time also Nicholas of Gorran (1232-1295), O.P. - whose commentary was sometimes attributed to Thomas himself - admitted possibility of this scholastic interpretation even in passage: "and all kings shall serve him, and shall obey him" (Daniel 7:27; cf. Psalm 72:11)
In VII epistolas canonicas expositio - Prooemium
omnes reges servient ei, idest servire debent. Vel, ut sit distributio accommoda, quod quotquot servient ei erunt reges; quia ei servire regnare est, secundum Gregorium in Glossa super illud, Paulus servus Jesu Christi etc. ad Rom. 1.
 
 

Against objection of Jews

Understanding of word "all" was disputed also in traditonal response against objection of Jews, who argued, that Isaiah said:
Isaiah 2:2
And it hath come to pass, In the latter end of the days, Established is the mount of LORD's house, Above the top of the mounts, And it hath been lifted up above the heights, And flowed unto it have all the nations.Εt erit in novissimis diebus praeparatus mons domus Domini in vertice montium et elevabitur super colles et fluent ad eum omnes gentes.
    והיה באחרית הימים נכון יהיה הר בית יהוה בראש ההרים ונשא מגבעות ונהרו אליו כל הגוים
But not all nations went to Christ. Therefore - thought they - he was not Messiah. Classical response against them was made by theologian Martí. Who by many reasons showed, that this Jewish argument is incorrect. And one of his observation was also about word "all." This observation was adopted by many later theologians.
 
 
Ramón Martí [Raymundus Martinus] (c.1225-c.1285), O.P., theologian, very learned in hebrew language and rabbinic literature.
Pugio fidei, pars II, cap. XII, § XI. (Paris: 1651, p. 345; Leipzig: 1687, p. 431-432).
(Word) כל all, every one, whole or totality - among prophets and theologians it is not taken so strictly as it is taken by logicians. And since there are many examples for this in Scripture, few suffice to bring forward. In 2 Samuel 16:22 it is written in this manner: כל omnis, cunctus, universus, vel totus, non sumitur ita stricte apud prophetas, et Theologos, sicut sumitur apud Dialecticos; et quia ad hoc in Scriptura sacra multa exempla sunt, pauca induxisse sufficiat. In secundo ergo Regum cap. 17. v. 22 hoc modo scriptum est
    And Absalom went in to his father's concubines in the sight of all or whole Israel.
    ויבא אבשלום אל פלגשי אביו לעיני כל ישראל
Et ingressus est Absolom ad concubinas patris sui ad oculos omnis vel totius Israel.
And further in 2 Samuel 17:14 it is says in these words:Item ulterius in eodem capitulo v. 14. dictum est in haec verba:
    And Absalom and all the men of Israel said: good or better is the counsel of Hushai the Archite than the counsel of Ahithophel.
    ויאמר אבשלום וכל איש ישראל טובה עצת חושי הארכי מעצת אחיתפל
Et dixit Absalom, et omnis vir Israel; Bonum vel melius est consilium Chusi Arachitae, quam consilium Achitophel.
Behold, very frequently sacred Scripture put this word, but still no one is so cooked or so vehemently unsalted, who would say, that there was no one from Israel, who didn't see Absolon commiting a previously-mentioned shameful-act and approbating the counsel of Hushai, because Scripture said: "All Israel, etc." and "All men": because many more without number had to be absent than those who where considered present, who were with David and who remained in all limits of Israel. This however optimally is received from that, that there from mentioned Husai is mentioned Absalom (2 Samuel 17:11):Ecce qualiter passim sacra Scriptura ponit hoc nomen nec tamen est aliquis tam male coctus; aut tam vehementer insulsus qui dicat nullum de Israele debere defuisse qui et Absolomum non videret ante-dictum perpetrare flagitium, et Chusi Arachitae approbaret consilium, quia Scriptura dixerit, Omnis Israel, etc. et omnis vir: siquidem multo plures absque numero oportet fuisse absentes, quam praesentes illis consideratis qui erant cum David, et qui remanserant in cunctis finibus Israel. Hoc autem optimè patet ex eo quod ibidem à supradicto Chusi dictum est Absalomo;
    Let - says he - all Israel be diligently gathered unto thee, from Dan even unto Beer-Sheba, as the sand that is by the sea for multitude.
    יאסף עליך כל ישראל מדן ועד באר שבע כחול אשר על הים לרב
Congregetur ad te, inquit, omnis Israel a Dan usque Beerseba, sicut arena quae est super mare propter multitudinem.
And Psalm 42:7Item Psal. 42. v. 8.
    All Your breakers and Your waves have rolled over me.
    כל משבריך וגליך עלי עברו
Omnes confractiones tuae, et fluctus vel undae tuae transierunt super me.
And Psalm 118:10Et Psalmo centesimo decimo octavo, vers. 10.
    All nations compassed me about: In the name of Lord I will cut them off.
    כל גוים סבבוני בשם יהוה כי אמילם
Omnes gentes circumdederunt me, in nomine Domini scindam eas.
... Therefore frequently word "all" is taken not for all and every one, but for many. And this is what R. David Kimhi says in second part of Michlol with inscribed (Ha)shorashim. For in root כל "all" he tells:Non sanae, ut opinor, mentis reputabitur aliquis si asserat omnes confractiones, et fluctus quos habet Deus, sive tribulationum, sive maris intelligat, super Davidem, vel alium quempiam transivisse, et omnes mundi gentes ipsum circumdedisse deficiente nullo, quia Scriptura sic loquitur. Distribuit itaque frequenter et hic, et alibi haec dictio OMNIS, atque supponit non quidem pro omnibus, et singulis, sed pro multis. Et hoc est quod dicit R. David Kimhi in secunda parte Michlol, quam inscripsit Schoraschim, in Radice כל omnis ait enim;
כל ("all") is a diction comprehending totality and sometimes part of multitude, as
    כל היא מלה כוללת הפרטים . ופעמים חבא על דרך הפלגת הרבוי כמו
Соl est dictio comprehendens singularia, et aliquotiens partem multitudinis, ut
Gen. 41. v. 16.
      "And all the earth come to Egypt"
    וכל הארץ באו מצרימה
    Et omnis terra venerunt in Aegyptum.
Item Genes. 24. v. 10.
      Also of all the goods of his lord in his hand.
    וכל טוב אדניו בידו ויקם
    Et omnia bona Domini sui sub manibus ejus.
Item 4. Reg. 8. v. 9.
      And took a present with him, even of every good thing of Damascus.
    מנחה בידו וכל טוב דמשק
    Et accepit munus in manu sua, et omnia bona Damasci.
Note: mentioned Rabbi David Kimhi (1160–1235) was jewish scholar and noted grammarian. His book, Michlol (מכלול), draws heavily on the earlier works of Rabbi Judah ben David Hayyuj (11th century) and Rabbi Jonah ibn Janah (c. 990 - c. 1050). Book called "Sefer Hashorashim" (Book of Roots) (ספר השורשים) is a dictionary of the Hebrew language. In modern times it was published as Rabbi Davidis Kimchi - Radicum Liber. Berolini : Bethge, 1847. Quoted passage is there on page 163.
 
 
GALATINO, Pietro Colonna [Petrus Galatinus] (c.1460-c.1539), OFM., confessor of Pope Leo X.
in year 1516 AD, De arcanis catholicae veritatis, lib. 5, cap. 4 (fol. CLXa-CLXb)
Firstly he repeated the whole observation of Ramón Martí (quoted above) and consequently he added:
... Isaiah 2:2-3 ... compared with ... Micah 4:1-2Ex his igitur clarum est, quod dicto haec haebraica כל col id est OMNIS saepe numero non pro omnibus ac singulis, sed pro multis accipitur. Qui quidem loquendi modus a caeteris quoque omnibus servari solet. Cum enim pars hominum magna alicuius civitatis as spectaculum aliquod vadit, totam civitatem - aut omnes homines ipsius - vel etiam totum mundum eo concurrisse dicimus. Hunc autem loquendi modum passim in sacra scriptura reperiri ostendimus. Quod autem hoc in loco sic sumenda sit: ex ipsius Isaiae verbis patenter ostenditur. Nam cum dixisset. Et fluent ad eum omnes gentes, statim se ipsum quasi exponens - subjecit. Et ibunt populi multi. Hinc Michaeas qui eodem tempore cum Isaia prophetavit, haec eadem verba referens: Isaiam ipsum in hoc sensu fuisse locutum ostendit: ita. iiii. c. dicens ונהרו עליו עמים והלכו גוים רבים Id est. Et fluent ad eum populi : et ibunt gentes multae.
TODO
 
 
GOTTI, Vincenzo Ludovico (1664–1742), O.P., cardinal, theologian.
Veritas Religionis Christianae contra Atheos, Polytheos, Idolatras, Mahometanos et Judaeos, vol. 1, cap. x: §.5 [Judaeorum objecta] / num. xxxiii (Romae, 1735, t. 1, p. 169)
Fluent item ad eum omnes gentes, omnes enim gentes servieut ei Ps.71.11. cui dictum est Ps.2.8. Postula a me, et dabo tibi gentes haereditatem tuam, et possesionem tuam terminos terrae; ut serviant ei juxta Sophoniam 3.9. sub jugo uno. Ita S. Hieronymus in Esaiam c.2. Omnes, inquam, gentes, non ita ample, ut sumatur pro omnibus et singulis universim, et pro quovis tempore, sed pro multis, seu ex omnibus gentibus multae ad eum fluent; unde quasi se restringens Esaias subjungit: Et ibunt populi multi: nec semper ly omnes universitatem, sed faepè multitudinem exprimit; ut cum dicitur 2. Reg. 16. 22. Ingressus est (Absalom) ad concubinas Patris sui соram universo Israel, et ibi cap. 17. vers. 14. Dixitque Absalom, et omnes viri Israel; et vers. 11. Congregetur ad te universus Israel à Dan usque Bersabee, quasi arena maris innumerabilis. Hic quis tam insulsus dicet, ly universus et omnis debere accipi distributivè et rigorose, ita ut nullus deficeret ex Israel, qui non videret Absalonem perpetrantem illud flagitium, quique non loqueretur, aut congregaretur ad ipsum, cum multi absque numero essent absentes, cum multi eorum vel essent cum David, vel in domibus suis remansissent? Sumto autem ly omnes cum distributione accommoda, quis negare audebit, omnes gentes praedicatione Apostolorum, ac successorum ejus, ad Jesum confluxisse; in eoque oraculum fuisse impletum?
 
 

Word "all" according modern theologians

 
 
TOSTATUS, Alonso (c.1400-1455), bishop, exegete.
on Joshua 6:27 [In Josue, cap. VI, q. 69] (Commentaria. Venetiis: 1728. tom. VIII. p. 198)
"And the Lord was with Josue, and his name was noised throughout all the land."
Et nomen ejus in оmnem terram vulgatum est. [...] ideo vulgaretur nomen ejus per omnes terras. Non tamen est intelligendum quod vere per omnes terras vulgaretur nomen Josue, quia ad parvum spacium terrae pervenit nomen ejus. Sed dicitur, quod vulgatum fuit in omni terra, accipiendo hyperbolice, cum parva signantes majora exprimimus: sic patet ex modo loquendi sacrae scripturae frequenter ut patet Genes. capit. 41. scilicet,
    Omnes provinciae veniebant in AEgyptum, ut emetent escas, et malum inopiae temperarent,
et tamen manifestum est, quod non veniebant omnes provinciae in AЕеурtum, quia non erat verisimile, nec AEgyptus suffecisset ad duos menses, ut daret escas toti mundo, sed dicitur omnes provinciae, id est, multae provinciae scilicet, quia provinciae conjunctae AEgypto, ut terra Chanaan, et Arabes, et similes terrae veniebant in AEgyptum.
on Joshua 6:27 [In Josue, cap. VI, q. 72] (Commentaria. Venetiis: 1728. tom. VIII. p. 199)
"And the Lord was with Josue, and his name was noised throughout all the land."
Ideo dicendum est, quod fama Josue de facto isto non fuit per omnem terram vulgata, [...] sed vulgatum est nomen ejus per aliquas terras vicinas, sicut dicitur, quod in AEgyptum veniebant omnes provinciae, ur emerent escas, ut patet Genes. c. quadragesimoprimo, sed non veniebant omnes.
on 1 Samuel 27:9 [Vulg] [Commentaria in I Regum, cap. XXVII, quaestio XXIII] (Commentaria, Venetiis 1728, vol. XII, p. 255)
"And David wasted all the land"
Et percutiebat David omnem terram illorum, idest, istarum trium gentium. Non est intelligendum, quod omnem terram ipsarum percusserit: quia cum non relinqueret viventem in locis, in quibus praedabatur, deleti fuissent prorsus Amalecitae, Gessuri, et Gerzi. Sed falsum est, ut supra declaratum fuit: sed intelligitur, quod percutiebat omnem terram illorum, idest, magnam partem terrae. Sic accipitur saepe in scriptura, ut patet Genes. cap. 41. scilicet: Omnes provinciae veniebant in Ægyptum, ut emerent escas. Et tamen certum est, quod non veniebant de omnibus partibus mundi; ita, quod nullæ gentes residuae essent, quin venirent, et infra lib. 3. cap. 4. dicitur, quod omnes reges terræ veniebant ad audiendum sapientiam Salomonis, et tamen certum est, quod non veniebant omnes: quia non poterant. Nec unquam fuit aliquis homo, cujus fama ad omnes homines diffusa fuerit: et non solum hominis, sed urbis: nulla enim fuit urbs, nec est, cujus fama apud omnes gentes dilatata sit. Sic ait Boetius, secundo de Consolat. prosa septima, quod tempore Marci Ciceronis, fama Romanae urbis Caucasum montem non transcenderat. Erat tamen tunc Roma florentissima. Aliter potest exponi, quod percutiebat omnem terram illorum, idest, omnia loca, quae invadebat: quia in locis, quae ipse depraedabatur, nullum vivere permittebat.
on 2 Kings 3 [Commentaria in Librum IV Regum, cap. IV, quaestio XVI] (Commentaria, Venetiis 1728, vol. XV, p. 41)
Tertiò potest dici, et meliùs, quòd Israelitae non peccaverunt, quamquàm non deleverunt civitatem, in qua erat rex Moab. Et quando dicitur, quòd non deleverunt omnem civitatem, nec impleverunt praeceptum, dicendum, quòd impleverunt, et quòd deleverunt omnes civitates; nam omnis scriptura rarissimè accipitur pro omnibus, sed pro multis. et delendo multas, impleverunt praeceptum. Hoc autem tenet littera infra, dicens:
    percusserunt Moab, et civitates destruxerunt, et omnem agrum optimum mittentes singuli lapides repleverunt, et universos fontes aquarum obturaverunt, et omnia ligna fructifera succiderunt.
Et sic ponuntur ibi implecta omnia, quae jubentur hic.
on 2 Kings 3:25 [Commentaria in Librum IV Regum, cap. IV, quaestio XXII] (Commentaria, Venetiis 1728, vol. XV, p. 44)
"And they destroyed the cities: and they filled every goodly field, every man casting his stone: and they stopt up all the springs of waters: and cut down all the trees that bore fruit"
Et omnia ligna fructifera succiderunt, scilicet non reliquerunt arborem fructiferam in terra. Istud intelligendum est non omninò universaliter, quia aliqui fontes manerent in terra non obturati. Nam dato, quod Israelitae vellent obturare omnes fontes terrae illius, non possent: quia non invenirent omnes, cùm aliqui essent in montibus, et in locis separatissimis. Etiam non succiderent omnes arbores fructiferas, quia non possent omnes invenire. Etiam non replererent omnes agros lapidibus, quia forte non possent habere lapides in terra Moab ad replendum omnes agros. De civitatibus etiam patet, quòd non destruxerunt omnes: quia non destruxerunt illam, in qua erat rex Moab, ut patet infra. Sed succiderunt maximam partem arborum, et obturaverunt plurimos fontes, et repleverunt lapidibus multos agros, et scriptura vocat istos, omnes, ponens omnes, pro multis.

Note of editor:
Distributio accommoda pro generibus singulorum est usitatissime in sacra scriptura. Vide met. de abulen. Josue. c. 6. q. 69. et. 72.
on 2 Kings 8 [Commentaria in Librum IV Regum, cap. VIII, quaestio XIX] (Commentaria, Venetiis 1728, vol. XV, p. 142)
TODO
2 Kings 24:13 [Commentaria in Librum IV Regum, cap. XXIV, quaestio IV] (Commentaria, Venetiis 1728, vol. XV, p. 421)
"and he cut in pieces all the vessels of gold which Solomon king of Israel had made in the temple of the Lord"
Et concidit universa vasa aurea, quae fecerat Salomon rex Israël in templo Domini. Idest, accepit de templo Domini omnia vasa, quae fecerat Salomon [...] cùm dicitur hic: universa vasa, non est intelligendum de omnibus, quia aliqua vasa aurea, et argentea de illis, quae fecerat Salomon, translata sunt in Babylonem postea, quando capta est civitas tempore Sedeciae: sequent. cap. et Jerem. cap. ultim. ergo aliqua manserunt nunc, sed Scriptura consuevit dicere omnia, vel universa pro multis
on 2 Chronicles [in II. Paralip., cap. VIII, quaestio XIII] (Commentaria, Venetiis 1728, vol. XVII, p. 187)
omnis non accipitur semper pro omnibus, sed pro multis
on 2 Chronicles 9:14 (Commentaria, Venetiis 1728, vol. XVII, p. 201)
accipitur largè de omnibus terris secundum modum loquendi Scripturae, quia ponitur universalis propositio non universaiter, scilicet omnes pro multis.
on 2 Chronicles 12:1 ["he forsook the law of the LORD, and all Israel with him"] (Commentaria, Venetiis 1728, vol. XVII, p. 225)
non declinaverant omnes ad idola, sed Scriptura solet ponere omnes pro multis, secundum modum loquendi suum: et sic nos etiam in vulgari lingua loquimur.
on Matthew 8:14-17 [in Matt. cap. VIII., Quaestio 49.] (Comment. in III. partem Matthaei. Venetiis: 1728. 237). he mentioned (whole commentary of this passage we quoted above):
Omnes ad modum loquendi Scripturae, quia solet dicere: Omnes pro multis, Genes. cap. quadragesimoprimo: Omnes Provinciae veniebant in AEgyptum, ut emerent escas; et tamen manifestum est, quod non poterant de omnibus partibus orbis venire ad AEgyptum tempore famis pro cibis, quia non suffecisset AEgyptus toti orbi pro una die, et etiam quia non erat possibile de toto orbe venire in AEgyptum; sic etiam Jerem. cap. nono: Omnis frater supplantans supplantabit, et omnis amicus fraudulenter incedet; et tamen non est verum hoc universaliter, sed solùm de multis.
on Matthew 21:10 [all the city was stirred/moved, saying, Who is this?] (Commentaria in quintam partem Matthaei, Venetiis 1605, p. 399)
dicitur tota civitas commota non quidem, quod nemo manserit in tota urbe, qui ad hoc spectaculum non convenerit, sed quia plurimi convenerant, ita ut omnes convenisse viderentur, et tunc uniuersum vel omnes ponere solemus, et ita hyperbolicè pro multis omnes dicimus.
on Matthew 23, q. 258 (Commentaria, tom. XXIII, Commentaria in sextam partem Matthaei, Venetiis 1728, par. 6., p. 430). he also mentioned, that some interpreted it restrictively - but he disagree.
TODO
on Matthew 24:9 ("hated by all men") [in Evang. Matth. cap. XXIV, q. 73] (Commentaria, tom. XXIII, Commentaria in sextam partem Matthaei, Venetiis 1728, par. 6., p. 476)
Quaeritur, quomodo est verum, quod dicitur: Eritis odio omnibus hominibus?
Nam non oderant eos omnes homines; ad hoc autem, quòd eos odissent, oportebat, quòd eos agnoscerent: sed multi erant in orbe, qui non noverunt, neque viderant, aut audierant nominari Apostolos Christi; ergo non poterant eos omnes homines odisse. Dici potest uno modo, quòd dictum est hoc per hyperbolem, scilicet omnibus hominibus, idest multis, sicut consuetum est in vulgari locutione, et in Sacra Scriptura, sicut dicitur: Omnes provinciae veniebant in Aegyptum, ut emerent escas, Gen. cap. 41. Et tamen certum erat, quòd non ibant illuc omnes provinciae, sed aliquae. Sic dicit Origenes super Matth. scilicet: Sed quomodo hominibus in ultimis partibus terrae commorantibus odio habetur populus Christi? Et respondit, dicens: Nisi forte et hoc aliquis dicat propter exaggerationem positum omnibus pro multis.
Secundò potest dici, quòd verurn est, quòd odio habebantur omnibus hominibus, scilicet omnibus illis, inter quos conversabantur, et quibus repugnabant in fide, et ritu vivendi, et quia repugnabant in fide, et cultu Dei omnibus gentibus, òmnes erant eis infeste, sed de Apostolis, et omnibus discipulis Christi quare odio haberentur ab omnibus hominibus, posuimus quatuor causas supra cap. 10. quest. 109. et ibi vide.
TODO
 
 
SALMERON, Alfonso (1515-1585), S.J., exegete, papal theologian on council of Trent.
Prolegomenon XI, quinquagenta III, canon XLII (Madriti, 1598, vol. I, p. 268-269; Venetiis 1601, vol. I, pag. 203)
CANON XLII. Universales interdum propositiones, etsi communiter sint accipiendae, quales sunt: Universae viae Domini, misericordia, et veritas; (Psal. 24.) et Illuminat omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum (Joan. 1.): quae vox, si de lumine naturali sit sermo, universe intelligitur, etsi aliquando aliter contingat ob defectum materiae: si vero de lumine gratiae, et gloriae, explicanda est; quod aut ex se illuminat omnem hominem, aut omnem accepit pro multis: saepe tamen capitur universalis pro infinita, et incerta, secundùm id: Laudabuntur omnes qui iurant in eo (Psal. 62.): non quidem omnes, qui aut dolose, aut vane iurant, sed qui recte, et cum debitis suis circunstantiis. Ita Apostolus ait: Omnis qui in agone contendit, ab omnibus se abstinet (1.Cor.9.); id est, à multis abstinet cibis. Et Levit. 11. Omne quod habet divisam ungulam, et ruminat in pecoribus, соmedetis: quod non extenditur ad cadavera, vel animantia à feris dilaniata. Matth. 24. Eritis odio omnibus Gentibus propter nomem meum; cum tamen multi Apostolos diligerent, et pro illis cervices suas gladio supponerent: et rursus: Beati estis, cum male dixerint vobis homines, etc. et dixerint omne malum adversum vos (Supra 5.), id est multa verba contumeliosa. Adhaec: Omnes quotquot venerunt, fures sunt, et latrones (Joan. 10.): nec tamen omnes intelligendi sunt, nisi qui sua sponte non missi venerunt. Et ita Graeca lectio habet: Quotquot ante me venerunt, id est ante meam vocationem, Messiae scilicet nomen sibi usurpantes, et à Deo non missi, juxta illud: Non mittebam prophetas, et ipsi currebant: non loquebar ad eos, et ipsi prophetabant (Hierem. 23.).
Item illud Gen.3. Vocavit Adam nemen uxoris suae Eua, eo quod mater esset сunctorum viventium: quod tamen ad omnia animantia irrationalia extendi non debet. Similiter dicitur exisse edictum a Caesare Augusto ut describeretur universus orbis (Luc. 2): quod de orbe Imperio Romano subjecto intelligendum est tantùm: sicut illud, Fides vestra annuntiatur in universo mundo (Rom. 1.), id est in multis ejus partibus. Ita Genes. 41. dicitur omnis terra sive omnes provinciae venisse in Aegyptum, id est bona ejus pars, quae Aegypto circumiacebat. Ad eum sensum accipiendum est quod saepè dicitur: Omnis caro (Supra 6.), quod non de bestiarum, aut volucrum, aut piscium est accipiendum, sed de humana tantùm, ut etiam explicat Hieronymus in Zachariam (in 2. cap.), in illud: Sileat omnis caro à facie Domini, etc. Ut ibi: Omnis caro corruperat viam suam [Gen.6]; et, Omnis caro ad te veniet (Psal. 64): Ex operibus legis non justificabitur omnis caro coram illo (Rom. 3.). Nec enim omnis caro irrationabilium ventura est animantium, sed illa, quae donum sancti Spiritus susceptura est, de qua: Effundam de Spiritu meo super omnem carnem (Joel 2. et Act. 2.). Quod vero dicitur: Omnes declinaverunt, simul inutiles facti sunt (Psal. 13. et Rom. 3.); et, Ego dixi in excessu meo, Omnis homo mendax: (Psal. 115. et Rom. 3.) non sunt haec in universum accipienda: aliôquin et ipse qui scribit, declinasser, et is qui dicebat, omnem hominem mendacem, mendax esset. Sicut et quod Paulus ait: Corripientes omnem hominem docentes in omni sapientia (Coloss. 1.); cùm tamen multi doctrinam ejus non audirent; sed ipse quod ad se spectabat, omnes paratus erat corripere, et docere.
Quemadmodum etiam universales propositiones pro infinitis poni consueuerunt; ita e contrario infinitae pro universalibus usurpantur. Exempla sunt in promptu: Qui crediderit, et baptizatus fueris, salvus erit (Marc. ult.). Qui credit in me, sicut dicit Scriptura, flumina de ventre ejus fluent aquae vivae (Joan.7.). Beatus vir qui non abiit in consilio impiorum (Psal. 1.) Beatus vir qui timet Dominum (Psal. 111). Beatus qui intelligit super egenum, et pauperem (Psal. 40.). Beatus dives qui inventus est sine macula, et qui post aurum non abiit, etc. Qui maledixerit patri suo, vel matri, morte moriatur (Exod. 21.); id est, Quicunque maledixerit. Quae quidem omnes propositiones in universum sunt accipiendae, etiamsi infinite proferantur. Et ad hos locos referendi sunt illi, in quibus Multi ponitur pro omnibus, iuxta illud: Filius hominis venit dare animam suam in redemptionem pro multis (Matth. 20). Et rursus. Hic est sanguis meus Novi Testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum (Infra 26.). Ubi Theophylactus: Pro multis dicit effundi, hoc est pro omnibus: sunt enim et omnes multi. Et Rom. 5. Si enim unius delicto multi mortui sunt; multo magis, etc. Constat autem mortem peccati in omnes homines descendisse. Et Augustin. lib. contra Julianum (lib. 6, cap. 12), idem cum Theophylacto prorsus annotavit.
Prolegomenon XIV, formula XXI-XXII (Madriti, 1598, vol. I, pag. 337-338; Venetiis 1601, vol. I, p. 255-256)
FORMULA XXI
Dictio Hebraea Col, quae omni generi, casui, et numero deservit in lingua Sancta, et omnis, omne, omnes, et omnia significat, pro multis accipi per hyperbolen consueuit. Exempla sunt: Omnes auaritiae student (Hierem. 6); Omnes quae sua sunt quaerunt (Philip. 2); Si dimittimus eum sic, omnes credent in eum (Joan. II); et, Mundus totus post eum abiit (Infra. 12). Hinc Hieronymus in capit. 13 Isaiae: Idioma est, inquit, Sanctae Scripturae, ut оmnem terram illius significet provinciae, de qua sermo est: quod quidam non intelligetes, ad omnium terrarum subversionem trahunt.
Id ipsum Augustinus lib. contra Julianum (lib. 6, c. 12) observavit. In hunc sensum dicitur Herodes turbatus, et omnis Hierosolyma cum illo (Matth. 2); et Cyrus dixit: Omnia regna terrae dedit mihi Dominus Deus Coeli (1.Esd.1). Rectè ergo omnis, accipitur pro parte maxima, eo quod quae minora sunt, in majoribus intelligantur. Velut cùm dicitur: Omnis civitas conclamavit: eo quod bona pars civitatis id fecerit. Et Paulus: Omnes me dereliquerunt: Non quod Timotheus, et Titus, et caeteri discipuli, qui illo tempore, quo conscribebantur epistolae, cum eo erant, illum dereliquerint; sed idcirco quia à pluribus desertus est, ab omnibus se desertum, id est à maxima parte, conqueritur. Item David cum ait, Omnis homo mendax, esset et ipse qui loquitur, mendax. Cùm etiam dicitur a B. Paulo: Corrigientes оmnem hominem, et docentes in omni sapientia, ut exhibeamus omnem hominem perfectum in Christo Jesu: intellige, qui se imbuendum tradat: nam aliôqui multi repugnabant, et audire nolebant. Plura si volet exempla studiosus Lector poterit ex XLII Canone secundae Quinquagae desumere: haec paucula ad rem nostram spectantia satis esse visa sunt.
FORMULA XXII [Interdum Scriptura multos dicit pro omnibus]
Multi, aliquando dicuntur omnes: quemadmodùm Matth. 20. Sicut Filius hominis non venit ministrari, sed ministrare, et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis: id est, pro omnibus. Hoc idem Augustinus lib. 6. contra Julianum ... Et Euthymius in cap. Matth. 26. in id: Qui pro multis effunditur: Multos hîc dicit omnes: nam omnes multi sunt. Sic ille. Similia sunt illa: Sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis, peccatores constituti sunt multi: ita et per unius obeditionem, justi constituti sunt multi. Et rursus: Si unius delicto multi mortui sunt, multo magis gratia Dei, et donum in gratia unius hominis Christi in plures abundavit. Ubi nomen multi et plures, Graecé dicitur πολλούς.
 
 
CANTALAPIEDRA, Martín Martínez de (1518-1579), theologian, exegete, professor of hebrew language in University of Salamanca.
Hypotyposeon, lib. 6, cap. III [De signis universalibus] (Salamanticae, 1582. col. 460-461; Madrid, 1771, p. 183-184), it is whole quoted also by Manuel Bernardo de Ribera/Rivera (1720-1765), O.SS.T. in Institutionum philosophicarum Salmanticae, 1754, vol. 1, p. 196.
Propositio universalis affirmativa interdùm universaliter capitur : ut Psalm. 24. omnes viae Domini misericordia, et veritas. Et apud Joan. cap. 1. Qui illuminat omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum: si intelligatur de lumine naturali, universaliter intelligitur: si de lumine gratiae, pro multis accipitur omnis. Porrò haec universalitas referenda est ad dictionem, cui adjungitur: ut 2. Paralip. 9. Magnificatus est rex Salomon prae omnibus regibus terrae: non universae terrae, sed regionis illius, et illi adjacentium. Et Actuum 11. Agabus significabat per spiritum, famem magnam futuram in universo orbe terrarum, quae facta est sub Claudio Caesare: in universo orbe, id est, in tota Judaea, per Synecdochem. Hoc est quod ait Hieronymus, Isaiae 13. Idioma est, inquit, sacrae scripturae, ut omnem terram illius significet provinciae, de qua sermo est. Ut apud Isaiam: "Dominus exercituum praecepit militiae belli, ut disperderet omnem terram": quod quidam non intelligentes, ad omnium terrarum subversionem trahunt; cum de Babylone tantùm sit locus intelligendus. Et Ambrosius, lib. 3. de Vocatione gentium, inter alia multa ait: Sermo Divinus, hac utitur consuetudine, ut ea, quae de quadam parte dicuntur, ad omnes homines pertinere videantur. Sic interdùm et pro parte terrae omnem terram, et pro parte mundi totum mundum, et pro parte hominum omnes homines nominantur: ut: Omnes declinaverunt.
......
Sometimes universal (terms) is not understood absolutely and universally.
  • as Levi. 11. All that have the hoof divided, and chew the cud among the beasts, you shall eat, that is not extended to the dead bodies, nor to the animals torn by the beasts,
  • and Genes. 3. And Adam called the name of his wife Eve: because she was the mother of all the living, that it is not extended to the irrational,
  • and Gene. 41. all the earth hath come to Egypt, i.e. its great part,
  • and in Luke. there went out a decree from Caesar that all the world should be taxed, but whole world was not subject to the Roman Empire,
  • and to Rom. 1. Paul your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world, i.e. in many places.
  • And you shall be hated by all because of my name, (Matt. 10) while many loved the apostles and for them they would put their necks under the sword,
  • And, all who came before Me are thieves and robbers (John 10),
  • and Salomon: All is vanity, (Eccle. 1), while virtute is not,
  • and all the rivers run into the sea (Eccle. 1),
  • and to Colo. 1. about the gospel which is preached in all the creation that is under heaven,
....
Interdum universalis non intelligitur absolute et universaliter,
  • ut Levi. 11. omne quod habet diuisam ungulam et ruminat in pecoribus comedetis, quod non extenditur ad cadavera, nec ad animantia a bestiis dilaniata,
  • et Genes. 3. Vocavit Adam nomen uxoris suae Eva, eo quod esset mater cunctorum viventium, quod non extenditur ad irrationalia,
  • et Gene. 41. omnis terra venit in Ægyptum, idest, bona ejus pars,
  • et apud Lucam. Exiit edictum a Caesare ut describeretur universus orbis. Sed totus orbis non erat imperio Romano subiectus,
  • et ad Rom. 1. Paulus, fides vestra annunciatur in universo mundo, id est, in multis locis.
  • Et, Eritis odio habiti ab omnibus propter nomen meum, cum multi apostolos diligerent, et pro illis cervices suas gladio supposuerint.
  • Et, omnes qui ante me venerunt fures et latrones fuerunt,
  • et Salomon, omnia sunt vanitas, cum virtus vanitas non sit,
  • et, omnia flumina vadunt in mare,
  • et ad Colo. 1. de evang. Quod prædicatum est in universa creatura quae sub coelo est,
  • et in epist. catholi. Omne gaudium existimare fratres cum in varias tentationes in cideritis, id est, maximum aut magnum gaudium,
  • et cum dixerint adversum vos omne verbum id est, multa verba,
  • et. 1. Corin. 9. Qui in agone certat ab omnibus se abstinet, id est, a multis abstinet cibis,
  • sic intelligendus est Pauli locus omnes in Adam peccaverunt, cum tamen virgo Maria immunis sit ab omni labe peccati.
  • Est hujus rei optimum exemplum annotatum a Chrisost. ho. 23. in epist. ad. Hebrae. cum de multis sanctis patribus locutus esset apostolus, ad Hebrae. 11. addit. Hi omnes mortui sunt non acceptis promissionibus. At Enoch quem in illo nominum catalogo recensu